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I 


THE COLLECTED WORKS OF 

MAHATMA GANDHI 


XXXVI 

( February -June 1928) 




THE PUBLIGATIONS DIVISION 
MhWTKY of iNFOSMA.aiON AKD Broaociastdto 
CoVBBiniENT OF INDIA 



January 1970 {Magha 1891) 


© Nwft^ivan Trust, Ahmedabad, 1970 

‘}ZZ‘2SU08 

>^SS-36 

aOPTOIGHT 

Bj> Kwd Ptrmission-of ftaatgiaan Trust, Ahnudabad 


PUBUSOSD BYTHB DIREOTOR, THE PUBIjaA.TIOKS DIVISION, NSW' DELHI- 1 
AND PRINTED IN INDIA BY SHANTILAL HABJIVAN SHAH, 
NAVAJIVAN PRESS, ASQUB|>ABAD-14 


PBEFACE 


During the period of five months (February 1, 1928 to 
June 30, 1928) covered by this volume, Gandhiji enjoyed compa- 
rative “respite fi:om travels and onerous public duties” (p. 28) 
and stayed at the Ashram most of the time. He had just ended 
a strenuous tour of South India in the cause of khadi. Khadi had 
now acquired added importance as a powerful weapon in the pro- 
gramme of foreign-cloth boycott, which was to serve as the effec- 
tive sanction behind the national demand and which Gandhiji 
was determined to bring about “with the assistance of mills if pos- 
sible, without if necessary” (p. 77). He wanted not only that the 
All-India Spinners’ Association and organizations working under 
it should be strengthened and their scope enlarged, not only that 
khadi activity should be “taken up bv children, men, women, Hin- 
dus, MiislimS' and all others” (p. 171), but he wanted the mills 
also to help the bovcott by standardizing their prices, lowering 
their profits and taking up the sale of khadi. Tine response from 
the mills was not very encouraging and before long it became 
clear to Gandhiji that “no immediate good will come out of these 
negotiations” with the mill-owners (p. 217). Nevertheless, **as an 
out-and-out believer in the method of non-violence”, he persisted 
in the attempt, to convert the mill-owners to the nationalistic view, 
warning them at the same time of satyagraha **if thev will not 
' listen to reason and will obstinately stand in the way” fp. 217). 

The storm of protest that broke all over the country on the 
arrival of the Statutorv Commission under Sir John Simon finds 
no more than an echo in the volume because Gandhiji “with great 
deliberation and not without the exercise of great sclfrestraint” 
refrained from active association with the boycott, as he recog- 
nized that his interference would bring the masses into the move- 
ment and “might possibly embarrass the promoters” (p. 14). 

— * Similarly, with regm^d to the All-Parties Conference diat 

was intended to put up a’ solid opposition to the Government 
and the Statutory Conuhierion, Gandhiji maintained a grieved 
silence. The Conference seemed to be getting nowhere and Jawa- 
harlal Nehru, at the end of ten days, found the strain too great 
for him (p. 58). “What a sorry exhibition we are making of our- 
selves in the face of this, organized insult to a whole people,” 
reclaimed Gandhiji in a letter to Motilal Nehru fp. 67). 

The most significant eveut in the period was the Bardoli 



[vi] 

Satyagraha, begun six years after the abandonment of the first 
Bardoli Satyagraha following the Ghauri-Chaura tragedy. The 
1928 satyagraha arose out of an excessive increase in the land 
revenue assessment. The cultivators asked for an impartial tribu- 
nal to examine the question. On the Government proving in- 
transigent, they offered satyagraha which took the form of non- 
payment of revenue. The Government, qixick to see in the move- 
ment a challenge to its authority, went all out to crush the 
spirit of the peasantry. There were wholesale arrests, intimidation 
by police and Pathans, seizure and auctioning of livestock and 
land. But the cultivators, led by the indomitable VaUabhbhai 
Patel, remained defiant and peace^l. Gandhiji guided the move- 
ment from a distance, even drafting letters for VaUabhbhai and 
Vithalbhai, and cultivated public opinion in favour of the people’s 
case, for this limited and local satyagraha was also a step towards 
swaraj, as it provided training in “disciplined and peaceful resis- 
tance” and "corporate suffering” (p. 90). 

There is in the present volume evidence of a deeper inward- 
ness in Gandhiji’s thinking. Referring to a newspaper report that 
he had predicted his own death, he wrote to Rajagopalachari: 
“Many are grieved that I did not die on the 17th. . . . Perhaps 
I am one among them- Perhaps I did die a kind of death. We 
shall see” (p. 118). The two years of reflection and introspection 
since the beginning of 1926, when Gandhiji voluntarily retired 
fix)m active politics, had, it would appear, resulted in a new spiri- 
tual insight. During this period, he studied the Gita in detail 
and discoursed on it to the Ashram inmates. As he wrote his 
weekly instalments of An Autobiography, he began to look at his past 
life with greater detachment and greater humility. Writing to 
Jane Howard on March 12, he said: “But I thought that if people 
recognize me as a gentle peace-loving man, they should also know 
that at one time I could be a positive beast even though at the 
same time I claimed to be a loving husband. It was not without 
good cause that a fiiend once described me as a combination 
of sacred cow and ferocious tiger” (p. 101). He also admitted in 
an article in Tour^ India that “it was a mixed motive that prompted 
me to participate in the War” (p. 108), the worldly motive being 
“to qualify for swaraj through the good offices of the statesmen of 
the Empire” (p. 109). , 

A grievous personal loss was suffered by Gandhiji when on 
April 23, 1928, Maganlal Gandhi passed away after a brief illness 
in Bihar, where he had gone to hd.p his daughter in a campaign 
against /tardzA. Gandhiji had dreamed of and worked for this 


[vii] 

nephew succeeding him as lihe head of the Ashram and now he 
was inconsolable. “It is perhaps the greatest trial of my life”, he 
wrote to Andrews on April 26. In “My Best Comrade Gone” he 
described Maganlal as “my hands, my feet, my eyes” and added: 
“As I am penning these lines, I hear the sobs of the widow bewailing 
the death of her dear husband. Little does she realize that I am 
more widowed than she. And but for a living faith in God, I should 
become a raving maniac for the loss of one who was dearer to 
me than my own sons . . . His life is an inspiration for me, a 
standing demonstration of the eflBcacy and the supremacy of the 
moral law” (p. 263) . In a Gujarati article he showed how Magan- 
lal taught through his life the truth that service of the country, 
service of the world, self-realization and vision of God are but dif- 
ferent aspects of the same thing (p. 281). Writing to his son Manilal 
on May 7, he said, “I feel Aat a change has come over my life 
these days. Imperceptibly and involuntarily a struggle is going on 
within me. Maganlal’s soul rules over my heart” (p. 297), 

However, as Gandhiji explained in a letter to Anne Marie 
Petersen, his faith in God turned the grief into joy and gave him 
“zest for greater service, greater dedication” (p. 307). He, there- 
fore, concentrated his attention on overhauling the Adiram, his 
“best creation” (p. 1, p. 251), and “bringing it more in line with 
its ideals” (p. 342). Here, as in die Gujarat Vidyapith (p. 7), he 
was prepared to sacrifice everything to quality. He got the Ashram 
constitution revised, made the rule about brahmaeharya absolute 
and insisted on aU inmates having a common ki^en. The 
revised constitution, “the result of the joint labours of the main 
workers” (p. 398), was publ^hed in Toung India (pp. 398-410) and 
criticisms and suggestions were invited. 

There are several references to a possible visit to Europe — 
a visit that in the end did not come ofiT. The chief purpose of 
the visit was to have been to meet Romain RoUand and other 
European workers in the cause of peace. “My anxiety is to meet 
RoUand. He appears to be the wisest man of Europe. He takes 
an unusual interest in me and feels grieved if he thinks that in 
any single thing my opinion is wrong” (pp. 117-8). But, as always 
wiA Gandhiji, his concern for truth was greater than his regard 
for a fiiend, and he, therefore, wrote to RoUand; 'T do indeed 
want to stand weU with you, but I must be true to myself if I 
am to continue to deserve your warm friendship” (p. 25). Whe- 
ther Gandhiji feared mutual disiUusionment as a result of per- 
sonal confirontation or felt self-conscious about a mission for which 
he was not mentaUy ready, he found it extremely difficult to pome 



[vni] 

to a decdsion. *‘I can’t summon up sufiicient courage to make 
up my mind whether to go to Europe or not to go”, he said in a 
letter to Muriel Lester (p. 226). Gandhiji even felt troubled by 
this indecision. Writing to Dr. Ansari on April 7, he said: “The 
proposed European visit is causing me much trouble just now. I 
can’t make up my mind. I know that I should not be so xm- 
decided like this. But what is the use of hiding my weakness? 
I can’t account for it myself” (p. 201). Gandhiji left the burden 
of decision to Romain RoUand, and when the latter refused to 
take the responsibility the matter was dropped. 

In a series of articles Gandhiji exposed the hollowness of the 
prevailing system of education and spelt out his own ideas of a 
village-based, village-oriented education. Children, Gandhiji in- 
sisted, should be familiar not only with the Ramayana and Maha- 
bharata but with “their modem spiritual meaning” (p, 343). 
Again he declared: “If we take too literally the events described in 
tih.e Makabhorata,'tht Ramayana, etc., we shall be led along the path 
of untruth and faU headlong into a chasm. We shall certainly rise 
if we understand their inner meaning and put it into practice” 
(p. 456). In a speech on Ramanavami (pp. 163-6) he expounded 
at some length this aityaimxk or anagogical approach to the old 
stories which, by strengthening the poetic faith in Rama and 
Krishna, would enthrone the mythical hero as the inner ruler 
who can "take us across” to the direct if momentary experience of 
transeendental anania and thus make the practice of dharma 
natural and easy. While laying it down that **full development of 
the soul is impossible without hrahmacharye^* (p. 457), he found 
the key to hrahmaehaiya and all other virtues in single-minded devo- 
tion, which even children could learn by emulating the steadfast 
gaze in the eyes of Hanuman, that “incomparable devotee and 
servant of Rama” (p. 182). 

As a cure for foe many ills and difficulties arising from our 
doubting state, Gandhiji prescribed "decisive, firm, clear action” 
which “like the glistening sun” “not only dispels all darkness but 
destroys all disease germs” (p. 246) . Convinced that true religion 
would show itself in the smallest detail of life, he regarded “the 
slightest irregularity in sanitary, social and political life” as “a sign 
of spiritual poverty” (p. 449). 

The volume carries two memorable messages: one to the 
International Fellowship exalting one silent act of fellowship 
above “tons of professions” (p. 203), and the other to an Ameri- 
can Y.M.C,A.: "God is Truth.. The way to reach Truth is 
through the loving service of all that lives” (p. 276). 


NOTE TO THE READER 


In reproducing English material, every endeavour has been 
made to adhere strictly to the oiiginaL Obvious typographical 
errors have been corrected and words abbreviated in the text 
generally spelt out. Variant spellings of names have, however, 
been retained as in the original. 

Matter in square brackets has been supplied by the Editors. 
Qjioted passages, where these are in English, have been set up 
in small type and printed with an indent. Indirect reports of 
speeches and interviews, as also passages which are not by 
Gandhiji, have been set up in small type. In reports of speeches 
and interviews slight changes and omissions, where necessary, have 
been made in passages not attributed to Gandhiji. 

While traixslating from Gujarati and Hindi, efforts have been 
made to achieve fidelity and also readability in English. Where 
English translations are available, they have been used with such 
changes as were necessary to bring them into conformity with the 
original. 

The date of an item has been indicated at the top right-hand 
comer; if the original is undated, the inferred date is supplied 
within square brackets, the reasons being given where necessary. 
The date given at the end of an item alongside the source is that 
of publication. The writings are placed under the date of publi- 
cation, except where they carry a date-line or where the date of 
writing has special significance and is ascertainable. 

References to Volume I of this series are to the August 1958 
edition. References to An Antobiography cite only the Part and 
Chapter, in view of the varying pagination in different editions. 

In die source-line, the symbol S.N. stands for documents avail- 
able in the Sabarmati Sangrahalaya, Ahmedabad; G. N. refers 
to those available in the Gandhi Smarak Nidhi and Sangrahalaya, 
New Delhi; G.W. denotes documents secured by the Collected 
Works of Mahatma Gandhi. 

The Appendices provide background material relevant to the 
text A list of sources and a chronology for the period covered 
by ihe volume are also provided at the end. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 


For material in this volume, we are indebted to the Sabarmati 
Ashram Preservation and Memorial Trust and Sangrahalaya, the 
Navajivan Trust and the Gujarat Vidyapith Granthalaya, 
Ahmedabad; the Gandhi Smarak Nidhi and Sangrahalaya, the 
Nehru Memorial Meuseum and Library, New Delhi; Shri G. D. 
Birla, Calcutta; Mr. Aylmer Maude, Chelmsford; Shri S. B.. 
Veiikataraman, Madras; Smt. Ptemlila Thackersey, Poona; Smt. 
Tehmina Khambhatta, Bombay; Smt Radhabehn Ghoudhri, New 
Delhi; Shri Shantikumar Moraiji, Bombay; Shri T. Negesha Rao, 
Puttur, South Canara; Shri U. Rajagopala Krishnayya, Shri 
Narandas Gandhi, Rajkot; Shri Shrinath Singh, Allahabad; Shri 
Ravishanker Maharaj; Shri Haribhau Upadhyaya; Smt. Mira- 
behn, England; Mr. F. H. Brown, London; Shri Narayan Desai, 
Bardoli; Shri Lalchand Jeychand Vora, Bagasra; the publMiers of 
the books — Bapu, Bapuna Patro — Manibehn Patelne, Bapuna Pairo — 
Sardar Vallabhhhdtu, Bapmi Prasadi, Panckom Putrako Bapuke Ashirvad, 
The Story of Bardoli; and the following newspapers and journals: 
TTk Bombay Ckromck, Th$ Hindu, Naoajivan, Prajabandku, Young India. 

For research and reference facilities, we owe thanks to the 
All-India Congress Committee Library, the Gandhi Smarak San- 
grahalaya, the Indian Goundl of World Affairs Library, the 
Researdi and Reference Division of the Ministry of Information 
and Broadcasting, New Delhi; the Sabarmati Sangrahalaya and 
the Gujarat Vidyapith Granthalaya, Ahmedabad, and Shri l^arelal 
Nayar, New Delhi; and for assistance in photo-printing documents, 
to the Photo Division of the Ministry of Information and Broad- 
casting, New Delhi. 



CONTENTS 


PREFACE V 

NOTE TO THE READER ix 

ACENOWLEDOEIkCBNTS X 

1 3PEEaH TO STUDENTS OF GUJARAT VIDYAPITH (1-2-1928) 1 

2 LETTER TO N. R. UALEANI (1-2-1928) 2 

3 MISS MAYO AGAIN (2-2-1928) 2 

4 GUJARAT VIDYAPITH (2-2-1928) 4 

5 APPEAL TO PEOPLE OF BOMBAY (3-2-1928) 8 

6 MESSAGE TO PUBLIC MEETING, AHMEDABAD (3-2-1928) 9 

7 LETTER TO RAMESHWAEDAE PODDAR (4-2-1928) 9 

8 LETTER TO REVASHANEER JHAVERI (6-2-1928) 10 

9 LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA (7-2-1928) 10 

10 MESSAGE TO MEETING AT GUJARAT VIDYAPITH, AIIMED- 

ABAD (7-2-1928) 11 

11 LETTER TO N. R. MALKANI (8-2-1928) 12 

12 LETTER TO 0. F. ANDREWS (8-2-1928) 12 

13 LETTER TO MRS. L. 0. UIWI (8-2-1928) 13 

14 LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA (8-2-1928) 14 

15 AFTER HARTAL? (9-2-1928) 14 

16 NOTES (9-2-1928) 16 

17 LETTER TO DR. M. A. ANSARI (11-2-1928) 18 

18 LETTER TO MOTTLAL NEHRU (11-2-1928) 19 

19 LETTER TO A. FENNER BROOKWAY (11-2-1928) 20 

20 LETTER TO LILLA BROOKWAY (11-2-1928) 21 

21 LETTER TO HAROLD F. BING (11-2-1928) 21 

22 TALK WITH REPRESENTATIVES OF BARDOLI TALUK 

(Before 12-2-1928) 22 

23 LETTER TO RICHARD B. GREGG (12-2-1928) 23 

24 LETTER TO MRS. HARKER (12-2-1928) 24 

25 LETTER TO GIBDHAIULAL (12-2-1928) 24 

26 LETTER TO ROMAIN HOLLAND (14-2-1928) 25 

27 ON THEIR TRIAL (16-2-1928) 27 

28 MY HEALTH (16-2-1928) 28 

29 FLOOD-RELIEF WORK IN SIND (16-2-1928) 29 

30 CORRESPONDENCE (16-2-1928) 30 

31 LETTER TO 0. RAJAGOPALAOHARI (18-2-1928) 30 

32 LETTER TO AYLMER MAUDE (18-2-1928) 32 

33 LETTER TO ESTHER MENON (18-2-1928) 32 

34 LETTER TO VIOIJST (18-2-1928) 33 



35 HAEDlf AJUAL lEHAN MEMORIAL (19>2»1928) 

36 TO THE PEASANTS OF BABLOLI (19-2-1928) 

37 LETTEB. TO DR. 0. MUTHU (21-2-1928) 

38 LETTER TO ALICE MOKAY KELLY (21-2-1928) 

39 LETTER TO ROHINI POOVIAH (21-2-1928) 

40 LETTER TO RAMESHWARDA3 PODDAR (21-2-1928) 

41 LETTER TO NORA S. BAILLIE (22-2-1928) 

42 LETTER TO DEVI WEST (22-2-1928) 

43 LETTER TO HENRY NEIL (22-2-1928) 

44 LETTER TO L. LE MONS (22-2-1928) 

45 LETTER TO P. Q. OHOSH (22-2-1928) 

46 FIGHT SQUARE IF YOU MUST (23-2-1928) 

47 REMINDING OF OLD TIMES (23-2-1928) 

48 HANDLOOM V. SPINNING-WHEEL (23-2-1928) 

49 THE ORIGIN OF IT (23-2-1928) 

50 LETTER TO URMILA DEVI (23-2-1928) 

51 LETTER TO GAURTSHANKER BHARGAVA (23-2-1928) 

52 LETTER TO BOYD W. TUCKER (24-2-1928) 

53 LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA (25-2-1928) 

54 LETTER TO Y. BHASKARE (25-2-1928) 

55 LETTER TO RAMAOHANDEAN (25-2-1928) 

56 LETTER TO REVASHANKER JHAVERI (25-2-1928) 

57 WHO WILL RESCUE THIS HUMAN COW? (26-2-1928) 

58 students’ noble satyaoraha (26-2-1928) 

59 LETTER TO WILFRED WELLOOK (26-2-1928) 

60 LETTER TO V. S. SRINIVASA 8ASTRI (26-2-1928) 

61 LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (26-2-1928) 

62 LETTER TO MANTLAL AND SUSHILA GANDHI (26-2-1928) 

63 LETTER TO TUL8I MAHER (26-2-1928) 

64 LETTER TO L. W. RTTOH (27-2-1928) 

65 LETTER TO K. BALASUBRAMANIAM (27-2-1928) 

66 LETTER TO K. NARASIMHA IYENGAR (27-2-1928) 

67 LETTER TO PRAGfl K. DESAI (27-2-1928) 

68 LETTER TO RAMNARAYAN QHOUDHRI (27-2-1928) 

69 LETTER TO REVASHANKER JHAVERI (Before 29-2-1928) 

70 LETTER TO ABBAS TYABJI (29-2-1928) 

71 LETTER TO DUNICHAND (29-2-1928) 

72 LETTER TO B. RAJARAM PANDIAN (29-2-1928) 

73 LETTER TO MOTTLAL NEHRU (2&-2-192a) 

74 LETTER TO PADMARAJ JAIN (29-2-1928) 

75 LETTER TO DEVCHAND PAltEKH (29-2-1928) 

76 LETTER TO REVASHANKER JHAVERI (29-2-1928) 

77 FOREIGN PROPAGANDA (1-3-1928) 


78 aHA.os^9. MiSB.xnja (1-3<1928) 

79 TOLSTOY CIENTKNAJR,y (1-3-1928) 

80 THE OOW-PROTEGTION BIBLIOGRAPHY (1-3-1928) 

81 KHAOI NEAR MEERUT (1-3-1928) 

82 LETTER TO HBMFRABHA DAS GUPTA (On or after 2-3-1928) 

83 LETTER TO MOTHAL NEHRU (3-3-1928) 

84 TELEGRAM TO JAMNALAE BAJAJ (3-3-1928) 

85 HAWKING KHADI IN GUJARAT (4-3-1928) 

86 QATTLE IN KATHIAWAR (4-3-1928) 

87 SATYAGRAHA IN BARDOU (4-3-1928) 

88 LETTER TO REVASHANKER JHAVERI (4-3-1928) 

89 LETTER TO PRESIDENT, PREM MAHAVIDYALAYA TRUSTEES 

(5-3-1928) 

90 LETTER TO A. J. SAUNDERS (5-3-1928) 

91 LETTER TO V. S. BHASKARAN (5-3-1928) 

92 LETTER TO R. NORA BROOKWAY (5-3-1928) 

93 LETTER TO ROLAND BAYES (5-3-1928) 

94 LETTER TO W. B. STARR (5-3-1928) 

95 LETTER TO SATIS OHANDRA DAS GUPTA (6-3-1928) 

96 WAR AGAINST WAR (8-3-1928) 

97 PREM MAHAVIDYALAYA (8-3-1928) 

98 NOTES (8-3-1928) 

99 OBITUARJES (8-3-1928) 

100 BARDOU AND GOVERNMENT (8-3-1928) 

101 LETTER TO MURIEL LESTER (8-3-1928) 

102 LETTER TO SIR DANIEL M. HAMILTON (9-3-1928) 

103 LETTER TO PREMULA THAOKERSBY (9-3-1928) 

104 LETTER TO REVASHANKER JHAVERI (9-3-1928) 

105 LETTER TO SATIS OHANDRA DAS GUPTA (10-3-1928) 

106 LETTER TO IDA S, SOUDDER (10-3-1928) 

107 LETTER TO DUNIOHAND (10-3-1928) 

108 LETTER TO BHUPBNDRA NARAYAN SEN (10-3-1928) 

109 LETTER TO DR. B. 0. ROY (10-3-1928) 

HO LETTER TO A. S. MANNADI NAYAR (10-3-1928) 

111 LETTER TO JOHN HASNES HOLMES (10-3-1928) 

112 LETTER TO RAMI GANDHI (10-3-1928) 

113 MY NOTES (11-3-1928) 

114 WHO WILL AGOEPT THE ANTYAJAS’ HUNDI? (11-3-1928) 

115 LETTER TO JANE HOWARD (12-3-1928) 

116 LETTER TO B. W. TUOKER (12-3-1928) 

117 LETTER TO J. B. KRIPALANI (12-3-1928) 

118 LETTER TO HEMPRABHA DAS GUPTA (12-3-1928) 

119 LETTER TO TREASURER, AJMAL JAMIA FUIO? (13-8-1928) 



120 WHAT aAN OUR MILLS DO? (15-3-1928) 105 

121 HOW TO DO rr? (15-3-1928) 107 

122 NOTES (15-3-1928) 107 

123 STILL AT rr (15-3-1928) 108 

124 LETTER TO NILRATAN SIROAR (16-3-1928) 110 

125 LETTER TO MADEUISUDAN DAS (16-3-1928) 110 

126 LETTER TO A. T. OIDWANI (16-3-1928) 111 

127 LETTER TO V. S. BHASKARAN (16-3-1928) 112 

128 LETTER TO SHANKBR (16-3-1928) 112 

129 LETTER TO VIOLET (17-3-1928) 113 

130 LETTER TO N. D. BHOSLE (17-3-1928) 113 

131 TELEGRAM TO MATHURADAS TRIRUMJI (17-3-1928) 114 

132 LETTER TO MATHURADAS TRIKDMJI (17-3-1928) 114 

133 THE WEAPON OF BOYOOTT (18-3-1928) 115 

134 . TELEGRAM TO N. R. MALEANI (19-3-1928) 1 16 

135 LETTER TO JAL KHAMBHATTA (19-3-1928) 116 

136 UnTBR TO BEHRAMJI KHAMBHATTA (19-3-1928) 116 

137 LETTER TO RAIHANA TYABJI (19-3-1928) 117 

138 LETTER TO O. RAJAGOFALAOHARI (19-3-1928) 117 

139 LETTER TO M. R. MADHAVA WARRIBR (20-3-1928) 118 

140 LETTER TO N. R. MALKANI (20-3-1928) 119 

141 LETTER TO SURESH aHAIU>RA BANERJI (20-3-1928) 120 

142 LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (20-3-1928) 121 

143 MESSAGE TO MAROELLE OAPY (20-3-1928) 121 

144 LETTER TO MAROELLE GAPY (20-3-1928) 122 

145 LETTER TO DR. B. O. ROY (20-3-1928) 122 

146 LETTER TO ZAKIR HUSAIN (20-3-1928) 123 

147 LETTER TO SATIS OHANDRA DAS GUPTA (20-3-1928) 124 

148 LETTER TO RADHA GANDHI (20-3-1928) 124 

149 INTERVIEW TO ALICE SOHALEK (20-3-1928) 125 

150 INTERVIEW TO ASSOCIATED PRESS OF INDIA (20-3-1928) 129 

151 LETTER TO FRANZ RONO (21-3-1928) 129 

152 LETTER TO T. DE MANZIARLY (21-3-1928) 130 

153 LETTER TO MRS. JOSEPH A. BRAUN (21-3-1928) 131 

154 LETTER TO FUI^ABEMI (21-3-1928) 131 

155 NOTES (22-3-1928) 132 

156 FOREIGN CLOTH BOYCOTT— SOME Q,UESTTONE (22-3-1928) 134 

157 DIFFERENCE STATED (22-3-1928) 136 

158 FIJI FOR THE FIJIANS (22-3-1928) 138 

159 LETTER TO P. K. MATHEW (22-3-1928) 138 

160 MARRIAGE OF THE OLD AND CHILD-MARRIAOB (25-3-1928) 139 

161 LETTER TO RIOHARD B. GREGG (26-3-1928) 140 

162 LETTER TO X. S. AOHARYA (26-3-1928) 141 


M 

16S LETTER TO N. RAMA. RAO (26-3-1928) 142 

164 LETTER TO H. M. PEREIRA (26-3-1928) 142 

165 LETTER TO DR. P. S. ETTOHLEW (26-3-1928) 143 

166 LETTER TO 0. RAJAGOPALAOHARI (26-3-1928) 143 

167 LETTER TO PRATAP S. PUNDIT (26-3-1928) 144 

168 LETTER TO M. PIGOOTT (27-3-1928) 144 

169 LETTER TO MOTELAL NEHRU (27-3-1928) 145 

170 SPEECH AT sweepers’ MEETING, AHMEDAEAD (27-3-1928) 146 

171 LETTER TO T. K. MADHAVAN (28-3-1928) 147 

172 LETTER TO M. DEWANDAS NARAINDAS (28-3-1928) 148 

173 LETTER TO RAMI GANDHI (28-3-1928) 148 

174 LETTER TO H. N. VENN (28-3-1928) 149 

175 LETTER TO O. RAJAGOPALAOHARI (28-3-1928) 149 

176 LETTER TO DR. ARULMANI PIOHAMUTHU (28-3-1928) 150 

177 LETTER TO SAM HIGGINBOTTOM (28-3-1928) 151 

178 ‘the triumph of RAQE hatred’ (29-3-1928) 151 

179 THE DOOTRINE OF FRIGHTFULNBSS (29-3-1928) 152 

180 THE NATIONAL WEEK (29-3-1928) 152 

181 NOTES (29-3-1928) 154 

182 ON FASTING (29-3-1928) 158 

183 TWO OORRECnONS (29-3-1928) 159 

184 LETTER TO URMILA DEVI (30-3-1928) 159 

185 LETTER TO SEORETARY, ALL-INDIA SPINNBRS’ ASSOOIATTON 

(30-3-1928) 160 

186 LETTER TO SHANTTKUMAR MORARJI (30-3-1928) 161 

187 LETTER TO N. R- MALKANI (30-3-1928) 161 

188 LETTER TO MURIEL LESTER (30-3-1928) 162 

189 LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA (36-3-1928) 163 

190 SPEEOH AT ASHRAM ON RAMANAVAMI DAY (30-3-1928) 163 

191 SPESQH AT GATHERING OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS, 

AHMEDAEAD (31-3-1928) 166 

192 LETTER TO SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE (31-3-1928) 167 

193 LETTER TO SHANTTKUMAR MORARJI (31-3-1928) 167 

194 LETTER TO RAl HARENDRANATH (31-3-1928) 168 

195 SATYAGRABIS, BEWARE 1 (1-4-1928) 169 

196 THE NATIONAL WEEK (1-4-1928) 170 

197 MY NOTES (1-4-1928) 172 

198 LETTER TO SAITS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA (1-4-1928) 173 

199 LETTER TO OTTAMA B H I KKHU (1-4-1928) 173 

200 IJETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (1-4-1928) 174 

201 LETTER TO H. M. AHMAD (1-4-1928) 175 

202 LETTER TO SHUAIB Q,URE8BI (1-4-1928) 175 

203 LETTER TO SADASHTVAM (1-4-1928) 176 



204 LETTER TO 0. F. ANDREWS (1-4-1928) 

205 UBTTER TO RAHJI DAS JAINI (1-4-1928) 

206 LETTER TO REMINOTON TYPEWEITER OO. (1-4-1928) 

207 LETTER TO SATYANANDA (3-4-1928) 

208 LETTER TO RAMI OANDHI (3-4-1928) 

209 LETTER TO N- R. MALKANI (4-4-1928) 

210 LETTER TO A. A. PAUL (4-4-1928) 

211 LETTER TO B. SHIVA RAO (4-4-1928) 

212 MESSAGE TO “nEW INDIA” (4-4-1928) 

213 PRAYER SPEEOH AT ASHRAM (4-4-1928) 

214 remember the UNTOUdHABLES (5-4-1928) 

215 BAGHAT STATE AND SACRED THREAD (5-4-1928) 

216 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE A.I.S.A. (5-4rl928) 

217 SASTRl’S SELF-DENIAL (5-4-1928) 

218 A MILL-OWHER ON BOYCOTT (5-4-1928) 

219 NOTES (5-4-1928) 

220 LETTER TO DR. 0. MUTHU (5-4-1928) 

221 LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (5-4-1928) 

222 LETTER TO BHANTIEUMAR MORARJI (5-4-1928) 

223 LETTER TO BEHRAMJI SHAMBHATTA (6-4-1928) 

224 LETTER TO FREDERIC AND PRANGISCA 8TANDENATH 

(6-4-1928) 

225 LETTER TO MRS. M. M. SINGH (6-4-1928) 

226 LETTER TO M. DEWAN NARAINDAS (6-4-1928) 

227 LETTER TO Y. R. OAXTONDE (6-4-1928) 

228 LETTER TO GANGA RAM (6-4-1928) 

229 LETTER TO S. RADHAERISHNAN (6-4-1928) 

230 LETTER TO J. B. PENNINGTON (6-4-1928) 

231 LETTER TO G. RAMAOEANDRAN (6-4-1928) 

232 LETTER TO fiTTAPT.Tn u. MORSELOW . (6-4-1928) 

233 LETTER TO N. R. MALKANI (7-4-1928) 

234 LETTER TO I- P. THURAIRATNAM (7-4-1928) 

235 LETTER TO RAIHANA TYABJI (7-4-1928) 

236 LETTER TO DR. M. A. ANSARI (7-4-1928) 

237 LETTER TO MRS. SAM HIGGINBOTTOM (7-4-1928) 

238 LETTER TO A. A. PAUL (7-4-1928) 

239 MESSAGE FOR “NEWS SHEET” (7-4-1928) 

240 LETTER TO JOSEPH (7-4-1928) 

241 LETTER TO S. OANESAN (7-4-1928) 

242 LETTER TO ALICE SGHALEE (7-4-1928) 

243 LETTER TO S. A. WAIZE (8-4-1928) 

244 LETTER TO NARAYANA (8-4-1928) 

245 LETTER TO J. B. ERIPALANI (8-4-1928) 


246 LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (8-4-1928) 207 

247 LETTER TO SHANRARAN (8-4^1928) 208 

248 LETTER TO HANHAL AND 8USH1LA OANDHI (Before 

10-4-1928) 210 

249 LETTER TO MANUAL AND SUSHHA OANDHI (10-4-1928) 210 

250 LETTER TO ALBERT GODAMUNNE (11-41928) 211 

251 LETTER TO O. RAJAOOPALAOHARI (11-41928) 212 

252 LETTER TO R. R. AITiCEN (11-41928) 212 

253 LETTER TO 8ADASHIVA RAO (11-41928) 213 

254 LETTER TO O. P. ANDREWS (11-41928) 213 

255 A SEASONABLE PRODUOTION (12-41928) 214 

256 PLAOE OF EHADI (12-41928) 216 

257 NOTES (12-41928) 219 

258 SOUTH AFRIQA INDIANS (12-41928) 219 

259 LETTER TO MOTOAL NEHRU (12-41928) 220 

260 LETTER TO DEVOHAND PARBEH (12-41928) 221 

261 SPEECH TO TRAINEES AT EHADI VIDYAIAYA, AHMEDABAD 

(Before 13-41928) 221 

262 LETTER TO SATIS OHANDRA DAS GUPTA (13-41928) 224 

263 LETTER TO A. ELIXNOS (13-41928) 225 

264 LETTER TO MRS. BLAIR (13-41928) 225 

265 LETTER TO MURIEL LESTER (13-41928) 226 

266 LETTER TO T. NAGESEtA RAO (13-41928) 226 

267 LETTER TO S. RAMANATHAN (13-41928) 227 

268 A LETTER (13-41928) 228 

269 LETTER TO DR. M. A. ANSARI (14-41928) 228 

270 LETTER TO VTIHALDAS JERAJANI (1441928) 229 

271 LETTER TO DEVOHAND PAREEH (14-41928) 230 

272 SERVICE OF THE SUPPRESSED (15-41928) 231 

273 LETTER TO MANIBEHN PATEL (15-41928) 233 

274 LETTER TO SAROJINI NAIDU (16-41928) 234 

275 LETTER TO ANNIE BESANT (16-41928) 234 

276 LETTER TO U. RAJAGOPALA MUSHNAYYA (16-41928) 235 

277 CABLE TO RAJENDRA PRASAD (On 01 after 16-41928) 235 

278 CABLE TO V. S. SRINIVASA SA8TRI (17-41928) 236 

279 LETTER TO K. MADHAVAN NAIR (17-41928) 236 

280 LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (17-41928) 237 

281 LETTER TO SIR DANIEL M. HAMILTON (17-41928) 238 

282 LETTER TO HANS KOHU (17-41928) 238 

283 MESSAGE TO STUDENTS* CONGRESS, CBVLON (18-41928) 239 

284 OFF THE TRAIL (19-41928) 239 

285 LETTER TO SATIS OHANDRA DAS GUPTA (19-41928) 242 

286 LETTER TO MOTILAL NEHRU (20-41928) 243 



txviii] 

287 LBTTER TO DEVCHAND PAKEKH (20-4-1928) 244 

288 LETTER TO JOHN HAYNES HOLMES (20-4-1928) 245 

289 LETTER TO PETE .MATOPF (20-4-1928) 245 

290 LETTER TO S. OANESAN (21-4-1928) 246 

291 LETTER TO SHANKARAN (21-4-1928) 247 

292 LETTER TO HEMPRABHA HAS OUPTA (21-4-1928) 248 

293 CABLE TO DOUBLEDAY DORAN OO. (After 21-4-1928) 248 

294 UBTTER TO JULIA ISBRUQEER (Before 22-4-1928) 249 

295 fiT-TtuRB V. WOREINO MEN (22-4-1928) 249 

296 LETTER TO ELISABETH KNUDSEN (22-4-1928) 250 

297 LETTER TO 0. P. ANDREWS (22-4-1928) 251 

298 LETTER TO SEORETARY, ALL-INDIA SPINNERS’ ASSOdATTON 

(22-4-1928) 252 

299 TELEGRAM TO MATHURA PRASAD (Before 23-4-1928) 252 

300 LETTER TO MANUAL AND SUSHILA GANDHI (23-4-1928) 253 

301 TELEGRAM TO BRIJEISHORE PRASAD (23-4-1928) 254 

302 TELEGRAM TO DEVDAS GANDHI (23-4^1928) 254 

303 TELEGRAM TO RADHA GANDHI (23-4-1928) 254 

304 TELEGRAM TO KHUSHALQHAND GANDHI (23-4-1928) 255 

305 TEIEGRAM TO GHHAGANLAL GANDHI (23-4-1928) 255 

306 TELEGRAM TO JAMNADAB GANDHI (23-4-1928) 255 

307 LETTER TO SHRINATH SINGH (23-4-1928) 256 

308 LETTER TO EUimiRJI KHETSHI PAREEH (23-4-1928) 256 

309 LETTER TO SANTOE GANDHI (After 23-4-1928) 257 

310 LETTER TO TULSI MAHER (After 23-4-1928) 257 

311 GABLE TO SOUTH APRIGAN INDIAN GOMMUNTTY (24-4-1928) 258 

312 LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (24-4-1928) 258 

313 LETTER TO EARNAD SADASHtVA RAO (24-4-1928) 259 

314 TELEGRAM TO SAITS OHANDRA DAS GUPTA (25-4-1928) 260 

315 TELEGRAM TO DEVDAS GANDHI (25-41928) 260 

316 TELEGRAM TO C. RAJAGOPALAGHARI (25-41928) 260 

317 MY BEST COMRADE GONE (26-41928) 261 

318 A MORAL STRUGGLE (26-41928) 264 

319 TO EUROPEAN PRIENDS (26-41928) 266 

320 FOUR months’ wore (26-41928) 268 

321 GABLE TO V. S. SRINIVASA SASTRl (26-41928) 269 

322 LETTER TO MAHOMED HABIBULLAH (26-41928) 270 

323 LETTER TO G. F. ANDREWS (264-1928) , 270 

324 LETTER TO S. GANBSAN (26-41928) 271 

325 LETTER TO LORD IRWIN (26-41928) 272 

326 LETTER TO J. B. PETTT (26-41928) 272 

327 LETTER TO JUGALEDHORE (27-41928) 273 

328 LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA (27-41928) 275 


[xix] 

329 LETTER TO FREDESIQ AND FRANGtSOA STANDENATH 

(27-4-1928) 275 

330 MESaAOE WITH AN AUTOGRAPH (27-4-1928) 276 

331 LETTER TO KALYANJI MEHTA (28-4-1928) 276 

332 THE MEANING OF VOLUNTARY POVERTY (29-4-1928) 277 

333 SOUL OF THE ASHRAM (29-4-1928) 279 

334 LETTER TO KUNVERJI KHETSHI FAREKH (29-4-1928) 281 

335 LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA (29-4-1928) 281 

336 LETTER TO O. VIJAYARAGHAVACHARIAR (29-4-1928) 282 

337 LETTER TO lAJPAT RAI (29-4-1928) 283 

338 LETTER TO RAVISHANKER MAHARAJ (30-4-1928) 284 

339 LETTER TO TARABEHN JASWANI (30-4-1928) 284 

340 LETTER TO N. R. MALKANI (1-5-1928) 285 

341 LETTER TO S. RAMANATHAN (1-5-1928) 285 

342 LETTER TO DR. B. C. ROY (1-5-1928) 287 

343 SPEEGH AT OPENING OF ORECHE, AHMEDABAD (1-5-1928) 287 

344 LETTER TO ABBAS TYABJI (2-5-1928) 291 

345 NECESSriY OF DISCIPLINE (3-5-1928) 291 

346 THANKS (3-5-1928) 292 

347 LETTER TO VIRDMAL BEGRAJ (4-5-1928) 293 

348 LETTER TO P. T. PILLAY (4-5-1928) 293 

349 LETTER TO L. ORANNA (4-5-1928) 294 

350 LETTER TO HARIBHAU UPADHYAYA (4-5-1928) 295 

351 INDULGENCE IN THE NAME OF DEVOTION (6-5-1928) 295 

352 LETTER TO MANILAL AND SUSHILA GANDHI (7-5-1928) 297 

353 LETTER TO MIRABEHN (7-5-1928) 298 

354 LETTER TO BRipCRISHNA CHANDIWALA (7-5-1928) 298 

355 LETTER TO MOTTLAL NEHRU (8-5-1928) 299 

356 LETTER TO MIRABEHN (9-5-1928) 300 

357 MILL-CLOTH V. KHADI (10-5-1928) 300 

358 MORE OF mill-owners’ GREED (10-5-1928) 302 

359 DEADLY MARCH OF CIVILIZATION (?) (10-5-1928) 303 

360 LETTER TO BEHRAMJI KHAMBHATTA (10-5-1928) 304 

361 LETTER TO MRS. E. BJERRUM (11-5-1928) 304 

362 LETTER TO MARY J. CAMPBELL (11-5-1928) 306 

363 LETTER TO S. GANESAN (11-5-1928) 307 

364 LETTER TO ANNE MARIE PETERSEN (11-5-1928) 307 

365 LETTER TO S. N. MITRA (11-5-1928) ' 308 

366 LETTER TO DEV03ECAND PAREKH (11-5-1928) 308 

367 IRTTER TO MIRABEHN (11-5-1928) 309 

368 LETTER TO T. B. KESHAVARAO (12-5-1928) 309 

369 LETTER TO NIRANJAN SINGH (12-5-1928) 310 

370 LETTER TO MOTTLAL NEHRU (12-5-1928) 310 



[«] 


371 LETTER TO SBANKARAN (12-5<1928) 311 

372 lETTER TO LAJPAT RAI (12-5-1928) 311 

373 LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA (12-5-1928) 312 

374 LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA (12-5-1928) 313 

375 LETTER TO BHAGWANJI (12-5-1928) 313 

376 OELEBRATINO PENANOE (13-5-1928) 314 

377 THE YAJNA IN BARDOU (13-5-1928) 315 

378 PRIMARY EDUQATION-I (13-5-1928) 3 1 6 

379 LETTER TO P. V. EARAMGHANDANI (13-5-1928) 318 

380 LETTER TO SHANTIEUMAR MORARJI (13-5-1928) 318 

381 LETTER TO LORD IRWIN (16-5-1928) 319 

382 THE ONLY ISSUE (17-5-1928) 319 

383 SUPPRESSED GLASSES A14D BAGHAT STATE (17-5-1928) 322 

384 MAGANLAL GANDHI MEMORIAL (17-5-1928) 323 

385 KHADI m HYDERABAD STATE (17-5-1928) 324 

386 THE PAGTS ABOUT INDIA! A REPLY TO MISS MAYO 

(17-5-1928) 325 

387 LETTER TO TREASURER, AJMAL JAMIA FUND (18-5-1928) 326 

388 TELEGRAM TO MAHOMED AU (On or after 19-5-1928) 327 

389 PRIMARY EDUGATTON-H (20-5-1928) 327 

390 LETTER TO MANIBEHN PATEL (21-5-1928) 329 

391 LETTER TO ZAKIR HUSAIN (23-5-1928) 329 

392 HISTORY OF SOUTH AFRIGAN SATYAORAHA (24-5-1928) 330 

393 Andrews’s tribute (24-5-1928) 331 

394 BUYING MERIT (24-5-1928) 331 

395 SPINNING IN MUOTCnPAL SCHOOLS (24-5-1928) 333 

396 LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA (24-5-1928) 333 

397 LETTER TO J. M. SEN GUPTA (24-5-1928) 334 

398 LETTER TO MAHOMED HABIBULLAH (24-5-1928) 334 

399 LETTER TO T. PRAKASAM (24-5-1928) 335 

400 A LETTER (24-5-1928) 335 

401 LETTER TO S. RAMANATHAN (24-5-1928) 336 

402 LETTER TO MEHAR SINGH BAIT (24-5-1928) 336 

403 LETTER TO SAITS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA (24-5-1928) 337 

404 LETTER TO F. H. BROWN (25-5-1928) 337 

405 LETTER TO JANAKDHARl PRASAD (25-5-1928) 338 

406 LETTER TO H. S. L. POLAR (25-5-1928) 339 

407 LETTER TO EISHORBLAL MASEDRUWALA (25-5-1928) 339 

408 TELEGRAM TO HARHAL DESAI (After 25-5-1928) 341 

409 LETTER TO MAHADEV DESAI (26-5-1928) 341 

410 LETTER TO G. F. ANDREWS (26-5-1928) 342 

411 LETTER TO SAMUEL R. PERRY (After 26-5-1928) 343 

412 PRIMARY EDUGATTON-m (27-5-1928) 343 


413 LETTER TO KARNAD SADASHTVA RAO (27-5-1928) 345 

414 LETTER TO Y. ANJAPPA (27-5-1928) 346 

415 IRTTER TO SATYANANTDA BOSE (27-5-1928) 346 

416 LETTER TO 0. RAJAdOPALAOHARI (27-5-1928) 347 

417 LETTER TO 0. RANOANATHA RAO (27-5-1928) 347 

418 LETTER TO OANOA PRASAD (27-5-1928) 348 

419 IRTTER TO BHOJRAJ KHOSHIRAM (27-5-1928) 348 

420 LETTER TO MANIBEHN PATEL (28-5-1928) 349 

421 DRAFT OF LETTER TO HARILAL DESAJ (28-5-1928) 349 

422 OABLE TO SOUTH AFRIOAN INDIAN QONORESS (On or after 

29-5-1928) 350 

423 LETTER TO SBCANKARAN (30-5-1928) 350 

424 LETTER TO 0. RAJAOOPALAOHARI (30-5-1928) 351 

425 LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA (30-5-1928) 351 

426 LETTER TO VASUMATI PANDIT (30-5-1928) 352 

427 BASDOU ON TRIAL (31-5-1928) 353 

428 UNTOUCHABILITY IN THE SOUTH (31-5-1928) 354 

429 LETTER TO S. N. MTTRA (31-5-1928) 355 

430 LETTER TO O. N. KANITEAR (31-5-1928) 356 

431 LETTER TO A. T. GIDWANI (31-5-1928) 357 

432 LETTER TO MANAGER, IMPERIAL BANK OF INDIA, 

AHMEDABAD (1-6-1928) 358 

433 LETTER TO MATHURADAS TRIKUMJI (1-6-1928) 358 

434 LETTER TO V. J. PATEL (1-6-1928) 358 

435 LETTER TO EEVALRAM (2-6-1928) 359 

436 IMPORTANOB OF BARDOXI (3-6-1928) 360 

437 QJJESTIONS ON EDUCATION-I (3-6-1928) 360 

438 LETTER TO VALLABHBHAI PATEL (3-6-1928) 362 

439 LETTER TO VASUMATI PANDIT (4-6-1928) 363 

440 LETTER TO V. S. SRINIVASA SASTRl (4-6-1928) 363 

441 BARDOU DAY (5-6-1928) 364 

442 LETTER TO SHANTTKUMAR MORARJI (5-6-1928) 365 

443 LETTER TO V. J. PATEL (6-6-1928) 365 

444 LETTER TO BBOHAR PAHMAR (6-6-1928) 366 

445 LETTER TO VASUMATI PANDIT (6-6-1928) 366 

446 LETTER TO O. D. BIRLA (6-6-1928) 367 

447 LETTER TO CHTMANLAL VORA (6-6-1928) 367 

448 THE TWO SIDES (7-6-1928) 368 

449 CASH C. OREDir (7-6-1928) 370 

450 INDIANS IN SOUTH AFRIOA (7-6-1928) 371 

451 LETTER TO SIR KISHUN PARSBLAD (7-6-1928) 373 

452 DRAFT OF LETTER TO SIR L ESL IE WILSON (7-6-1928) 373 

453 LETTER TO V. J. PATEL (7-6-1928) 375 



454 LETTER TO llAHADEV DE8AI (After 7-6-1928) 376 

455 LETTER TO J. B. PENNINGTON (8-6-1928) 376 

456 LETTER TO SVBNSKA KYRKANS (8-6-1928) 377 

457 LETTER TO T. DE MANZIARLY (8-6-1928) 377 

458 LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA (8-6-1928) 378 

459 LETTER TO MRS. RAOHEL M. RUTTER (8-6-1928) 379 

460 LETTER TO RAMESHWARDAS PODDAR (8-6-1928) 379 

461 LETTER TO VASUMATI PANDIT (9-6-1928) 380 

462 LETTER TO TAIYABALI (9-6-1928) 381 

463 LETTER TO HEMPRABHA DAS GUPTA (9-6-1928) 381 

464 LETTER TO EEDARNATH BANNERJEB (After 9-6-1928) 382 

465 Q,UESTIONS ON EDUGAHON-n (10-6-1928) 382 

466 THE YAJNA AT BARDOLI (10-^1928) 384 

467 BARDOLI DAY (10-6-1928) 386 

468 GOD OR GURU — ^WHO IS GREATER? (10-6-1928) 387 

469 WHAT DOES SELF-aONTROL REftUrRE? (10-6-1928) 389 

470 LETTER TO N. R. MALKANI (10-6-1928) 390 

471 LETTER TO JANAKDHARI PRASAD (10-6-1928) 390 

472 LETTER TO ARTHUR MOORE (10-6-1928) 391 

473 LETTER TO 8ADANAND (10-6-1928) 392 

474 LETTER TO SAITS OHANDRA DAS GUPTA (10-6-1928) 392 

475 SPEECH AT GUJARAT VIDYAPITH, AHMEDABAD (11-6-1928) 393 

476 LETTER TO PREMLHA THAGKERSEY (11-6-1928) 397 

477 LETTER TO S. MURATORI (13-6-1928) 397 

478 SATYAGRAHA ASHRAM (14-6-1928) 398 

479 IMMOLATION OF BARDOLI (14-6-1928) 411 

480 WHAT IS THE BARDOLI OASE? (14-6-1928) 412 

481 A.LS.A. MEMBERSHIP (14-6-1928) 413 

482 LETTER TO RAMDEV (15-6-1928) 41 3 

483 LETTER TO RIOHARD B. GREGG (15-6-1928) 414 

484 LETTER TO VASUMATT PANDJT (15-6-1928) 415 

465 LETTER TO 8. RAJMANATHAN (1&-6-1928) 415 

486 LETTER TO RAMAOHANDRAN (16-6-1928) 41 6 

487 NOTE ON KHADI WORK DURING VAGATTONS (17-6-1928) 417 

488 MY NOTES (17-6-1928) 417 

489 THE GOVERNOR AND BARDOLI (17.^-1928) 419 

490 QpESTTONS ON EDDOATTON-HI (17-6-1928) 421 

491 LETTER TO RAMANANDA dHATTERJEE (17-6-1928) 423 

492 LETTER TO SURENDRANATH BISWAS (17-6-1928) 424 

493 LETTER TO FLORENOE K. KREBS (17-6-1928) 425 

494 LETTER TO N- 0. BARDALOI (17-6-1928) 425 

495 LETTER TO SATTS OHANDRA DAS GUPTA (17-6-1928) 426 

496 IXTTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (17-6-1928) 427 


497 LETTEB. TO G. VIJAYARAOHA,VAaHAIUAR (17-6-1928) 427 

498 I^BTTER TO a. RAJAOOPALAGECARl (17-6-1928) 428 

499 LETTER TO VASUMATI PANDIT (17-6-1928) 429 

500 LETTER TO V. J. PATEL (17-6-1928) 429 

501 LETTER TO PRABHASHANKAR PATTANI (18-6-1928) 430 

502 LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA (1&-6-1928) 430 

503 LETTER TO MANILAL AND SUSHILA GANDHI (19-6-1928) 431 

504 LETTER TO PYARELAL NAYAR (19-6-1928) 431 

505 LETTER TO MOTILAL NEHRU (19-6-1928) 432 

506 LETTER TO K. S. SUBRAMANIAM (19-6-1928) 433 

507 LETTER TO 8HANKARAN (20-6-1928) 434 

508 AOOUSED JUDGING (21-6-1928) 435 

509 BARDOLI BUNGLE (21-6-1928) 440 

510 NOTES (21-6-1928) ' 443 

511 LETTER TO J. M. SEN GUPTA (21-6-1928) 445 

512 LETTER TO ETHEL ANGUS (22-6-1928) 446 

513 LETTER TO RAMLAL BALARAM BAJPAI (22-6-1928) 447 

514 LETTER TO K. SRINIVASAN (22-6-1928) 447 

515 LETTER TO DEVI WEST (22-6-1928) 448 

516 LETTER TO HORAQE ALEXANDER (22-6-1928) 448 

517 LETTER TO G. RAJAGOPALAGHARI (22-6-1928) 449 

518 LETTER TO ESTHER BIENON (22-6-1928) 450 

519 LETTER TO BEN H. OHERRINGTON (22-6-1928) 451 

520 LETTER TO VASUMATT PANDIT (23-6-1928) 452 

521 LETTER TO SHANTIKUlitAR MORARJl (23-6-1928) 453 

522 LETTER TO BEGHAR PARUAR (23-6-1928) 453 

523 ftUESTTONS ON EDUGATtON-IV (24-6-1928) 454 

524 AT THE HOUR OP DOOM (24-6-1928) 458 

525 GATTLE-BREEDINO (24-6-1928) 461 

526 *A DIGTrONARY* (246-1928) 461 

527 LETTER TO SADANAND (24-6-1928) 462 

528 LETTER TO LILY MUTHUEBISHNA (24-6-1928) 463 

529 LETTER TO NTLKANTH (24-6-1928) 463 

530 LETTER TO K. NATARAJAN (24-6-1928) 464 

531 LETTER TO V. J. PATEL (25-6-1928) 465 

532 LETTER TO RAMNATH (27-6-1928) 466 

533 LETTER TO GOVARDHANBHAl 1. PATEL (27-6-1928) 466 

534 LETTER TO SAITS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA (27-6-1928) 467 

535 LETTER TO RICHARD B. GREGG (27-6-1928) 468 

536 A GORREOTTON (28-6-1928) 468 

537 THE DOOM OP PURDAH (28-6-1928) 469 

538 LETTER TO PARVATT (30-6-1928) ' 471 

539 LETTER TO MATHDRADAS TEICUMJI (30-6-1928) 471 



471 


txxiv] 

540 LETTER TO TARABEHN JASWANI ( 30 -&- 1928 ) 


AODENDim 

541 LETTER TO KOVALAYANAND ( 3 - 2 - 1928 ) 472 

APPENDIQE3 

I FOBKION PKOPAGANDA 473 

n OABUl FSOH V. B. BROOVASA BABTBI 475 

m WBAT B TBX BAKDOU OASB? 477 

SOtJRQES 480 

CDSaONOLOGY 481 

INDEX OF TITLES 483 

INDEX 488 

ADDENDDM-n 504 

ERRATA 504 


I 



SPEECH TO STUDENTS OF GUJARAT VIDYARlTm 

\Fehruaiy 1, 

I have not come to take you by storm, not in tlie Caesarean 
spirit of vidi, met. But I have simply thrown myself in your 
midst, so that you can make whatever use you like of me on the 
eve of the changes that arc impending. It would perhaps be better 
if I said that I have come to cleu a long-standmg debt I have 
long owed to you as your Chancellor to come and stay in your 
midst and identify myself with you as much as I could. But I have 
never been able to do so. I am thankful to the Giver of all good 
for having given me this opportunity of spending some time witli 
you. 

I have not come to create any disturbance in the even tenor 
of your lives. I do not insist on your attending the four-o’clock 
morning prayers. If you are convinced that prayer is an essential 
thing in one’s life and that it is best to begin one’s day with 
prayer in the early hours of the morning, you will attend it. If 
you do not, I shidl certainly be sorry, but will not resent your 
absence. In the same way, I should like you to accompany me every 
evening to the Asliram to attend the evening prayer there. That 
also you will do if the spirit moves you, and if you feel that your 
work win permit you to do so. I want you to go there, not be- 
cause I want you to join the .Ashram, though I would be glad 
if you did so, but because I want you to imderstand and identify 
yourselves somewhat with the Ashram. For I make no secret of it 
that the Ashram is the best of my creations. I can myself point 
out numerous defects in it, and can add many more from your own 
experience. But I assure you that I am more conscious of them 
than anyone else and yet I hold that, with aU its shortcomings, it 
is the best of my creations. I would have me and my work judged 
by the Ashram more than by anything else. Hence 1 would love you 
to attend the evening prayer daily. But this is a mere suggestion 
to be rejected or adopted out of your own free will. 

Let me not live in your midst as a burden, but as a friend, and, 
if possible, a guide if you will. 

1 Extracted irom Mahadev Desai’s “Weekly Letter” 

2 According to a rqtort in Nao^fiven, 5-2-1928, Oandhiji arrived at the 
Vidyapith in the evening ^January 31 and spoke to the students at the prayer 
meeting next morning. 


XXXVI-1 



2 


THE aOLLBOTBS WOBHS Of lilAHATIAA. OA14DHI 


I am ‘willing to give you a quarter of an hour every day or 
two periods every week just as you might desire. I am not sure 
what I sliall read with you, but that also I shall leave to you to 
decide. 

Toung India, 2-2-1928 


2. LETTER TO N. R. MALKAKI 

Satyagraha Ashkam, 
Sababjmati, 
Fehruaty 1, 1928 

MY DEAR MALEANI, 

I have your letter. I wish you would lose your difhdence. Keep 
pressing Thakkar Bapa^ on. His letter to Sir F.^ should bear greater 
weight than mine, as his -will be backed by experience. But you 
may keep me in touch. When there is anything 1 can do through 
Toung India, you should tell me. But then you should send me a 
brief statement of work done and expectations. 

You have to tell me whether you are ready, when you are 
free, to take up the all-India untouchability work. But you know 
the consequence. You may have to be contuiuously on the move, 
I want you to act -with the greatest deliberation and decision. 

Love. 

Bapu 

From a photostat: G.N. 881 


5. MISS MATO AGAIJf 

Miss Mayo is clearly trading upon her knowledge that 
what we in India write can at best reach but a few hundred Ameri- 
cans, and that what she writes reaches thousands. She diercfore 
feels perfectly free, just as it suits her, to misquote, half-quote or 
distort other people’s writings or speeches intended to contradict 
her. She has done me the honour again of referring to me in her 
article in Liberty and attempted to discredit my 'writing^ about her 
compilation. Mother India. This she has felt called upon to do, I 
suppose, because I enjoy a certain amount of credit among cultur- 

1 Amritlal V. Thakkar of the Servants of India Society 

2 Purushottamdas Thakurdaa 

s Vide VoL XXXIV, pp. 539-47. 



ibis maVo again 


3 


ed Americans, and lest therefore their judgment may be affected 
by my article. But in her article in liberty she has outdone herself. 
Her reference to my secretaries is a clever attempt to hoodwink the 
unwary reader. All that could be inferred from my repudiation of 
the statement that I had two secretaries (whether always or not 
is not the point) is that Miss Mayo was at least a careless writer 
if not a wilful pcrverter of truth. But the manner in which she 
described the secretaries leaves the reader under the belief that 1 
have always two secretaries. Her adherence to the statement that 
I did give her the message she ascribed to me proves her to be 
guilty of a gross suppression of truth. She seems to have thought 
that I would not have a copy of the corrected interview between 
her and me. Unfortunately for her I happen to possess a copy of 
her notes. Here is the full quotation referring to the hum of the 
wheel: 

My message to America is simply the hum of this wheel. Letters 
and newspaper cuttings I get from America show that one set of people 
overrates the resvilts of non-violent non-co-operation and the other not only 
underrates it, but imputes all kinds of motives to those wbo are concerned 
with the movement. Don’t exaggerate one way or the other. If, tliercfore, 
some earnest Americans will study the movement impartially and patiently, 
then it is likely that the United States may know something of the move- 
ment which 1 do consider to be unique although I am the author of it. 
What I mean is that our movement is summed up in the spinning-wheel 
with all its implications. It is to me a substitute for gunpowder. For it 
brings the message of self-reliance and hope to the millions of India. And 
when they are really awakened, they would not need to lift their little 
finger in order to regain their freedom. The message of the spinning- 
wheel is, really, to replace the spirit of exploitadon by the spirit of service. 
The dominant note in the West is the note of exploitation. I have no desire 
that my country should copy that spirit or that note. 

The first sentence only of the foregoing extract, which Miss 
Mayo quotes without the most important commentary on it, is 
intended to ridicule me. But the whole paragraph, 1 hope, makes 
my meaning and message clear and intelligible. I wrote my article 
on her book whilst I was travelling. Had 1 had the notes before 
me, I should have quoted from them, and thus added force to my 
article. I claim, however, that the message as it appears in the 
full paragraph quoted is not different from what I have stated 
in the article Mi« Mayo attempts to shake. 

Whilst, therefore, even in “the trivial quibble” as she rightly 
calls the subject-matter of her contradiction, she is, I trust. 



4 TEtE aOLLti(tl%D Works of liAEtAXMA GAMDdl 

proved wholly unsuccessful, I claim that even if my memory had 
betrayed me, my conclusive reply to her is left unanswered and 
untouched. Having no case, she has followed the method of the 
pettifogging lawyer who vainly tries to discredit a hostile but un- 
shakable witness by making him state things from memory which 
might be found on verification to be not quite accurate. It gives 
me pain to have to say that her article in Liberty proves her to be 
not only an unreliable writer, but an unscrupulous person devoid 
of sense of right and wrong. 

Young India, 2-2-1928 


4. GUJARAT VIDYAPITH 

This National Universitjr, the first of its kind established when 
non-co-operation was at its height, has been struggling for existence 
for the past three or four years. The attendance of boys has 
gone down considerably. Several schools affiliated to it have 
dosed or sought Government recognition. There would be no- 
thing to worry over this decline, if there were no internal causes for 
it But most of us induding myself have fdt that we have not 
done all we might have for this most useful national work of re- 
cozkstruction. But whilst, if all had been vigilant, the defections 
might have been not su large as they have been, there are for the 
decliue causes over which no one had any control. And though 
the quality of the work already done might have been easily 
better, what has been achieved is such as any institution would be 
proud of. 1 make bold to assert that but for the Vidyapitli, 
Vallabhbhai Patel would not have been able to command the 
valuable assistance he did of so many workers during tlie late 
disastrous floods^. Indeed, the Vidyapith volunteers went even to 
Sind in order to assist ]^ofessor Malkani who has been doing 
heroic work there in connection with the Sind floods. I hope 
some day to deal with the Vidyapith graduates’ work of which 
an accurate but brief analysis has been prepared by a graduate 
proud of being owned by it. Sufficient for the time being to make 
the confession of our neglect both avoidable and unavoidable and 
to state that we seem now to have been roused from our slumbers. 

The preliminary cleansing step was taken on Sunday® last 
when the Senate handed over charge of the valuable property and 

‘ In Gkyarat, in July 1927; ndt VoL XXXIV. 

* January 29, 1928 



5 


OnjARAT VIDYAPITH 

the stiU more valuable responsibility connected vrith the Vidyar- 
pith to a Board of Trustees by means of a resolution of which 
I give the translation below: 

“This meeting of the Senate of the Gujarat Vidyapith is 
of opinion that 

1. By having established the Gujarat Vidyapith in con- 
nection with the non-co-operation movement and by main- 
taining it in spite of a set-back in the movement, Gujarat has 
rendered essential service to the nation. 

2. The Vidyapith has however continued year after 
year to suffer in point of nmnbers. 

3. The Vidyapith could have achieved better results 
in point of quality, had the internal conditions been favour- 
able; and, 

4. Tlie Vidyapith has now reached a stage in its 
evolution, when, in order to make it work more effectively 
and in order to ensure an unswerving observance of the 
pimciples hereinafter enunciated, the administration of the 
Vidyapith should be entrusted to a Board of Trustees. 

Therefore, and in pursuance of the resolution for the 
reconstruction of the Vidyapith passed by this Senate on 
the 4th of December 1927, the Senate appoints a Board of 
Trustees called the Gujarat Vidyapith Mandal to be composed 
of those who, firom the list herein below, pledge themselves to 
subscribe to and observe the principles hereinafter enunciated; 
hands over charge of all the institutions connected with the 
Vidyapith, along with their property, movable and immovable, 
as also all the rights and responsibilities pertaining thereto, 
to the said Vidyapith Mandal; and authorizes the Mandal 
to add to its membendiip subject to the same qualiftcations so 
as not to exceed 25; and authorizes it to exercise all other 
rights including that of filling vacancies caused by resignation, 
death, or dismissal of any member for breach of ^e pledge or 
similar other reason, the latter to take place by a vote of 
four-fifths of their number. 

NaMBS of MjSMBBKB 

1. Sjt. Vallabhbhai Patel 

2. „ Nrisimhaprasad Bhatt 

3. „ Elaka Kalelkar 

4. „ Shankerlal Banker 

5. „ Mahadev Desai 

6. „ Abdul Kadar Baya^lr 



THE OOLLEOTED WOSES OF MAHATUA OAHDHl 


7. 

39 

Manila! Kothari 

8. 

99 

Kishorelal Mashruwala 

9. 

99 

Narahari Parikh 

10. 

99 

Valji Desai 

11. 

99 

Hariprasad Vrajrai Desai 

12. 

99 

Jugatram Dave 

13. 

99 

Gokulbhai Bhatt 

14. 

99 

Sukhlalji Pandit 

,15. 

99 

Parikshitlal Mazmudar 

16. 

99 

Gopalrao Kulkami 

17. 

99 

Mama Phadke 

18. 

Shrimati Manibehn V. Patel 

Prjncuples 


<1. The principal object of the Vidyapith shall be to pre- 
pare workers of cheiracter, ability, education and conscienti- 
ousness, necessary for the conduct of the movements connected 
with the attainment of swaraj. 

2. AH the institutions conducted by and afBliated to the 
Vidyapith shall be fully non-co-operating and shall therefore 
have nothing to do with any help from Government. 

3. Whereas the Vidyapith has come into being in con- 
nection with swaraj, and non-violent non-co-operation as a 
means thereof, its teachers and trustees shall restrict them- 
selves to those means only which are not inconsistent with truth 
and non-violence and shall consciously strive to carry them out. 

4. The teachers and the trustees of the Vidyapith, as also 
all the institutions affiliated to it, shall regard untouchability as 
a blot on Hinduism, diall strive to the best of their power for 
its removal, and diall not exclude a boy or girl for reason of 
his or her untouchability nor shall give him or her differential 
treatment haying once accorded admission to him or her. 

5. The teachers and Ihe trustees of and all the insti- 
tutions affiliated to the Vidyapith diall regard hand-spinning 
as an essential part of the swaraj movement and iffiall there- 
fore spin regularly, except when disabled, and shall habitually 
wear Idiadi. 

6. The language of the Province shall have the princi- 
pal place in the Vidyapith and shall be the medium of in- 
struction. 

Explanation. Languages other than Gujarati may be 
taught by direct method. 



GUJARAT VIDYAPITH 


7 


7. The teaching of Hindi-Hindustani shall be compul- 
sory in the curricula of the Vidyapith. 

8. Manual training shall receive the same importance 
as intellectual training and only such occupations as are useful 
for the life of the nation shall be taught. 

9. Whereas the growth of the nation depends not on 
cities but its villages, the bulk of the funds of the Vidyapith 
and a majority of the teachers of the Vidyapith shall be em- 
ployed in the propagation of education conducive to the wel- 
fare of the villagers. 

10. In laying down the curricula, the needs of village- 
dwellers shall have principal consideration. 

11. There shall be complete toleration of all established 
religions in all institutions conducted by and aflBliated to the 
Vidyapith, and for the spiritual development of the pupils, 
religious instruction ^all be imparted in consonance with 
truth and non-violence. 

12. For the physical development of the nation, physi- 
cal exercise and physical training shall be compulsory in all 
the institutions conducted by and affiliated to the Vidyapith. 

Note. Hindi-Hindustani means the language com- 
monly spoken by the masses of the North, both Efindu and 
Mussalman, written in the Devanagari or the Persian script.” 
But drastic as this step is, it may mean nothing if it is not to be 
followed up by quick, persistent and vigilant effort. Such effort 
may for the time being even result in further defections. The 
Senate, now the Board of Trustees, have been quite aware of the 
possibility. They want quality and feel that if the quality is assured, 
quantity will come in its own time. They are prepared to sacrifice 
everything to quality. It would be wrong to use donations of those 
who have given and will give in the belief that the principles for 
which the institution has professed to stand will be worked out in 
practice in so far as it is humanly possible. As reformers the trus- 
tees would belie their trust if they sacrifice principles for holding 
the institution together anyhow. Personally I have no fear as to the 
result if the trustees remain staunch, as I have every reason to be- 
lieve they will. 

On the surface there would appear to be a descent firom demo- 
cracy to oligarchy. As a matter of fact it is not. The large elected 
body could not be sustained when the principles for which the elect- 
ed Senate for the time being stood were in the melting-pot. A 
democracy’s ideals and principles vary with the times. A refor- 
mer’s principles are rigid and &ed. When non-co-operation ceased 



6 THE aOIXBCTED WORKS OR UAHATtCA. OANDBl 

to be national, those who believed in it as a creed, the only final 
solution for the removal of India’s fetters, were bound to save the 
creed by working it to its logical conclusion in their own lives. 
Hence did the Congress bring into being an mdepcndent self- 
governing body styled the All-India Spinners’ Association, composed 
of those who had a living faith in the message of the wheel. 
The unwritten understanding was that the Association would work 
out the progranome of khadi so as to become in process of time a 
tower of strength to the parent body. The permanent trust has 
been created in the hope of evolving a truly democratic institution. 
And there is a democracy such as the world has never seen if 
khadi becomes a truly national institution. Even so has the Senate 
emerged as a Board of Trustees pledged to work out its present 
ideals so as to make national education a living force, so as, that 
is to say, to cover every village in Gujarat, to enable the students 
to realiK the dignity of labour equally with the dignity of learning, 
to produce national servants who will serve the nation in her 
villages. The Senate, when after a full discussion it came to the 
resolution on Sunday, has no less a hope, the Trustees shouldered 
no less a responsibility. No oligarchy can arise firom a voluntary 
surrender such as the Senate’s was. It gave up its powers to a per- 
manent body when it was in possession of the fullest powers and 
in a position to exercise them to the fullest extent. It was an act 
of self-denial whose virtue has to be proved by the Trustees. Theirs 
is an awful responsibility. But, with proper consecration, it will 
sit lightly on their shoulders and Gujarat as well as India will 
be the gainer thereby. They will be judged not by tlie quantity 
of result turned out but by the quantity and the quality of self- 
service put in. 

Toung India, 2-2-1928 


5 . APPEAL TO PEOPLE OF BOMBAT 

I hope that the boycott^ will pass peacefully and show the 
nation’s strength of purpose. 

GAKom 

Th0 Bombcff Chronicle, 3-2-1928 

1 Of Simon Ck>nimissian which was appointed “for the purpose of inquiring 
into the working of th? syateia of Gorenunent”; vide also “After Hartal?’’, 
9 - 2 - 1928 . ‘ 



6, MESSAGE TO PUBUC MEETING, AHMEDABAD^ 

Februasy 3, 1928 

I hope this meetmg will not disperse without deciding to do 
something concrete. The Congress Committee has entrusted us 
with such a task; if we fail to achieve this definite goal of boy- 
cott of foreign cloth, we would be ridiculed. 

[From Gujarati] 

Prtgabandhu, 5-2-1928 


7. LETTER TO RAMESHWAKDAS PODDAR 

SaTVAORAHA AS3E1RA1iI, 
Sabarmati, 

Magha Slmkla 14 [Febrmiy 4, 1928^ 

BHAI RAMESHWARJX, 

Your letters keep coming and every time I pray for your 
peace. 

You did well in sending some money for the memorial to 
Hakimji. 

By and by, if you make the effort, you will visualize truth and 
ahimsa. If your father-in-law is addicted to bhang, be kind to 
him, and if opportunity occurs, try to cure him of his depraved 
habits. In the present circumstances when the evil customs like 
child-marriage and so on are rampant, such unequal alliances 
are inevitable. 

Jamnalalji is absolutely right in advising you to go to Wardha 
and I also like the proposal to keep Babu at Wardha Ashram. 

Blessings fiom 

Bapu 

From a photostat of the Hindi: G.N. 193 


^ Held to protest against the Simon Commission and to endorse the 
resolution passed by the AU-Farties Conference at Banaras. Ihe message was 
read out by VallaUibhai Patel, who presided. 

2 From the reference to the memorial to Hakimji (Hakim Ajmal Khan) who 
died in December 1927 



8. LETTER TO REVASHANKER JHAVERJ 

Ahicedabad, 
Monday \Februaiy 6, 1928Y 

RKSPSOTED RSVASHANEEKSHAI, 

Ghi. Ghhagan* and others came here day before yester- 
day. They had a long talk with the Thakore Saheb of Morvi. He 
has promised to lift the excise duty from cotton used in making 
khadi. He has also asked me for a man who will work for cow- 
protection. They talked about you too. The Thakore Saheb said 
that you should stay in Morvi and do all this work with his help. 
I also think that you should spend a part of your time there, if not 
all. From what Mirabehn told me I see that now you are keeping 
well. What news of Dhiru®? 

Rtgards from 
Mohandas 

Revashanker Jaojivan Jhaveri 
Mantbhdvan 
LABURN tiM Road 
Gamdevi, Bombay 

From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.N. 1267 

9. LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA 


Ashram, 
Fehrucay 7, 1928 

MV DEAR OHANSHYAMDA8JI, 

Yotir letter does make me anxious. Medicines would certain- 
ly cause tiredness. In my view total fasting is the first step. I have 
nothing to fear from it. Fasting can do no harm and should be 
undertaken not for a day or two, but for ten to fifteen days. If you 
decide to fast, you must stay here. I can send for one or two friends 
who are well versed in the technique of fasting. There is enough 
accommodation. The weather here is fine these days. If you wish 
to invite the specialist on fasting to Pilani, that too can be arranged. 

^ From the postmark 

a Ohhagaulal Mdita, ion of Dr. Praiyivan Mdita 

3 Son of Ghhaganlal Mdita; he had been suffering from T. B. 



UBS8A0E TO MEETINO AT GUJARAT VIDYAPITH, AHMEDARAD 11 

It is my firm bdief liat bn no account should you go to 
Delhi. I am writing today to pujya Malaviyaji and Lalaji to this 
effect. Regarding the memorial to Hakim Ajmal Khan, I have 
published an appeal in Tomg India} and Navajivan; I want dona- 
tions from you and your friends. If you are not inclined to give 
a big sum and if you permit, I would take out a substantial por- 
tion from the Rs. 75,000 already donated by you. I leave it to you 
to have your name published or not. Please write to me without 
hesitation if you do not wish to give anything out of that 

Do not be alarmed by the reports of my health in the news- 
papers. There is not much cause for anxiety. Doctors do try to 
frighten me, but I remain unaffected by it. 

Tours, 

Moscandas 

From the Hindi original: G.W. 6153. Courtesy: G.D. Birla 


10. MESSAGE TO MEETING AT GUJARAT VIDTAPITH, 

AHMEDABAD^ 


February 7, 1928 

Having submitted to the doctors I may not attend the meet- 
ing. Acharya Kripalani is going away. I hold that he is not in 
reality leaving the Vidyapith, because his spirit will be here. He 
will come here occasionally to deliver lectures and he also promises 
to come as helmsman if the time comes. My connection with 
Acharya Kripalani dates back to the time of my arrival from 
South Africa. I wish that all would follow him in his spirit of 
dedication, his simplicity and his devotion to duty. 

[From Gujarati] 

Pregabandku, 12-2-1928 


> Vide Vol. XXXV, pp.433-5 and 475-6. 

2 The message was read out by Ambalal Sarabhai, who presided over the 
meeting in place of GandhyL The meeting was held to bid farewell to J. B. 
Kripalani who was leaving for Banaras to join the Gandhi Ashram there. 



11. LETTER TO N. R. MALKANL 


Satyagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
February 5, 1928 

MY HEAR MALKANI, 

I have your letter. I shall see to your notes appearing in the 
next iasue of Toung India,^ They were too late for the issue that is 
being printed today. 

If you are ready for untouchability work, I am equally ready 
to take you up. We shah discuss plans and operations as soon as 
your work there is finished. 

Don’t be alarmed about the reports of my health. Doctors’ 
instruments do give alarming readings, and therefore I have 
agreed to take full rest. Hence, such correspondence as I am 
permitted to undertake is dictated. But, personally, I feel that there 
is nothing vitally wrong. No doubt I am weak, but that is an 
old complaint. 

Tours siiuersb>, 

Bapu 

From a photostat: G.N. 682 


12. LETTER TO C. F. ANDREWS 

Satyagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
February 8, 1928 

MY DEAR QHARUR, 

I hope you have not become nervous over the news of my 
health. Ihiere was nothing in it, and there is nothing in it now 
so far as I can see. But as doctors themselves are fiightened, 1 am 
taking all precautiom and taking full rest. I am doing only a 
little bit of correspondence and that also by dictating. 

Let me remind you that you have yet to finish the Shraddha- 
nand series^. 

I Ft* “Flood Relief Work in Sind”, 16-2-1928. 

* Three instalments of this had already appeared in Toma India, 22-9-1927, 
29-12-1927 and 5-1-1928. 



txnTiR to iaus. t. c. uirin IS 

Here is a copy of a letter from Kanikaraj. You will know its 
meaomg fuller than 1 can. 

I hope you will be going with Chhaganlal to Orissa so that he 
may know exactly what you would want him to do. 

My love to everybody at the Ashram. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13065 


13. LETTER TO MRS. L. C. UNNI 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarma.ti, 
February 8, 1928 

dear friend, 

I have your two letters both of which 1 have kept by me for 
answer. It gave me great joy to see you in Calicut and it gave me 
much pleasure to receive your letters and to learn that my writings 
had given you some little help. I am delighted to frnd that you 
are regularly spinning. And seeing you are doing it in a religious 
spirit, I would like you to learn how to test the strength and the 
^eness of your yam. If you are a reader of Toung India, you will 
find the directions in the back numbers. I would ask you also to 
read the “Prize Essay on Hand-spinning”*. 

If you succeed in keeping early hours of the morning, I have 
no doubt that they will give you a peace and a joy which are 
not to be had in any other manner, provided, of course, that the very 
first thing done in the morning is to put oneself in tune with the 
Infinite. It is like putting oneself with perfect confidence in one’s 
mother’s lap. 

I hope that your vegetarianism is agreeing with your health. 
If it does not, you must tell me what you are eating. I might be 
able to give you some guidance. 

Tours sinesrsfy, 

Mrs. L. G. Unni 
liAESHMi Vilas 
OAuauT 

From a photostat: S.N. 13066 


^ Handnspisutiug and Hand-umoing by S. V. Puntambdcar and N. S. 
Varadachati 



14. LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA 


Februcay 5, 1928 

BHAI OHANSHyAMDASjr, 

Your letter. Some digestible preparations can be made with 
oil. But this experiment cannot be conducted firom a distance. At 
present fasting is the most essential and the best remedy for you. 
I have no doubt about it. 

Toars, 

MoHA14DAS 

From the Hindi original; G.W. 6154. Courtesy: G. D. Birla 


15. AFTER HARTAL? 

With great deliberation and not without the exercise of great 
self-restraint have I hitherto refrained practically from writing 
anything about the boycott of the Statutory Commission. I recog- 
nized the force of the appeal made to me by the Leader of Allaha- 
bad not to meddle with or influence the boycott movement, but 
to let the various parties manage it themselves. I recognized that 
my interference was bound to bring in the masses more prominent- 
ly into the movement and might possibly embarrass the promoters. 
Now that the great demonstration is over, 1 feel free to say a word, 
I tender my congratulations to the organizers for the very great 
success they achieved on the hartal day^. It did my soul good to 
see liberals. Independents and Congressmen ranged together on 
the same platform. I could not but admire the courage of the stu- 
dents of Government colleges in absenting themselves from their 
colleges for the sake of the national cause. All the world over stu- 
dents are playing a most important and effective part in shaping 
and strengthening national movements. It would be monstrous 
if the students of India did less. 

My object now is to draw attention to the fact that the very 
success of the hartal will be turned against us if it is not followed 
up by sufGlcient and persistent action. We must belie the prophecy 
of Lord Sinha that the hartal was but a passing cloud. Let us bear 


^February 3, 1928 



AFTftR lOARTAI.? 


15 


in mind that, notwithstanding our opposition, the Conunission, 
backed as it is by British bayonets, will go its own way. Where it 
cannot get bona-fide recognition, it will be manufactured for it. Did 
not a so-called deputation on behalf of ‘untouchables’ welcome the 
Commission as its true deliverers? Claiming to know the un- 
touchables more than the members of the deputation, I make bold 
to assert that they no more represented die imtouchables than 
would a party of Japanese, for instance. 

If then we are to ensure a complete boycott, not only will 
there have to be a joint organization by aU the parties for carrying 
it out and possibly picketing, wherever the Commission- goes, but 
there must be some further demonstration of the nation’s strength. 
Even though mine may be a voice in the wilderness and even at 
the risk of repeating a thousandth time the same old story, I sug- 
gest that there is nothing before the nation other than boycott of 
foreign cloth which can be brought about effectively and quickly. 
But like all great undertakings, it requires planning and organiz- 
ing. It requires sustained and vigilant effort by a party of earnest, 
able and honest men and women exclusively devoted to the task. 
It is not an easy task. If it was, it would not produce the great 
results that are promised for it. It must evoke the best in the 
nation, before it is accomplished. But let us also frankly recognize 
that if we cannot organize this one thing, we riiaU organize nothing 
else. 

Let me make my own position dear. I have no desire even now 
to interfere with the present evolution of the national movement 
except through occasional writings. This is written, therefore, by 
way of a humble appeal to the different parties who are jointly 
acting in order to vindicate national honour. 

Toung India, 9-2-1928 



16 . NOTES 
Union of Soxith Afrioa. 

Though, through the heroic efforts of the Rt Hon. Srinivasa 
Sastri the soci2il status of our countrymen in South Africa has im- 
doubtedly improved and life is becoming less unbearable for self* 
respecting Indians, reminders come now and then from that sub- 
continent that much yet remains to be done before the Indian 
settlers enjoy the ordinary civic rights and feel their position safe. 
The latest shock comes through a cable just received from Mr. 
Albert Christopher, the new Deputy President of the South Afri- 
can Indian Congress. Mr. Christopher was one of the volunteers 
who served as well during the Boer War as during the late War. 
He is South Africa bom and has just returned after finishing his 
education in England. The cable runs as follows: 

Second reading Liquor Bill now going through Parliament notwith- 
atanding strong protest. Bill seeks deprive three thousand Indians their 
families and dependents of livelihood ultimately drive them out of country. 
Bill direct conflict letter spirit Gape Town Agreement, dear racial legislation. 
Indians greatly alarmed Government’s attitude. If Bill passes Gape Town 
Agreement smashed. Earnestly appeal your immediate intervention. 

Even the respectable South African Press agrees with the 
opinion of the South African Congress that the Bill violates the 
Agreement which resulted from the Round Table Conference. 
That it is aimed even at those who are already earning an honest 
livelihood in hotels and bars is tmquestioned. If the Union Parlia- 
ment persists in the Bill, it simply means that being the stronger 
party to the contract, it can safely commit breach of contract 
whenever it wills. Our hope lies in Sjt. Saatri’s gentle diplomacy 
saving not only the situation, but the honour of the Union Gk>vem- 
ment, the Union Parliament and the white people of South Africa 
in spite of themselves. He, however, needs energetic support from 
the Indian Press and the Indian public. 

A Parallel frou China 

A firiend sends me a cutting from the JVszv York Times contsdn- 
ing the report of an interview with Mr. Ku Hung-Ming, one of 
the most prominent Chinese, referring to the cultural greatness of 
the Chinese people and its being belittled by foreigners. And refer- 
ring to the inroads of foreign merchants upon China, Mr. Ku says: 





17 


was similarly blind when I first returned from my long years 
abroad,” he admits with disarming frankness. “At first I was ashamed 
to admit I was Chinese; now I am so proud of my heritage that I am 
conceited enough to think the rest of you arc all barbarians. 

“You see, our main trouble is economic. You Americans, for in- 
stance, thought a great influx of Chinese labourers would upset your 
industry and lower your standard of living. You acted promptly and 
shut your door against Chinese. 

“But we in China have suffered an invasion of your foreign machines 
and of cheap machine-made goods, and those things have ruined us, just 
[as] an influx of several million Chinese coolie labourers would have ruined 
your industrial scheme. 

“When I was a young man, for instance, even the women in our own 
families spun and wove. At that time fully 100,000,000 Chinese women 
spun and wove. Then came cheap foreign cotton goods and these 
100,000,000 women have no productive life, but must live on the labours 
of their menfolk. We arc prevented from following your example of shut- 
ting the door by the fact tliat the treaties forbid our taking any action. 
We do not have even tariff autonomy. 

“If I were an artist, I would draw you a cartoon which would show 
you what I think of the unequal treaties. 

“Picture a Chinese prone upon the ground and a foreigner standing 
over him holding him down with his foot. ‘Get up,* says the foreigner. 
'Take your foot off first,* says the Chinese. *No, you get up first,* says 
the foreigner, putting more weight upon the foot.'* 

Ajmal Jamia Fuito 

The following sums only have been hitherto received in answer 
to the appeal in these pages: 

Sheth Jamnalal Bajaj Rs. 1,000-0-0 

Sjt. Rameshwardas, Dhulia „ 51-0-0 

„ I^arc Ali, Bombay „ 100-0-0 

Total Rs. 1,151—0—0 

This is as yet a poor response. Often the response to appeals 
made in these pages is an indication of the manner in which the 
people receive certain movements. Evidently the strained relations 
between the two communities are keeping the general body of 
readers from responding. May I hope that wherever there are 
men and women who believe in Hindu-Muslim unity, believe in 
Haldmji as a great patriot, and in the necessity of supporting the 
Jamia, they not only themselves soon send in the contribu- 
tions, but will also canvass them among their friends and neigh- 


XXXV1.2 



18 


TBB aOLLBQTBD WORKS 07 UAHATUA OANDBtl 


hours? Every subscription big or small will be acknowledged in 
these pages. 

To THE Friends in Karnatak and Andhra Desh 

Inquiries are being made as to whether the proposed tours in 
these provinces have been altogether abandoned. I may state in 
answer that, though under pressure &om Sjt. Gangadharrao 
Deshpande and Deshbhakta Konda Venkatappayya, 1 have 
postponed the tours, I have no idea whatsoever of abandoning 
them altogether. If health permits and God otherwise wills it, I 
propose to undertake them after the monsoons are over. But it is 
safe not to build hopes on any fixed season. Sufficient for me to 
give the assurance that 1 would like to tour in these and the remain- 
ing provinces at an early date, if it is at all possible. Meanwhile 
those who have already collected purses should send them either 
to me or to the organizers. 

Khadi in the Punjab in 1885 
1 extract the following valuable ioformation that Sjt. Balaji 
Kao of Coimbatore collects for me from time to time from several 
books. The extract is taken from a Monograph on the Cotton 
Manufficture in 1885 by £. B. Francis 

That the remuneration earned by the spinners was low did 
not baffle the good workers, for, as the autlior says, they worked 
during the leisure hours and whatever they earned was so much 
gained. If the things are different now, it is because the tastes 
have become vulgarized and foreign cloth, under an insidious 
system of indirect protection, has been dumped down on this un- 
happy land. 

Toung India, 9-2-1928 


17. LETTER TO DR. M. A. ANSA^ 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
Februa^ 11, 1928 

DEAR DR. ANSARI, 

Don’t you worry about my health. Doctors will frighten one. 
This time ffie registered blood-pressure does not seem to produce 
any impression on me. I am keeping fairly [fit]. I have strength 
to walk, and I only lie on my ba^ because doctors are imperative 

1 Hie extract it not repiodueed here. 


LfiTTBR TO ilOTILAl. NBOElO 


Id 

and tell me that some blood-pressure cases are most illusive and 
specially dangerous when the patient himself feels no visible effects. 

This letter I am dictating in connection with Ajmal Jamia 
!l^und. Whilst you are in the midst of all the big people, I want 
you to buttonhole them and get them to subscribe, no matter how 
much. I fear that there will be little spontaneous response or it will 
come when noted men and women have subscribed. If I had not 
become bedridden, I would have done lobbying this side of India. 
And I have not yet lost hope of being able to do it. I am not at 
all sure of your scheme of deputations going rbimd succeeding. I 
know it is cruel to ask you to spare the time when it is occupied 
between your practice and direct Congress work. But you have got 
to find it for this work too. 

If you have not seen my article “After Hartal ?”^ please look at 
it. Unless you take up this universal and possible thing, boycott 
of foreign cloth, the energy created by the boycott of the Statutory 
Commission will be all waste of effort. Every negative action with- 
out corresponding positive action becomes useless in the end. 

Tours siaeirt(y, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13069 


Iff. LETTER TO MOTILAL NEHRU 

Satyaorajeia. Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Febnuay 11, 1928 

DBAR MOTILALJI, 

I am again on my back, and I suppose these ups and downs 
win some day decide the final issue. The funny thing about the 
blood-pressure this time is that I notice nothing myself. But I am 
obeying the doctors as far as it is possible. 

I had your telegram. I was sorry we could not meet before 
you put yourself in harness again. But I suppose it was inevitable. 

Jawahar was telling me that you were keeping none too well. 
I hope however that you were thoroughly restored during the 
voyage. 

Tours sineerelyf 

From a photostat: S.N. 13070 


^ Vide pp. 14-5. 



19. LETTER TO A. FEJ^NER BROCKWAT 


Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
Febnuuy 11, 1928 

dsar friend, 

I have your letter with enclosures. I do continue to hear 
about the progress of your health through Paul and others. But I 
was more than pleased to have your own letter and to know that 
you were on the road to complete recovery and that you were able 
yourself to write long letters. 

Yes, the violence dxiring the Madras hartal was most unfortu- 
nate. The slightest relaxation of control precipitates violence. 

1 had a letter from Mr. Runham Brown. 1 sent a reply saying 
that I would not be able to go. I stiU feel that my work outside 
is also better done from the Indian platform. It can be said of it 
that it is still in too experimental a stage to make any confident 
claim about it, and if anything definite can be said about it with 
complete confidence, it would be itself a very striking object- 
lesson in no-war. But I am keeping both the letters for reconsidera- 
tion. I shall watch also how the blood-pressure beliaves, and if I 
find meanwhile any prompting from the inner voice in the direction 
of going, I shall not hesitate to say yes. 

The youth movement is a decided attraction. 

I was delighted to hear from Mrs. Brockway. I am writing to 
her directly. 

Tours sineerely, 

A. Fenner Brookway, Esq,. 

General Hospital 
Madras 

From a photostat: S.N. 14943 



20. LETTER TO ULLA BROCKWAT 


Satyaoraha Abhram, 
Sabarmati, 
Fshrvuay ii, 1928 

DEAR friend, 

It was good of you to write to me. I should have cursed my- 
self if 1 had not made time to go to your husbandv whilst I was 
in Madras. It was a severe disappointment to all of us here not 
to have him during the Congress session, but it was a great joy 
that he and his companions in the car had such a miraculous escape. 

I was much touched to see Mr. Brockway’s eyes moistening 
when lus sister mentioned your cable. Such spontaneous demon- 
strations of human love bring us nearer to divine. 

You must try to come to India one of these days. You will excuse 
this dictated letter, for doctors have advised me to lie on my back. 

Toms sinemly. 

From a photostat: S.N. 14237 


21. LETTER TO HAROLD F. BING 

Satyagraha AsHRAJiI, 
Sabarmati, 
February 11, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your very kind and very warm invitation through 
Mr. Fenner Brockway. I wish it was possible for me to say straight- 
way ‘y®8’ to you, but there are fundamental difficulties which I 
have mentioned to Mr. Brockway. However, I am keeping your 
invitation by me and shall allow it to soak into me, and if I can see 
my way clear, to accept it. I shall write to you further in the matter. 

Tours sinemly, 
M. K. Gandhi 

Harold F. Bing, £s(^. 

The British Federation of Youth 
421 Sentinel House, Soitthampton Row 
London, W.G. 1 

From a photostat: O.N. 101$ apd 3770 



22. TALK WITH REPRESENTATIVES OF BAJRDOLI TALUK^ 


[Before Februcay 12, 192S] 

Kalyanji opened the talk, told him that they had practically covered 
the whole of the taloik, which was unanimous so far as the fight was concerned, 
but that they would prefer to refuse payment of the increment over the old 
assessment. 

OANDHiji. I don’t quite understand that. 

KALYANJI. 22 per cent enhancement has been imposed. The people 
say they would like to pay the old assessment and refuse the 22 per cent 
increment. 

G. That is most dangerous. Government will fight you 
with the help of your own money and recover the increment 
in a moment. No assessment can be paid until the increment is can- 
celled, and you must plainly say to Government: ‘Declare the 
enhancement cancelled and then take the old assessment which 
we are prepared to pay.’ Are the people prepared to take up this 
attitude? 

K. I am not quite sure about the bigger places like Bardoli or Valod, 
for the Vanias in these places are naturally afraid that Government might 
deprive them of their lands and transfer them to their original occupants, the 
Raniparaj people. But the other villages are quite solid. 

o. That’s all right. But is their cause just and their case 
unassailable? 

kalyanji: Qertainly. Naraharihhai has demonstrated it in bis articles. 

o. I do not know. I have not read the articles with care. 
But remember that you will have to keep the whole country 
with you, and the first condition is that your cause must be per- 
fectly just. Then there is another point. The people may be ready 
to fight. But do they know the implications of satyagr^a? Sup- 
posing Valla.bhbhai is removed with the rest of you, will they stand 
together? 

Vim That 18 more than I can say. 

^ R^resentatives of Bardoli Taluk sought Gandhiji’s advice at t he 
request of Vallabhbhai Patel, who was to lead the Bardoli Satyagraha* 


LETTER TO RIOHARO B. OREOO 23 

o. Well, you will have to ascertain that But what does 
Vallabhbhai say? 

Sjt Vallabhbhai had just arrived. He said he had studied the case and 
had no doubt that the cause was just. Gandhiji said: 

Well, then, there is nothing more to be considered. Victory to 
Gujarati 

Tht Story of Bardoli, pp. 28-9 


23. LETTER TO RICHARD B, GREGG 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
February 12, 1928 

my dear oovind, 

1 have your postcard. 1 am glad you won’t have to be in 
Poona much longer now. I seem to be gaining ground — so the doc- 
tors think. Personally I feel I have not lost any. Of course I did 
lose weight, but then I did so with my eyes open. I could not con- 
duct the difficult experiment of reverting to fruits and nuts without 
having to lose weight. But I am now conducting it under better 
auspices and with doctors watching. So this little collapse is per- 
haps an advantage and it has imposed upon me a rest which per- 
haps I needed. 

I note the correction in the date about the spinning in Sind. 

Tows sinesrsfy. 


From a photostat: S.N. 13071 



24. LETTER TO MRS. MARKER 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
February 12, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter. The expenses at the Ashram need not be 
more than Rs. 20 to 30 per month. But what is more necessary to 
know is whether you can stand the life of the Ashram. It is so 
different to all you have been hitherto used to that I should be ner- 
vous about your taking to the Ashram life. And now the cold wea- 
ther on this side of India is practically over. We are having hot 
afternoons already jmd I wonder whether you can stand the sum- 
mer of Sabarmati. Temperature goes up sometimes to 112, even 
115. Sabarmati is not very far from Jacobabad, the hottest place 
in India. Why not reproduce wherever you are the ideab for which 
the Ashram stands? Then you have the Ashram without its obvious 
limitations, and you can add too or modify the ideals as much as 
you like. 

Tours sineerely, 

Mrs. Harxer 
3 SONBHHI Bagh 
New Delhi 

From a photostat: S.N. 13072 


25. LETTER TO GIRDHARILAL 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
February 12, 1928 

DEAR LALA GIRDHARIIAL, 

Your letter has been read to me. There need be no anxiety 
about my health. So long as God wants some work through this 
body, it will stand all triak and tests. I am obeying doctors fuUy 
and Inking complete rest, though personally I do not seem to fed 
the want of it. I know that you will come whenever I want you, 
however pressing your other engagements may be. The thought 
that there are friends ready to help me is itself a great consolation. 



LETTER TO ROBIADT ROLLAND 


25 


At the present moment there are enough nurse friends about me. 
I seem to, and doctors too, think that I am making steady progress. 

Tours sinemly. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13073 


26 ' LETTER TO ROMAIN ROLLAJfD 

The Ashram, 
SaBARJiIAIT, 
Febrmty 14^ 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

Mira has translated your latest letter for me. 

My whole soul goes out to you in your grief especially because 
it comes over a letter which makes you suspect me of hardness of 
heart. I appreciate your desire to find me correct in all I do and 
think. I do indeed want to stand well with you, but 1 must be true 
to myself if I am to continue to deserve your warm friendship. 

Let me first tell you that Mira’s letter reflected her own views 
though they were found to coincide with mine. Neither Mira, so 
far as I know her, nor I had the remotest idea of judging those two 
good peasants.* Their action was undoubtedly one of heroism. 
What we had in our minds was the heroism of a war-resister, and 
from the record sent by you and as it was interpreted to me by 
Mira, I missed that particular type of heroism which a war-resister 
demonstrates in his own life. Joan of Arc was a heroine. So were 
Leonidas and Horatius. But the heroism in each case was of a 
different type, each noble and admirable in its own sphere. 

In the answers given by the peasants, I do not notice any defi- 
nite repugnance to war as war and a determination to suffer to the 
uttermost in their resistance to war. These peasant fiiends, if my 
recollection serves me right, are heroes representing and defending 
the simple rustic life. These heroes are no less precious than those 
of a militant war-resister type. We want to treasure all this hero- 
ism, but what I feel is that we will serve the heroes and the cause 
of truth better if we treated each type separately. 

*Romam Rolland, in his reply dated March 7, wrote: “. . . I under- 
stand what you say regarding those two devout peasants of Savoi. I bow 
before your reasons, though at the same time I believe that there are very few 
men and women — at least in Europe — with whom Svar-resistance’ is not 
always mixed with other elements of thought, because almost every thought, 

be it ever so intense, is not in man completely pure. . .** 



26 THE aOLLEOTED WORKS 07 MABATICA. OAMOHI 

You have curiously raised the question of my participation 
the late War.* It is a legitimate question. I had answered it in 
last autobiographical chapter as if in anticipation of your question* 
Please read it carefully and tell me at your leisure what you thinic 
of the argument.* I Aall treasure your opinion. 

Lastly, I do want to reach perfection, but I recognize my lirni~ 
tations, and die recognition is becoming clearer day after day* 
Who knows in how many places I must be guilty of hardness nf 
heart, and I should not be surprised if you have noticed want of 
charity in my writings in more places than one. I can only toU 
you that the lapses are there in spite of my prayerful effort to tlx® 
contrary. I suppose it was not without reason that the early 
Christians considered Satan to be not merely an evil principle but 
evil incarnate. He seems to dominate us in every walk of liffe 
and man’s mission is to overthrow him fi'om power. 

This letter of yours to Mira makes me more and more anxious 
to see you in the flesh, and there is just a distant hope of my be- 
ing able to do so this year if I keep good health and if other- 
wise the iimer voice guides me towards Europe. I am seriously 
considering two invitations, and the desire to meet you may preci- 
pitate my decision in favour of accepting those invitations. 

Tours smerely» 

Romain Rollahd 

From a photostat: S.N. 14942 


* Pi* An Autobiogn^lff, Pt. IV, Gh, XXXVIII. 

2 To this Romain RoUand replied: “Pardon me if I say to you that, iji 
spite of all my desire to enter into your thoughts and to approve of theni> T 
nmply cannot do so. . , ’* 



27. ON THEIR TRIAL 


What happened to the students during the Rowlatt Act agi- 
tation is repeating itself now. During those precious days, one of 
them wrote to me that he felt 'like committing suicide because he 
was rusticated. A student now writes: 

The students of. . . heard the moUier's call and responded to 
it. We observed hartal on the 3rd. For this courageous deed of ours, 
we are being hned Rs. 2 per head. The poor students are losing their 
freeships, half-frceships and scholarships. Please write to Mr. . . . the 
Principal, or advise him through Toung India. Tell him we are no crimi- 
nals, we have committed no crime. Tell him we listened and responded 
to the motlier's call, we saved her, to our utmost, from dishonour. Tell 
him we are no cowards. Please come forward to our aid. 

I cannot follow the advice to write to the Principal. If he 
is not to lose his ‘job’, I suppose he has to take some disciplinary 
measures. So long as educational institutions remain under the 
patronage of the Government, they will be, as they must be, used for 
the support of the Government, and the students or the teachers 
who support anti-Govemment popular measures must count the 
cost and take the risk of being dismissed. From the patriot’s stand- 
point, the students did well and bravely in making common cause 
with the people. They would have laid themselves open to the 
charge of want of patriotism, if not worse, if they had not res- 
ponded to tlie country’s call. From the Government standpoint, 
they undoubtedly did wrong and incurred their severe displeasure. 
The students cannot blow hot and cold. If they will be widi the 
people’s cause, they must hold their scholastic career subservient 
to Ihe cause and sacrifice it when it comes in conflict with the inte- 
rest of the country. 1 saw this quite clearly in 1920 and subse- 
quent experience has confirmed the first impression. There is no 
doubt that the safest and the most honourable course for the stu- 
dent world is to leave Government schools and colleges at any 
cost But the next best course for them is to hold themselves in readi- 
ness to be thrown out whenever a conflict occurs between the 
Government and the people. If they will not be, as they have 
been elsewhere, leaders themselves in the revolt against the Gov- 
ernment, they must at least become staunch and true followers. 
Let their fadng of the consequences be as brave as was their res- 
ponse to the nation’s call. Let them not humiliate themselves, let 



28 TBS aOLLEOTED WORKS OF BIABATMA OANBHI 

them not suirender their self-respect in trying to re-enter colleges 
and schools from which they may have been dismissed. The brav- 
ery of their response will be counted as bravado, if it succumbs 
on the very first trial. 

I hear that, during the days preceding the hartal, the students 
discarded foreign doth and very largely patronized khadi. Let it 
not be said of them that this was but a passing show and that they 
have, on pressure from without or temptation from within, 
discarded khadi as quickly as they discarded foreign cloth. To me 
foreign cloth for this country means foreign Gk>vernment. I wish 
this was accepted as a self-evident proposition. 

Toung India, 16-2-1928 

28, MY HEALTH 

It is a matter of great sorrow to me that my health should 
cause anxiety to many friends. Hitherto I have allowed Maha- 
dev Desai, subject to censorship, to write whatever he has wished 
about my health, seeing that the break-downs, important or un- 
important, occurred whilst I was travelling, and were supposed to 
be due to fatigue, and because those who were in charge of me du- 
ring the travels had a responsibility about my bodily condition. 
But circumstances have now altered. I am having a respite from 
travels and onerous public duties. I am taking part only to tlie 
extent that I wish- in reorgsinizing some of the activities in Guja- 
rat, specially educational, for which I am perhaps predominantly 
responsible. I have, therefore, felt called upon to take up what has 
been a hobby of a lifetime, namely, dietetic experiments. They 
are to me as important as many of most important activities 
which have engrossed me from time to time, and it was in the 
course of these experiments that the present so-called break-down 
has occurred. The alarming registrations of doctors’ instruments' 
have had no response in my own feeling. But I have accepted the 
statement of mescal fidends that very often blood-pressure patients 
feel no evil effects, although they may be stealthily present in the 
body and must, therefore, be guarded against. Happily, however, 
even these instruments registered last Sunday a very great im- 
provement, a fall from 214mm. systolic to 178 mm. and a rise from 
120mm. [riff] diastolic to 118 mm. I am sdso taking the rest pres- 
cribed by Dr. Haribhai Desai and his medical companions, and 
carrying on my dietetic expmments under their observations and 
guidance. Dr. Muthu who seems to have made a special study of 
dietetics is also kindly gliding me by correspondence. 



vtoob-Kiujkv yfokx. tjx BiM) 

Having given all this ioformation, I would implore news- 
paper correspondents to curb their pen and kindly to forget me 
emd my health for the time being. And I would ask anxious 
fiiends not to worry about my health, accepting my assurance 
that I am in no hurry to die and that, ^erefore, 1 shall be talring 
all the care of my body that is humanly possible for me, and is 
consistent with the ideals to which the body is dedicated and which 
I hold to be more precious than the body. Let the fiiends rest 
assured that, if the nation has any use for this body of mine, it is 
because a serious attempt has been made for many a long year to 
hold it in trust for those ideals. 1 would ask them also to share 
•my belief, which I hold even at the risk of being dubbed a fatalist, 
that not one hair of anyone’s body can be touched without His 
will and that when He has no use for our bodies. He defies all the 
care, attention and skill that money, prestige, patriotism, friend- 
ship and what not can summon to one’s assistance. This belief does 
not mean that 1 do not want to take advantage of the assistance 
that medical friends all over India ungrudgingly and most gene- 
rously render to me. 1 take that assistance gladly and faithfully. 
For God has given me no inkling of His intentions, but He has 
imposed upon me the duty of taking care of the body consistently 
with other more imperative obligations which, in my opinion. He 
has imposed upon me in common with the rest of humanity. 

Tomg India, 16-2-1928 

29. FLOOD-BELIEF WOBK IN SIND 

I gladly publish the following first instalmenti of notes by 
Prof. N. R. Malkani about the distress in Sind which was truly no 
less acute than in Gujarat. But as I have already remarked before, 
Gujarat attracted the widest attention not merely because of its 
being the store-house of India’s donors, but also, and perhaps more, 
because it found an army of workers under VaUabhbl^ Patel ready 
and determined to handle and organize the task of relieving dis- 
tress. Sind no less than Orissa suffered because they could not 
produce such an organization. But no lack of organization can be 
allowed to excuse any avoidable misery. Ihe public should 
know that Prof. Malkani is himself personally organizing the relief 
operations under the supervision of the Central Committee which, 
I hope, is giving him all the assistance he may need. 
romg India, 16-2-1928 

1 This is not reproduced here. 





30. CORRESPOJfDENCE 


If for nothing else, I cannot refrain from publishing the fore- 
goingi for its subtle wit and sarcasm. Unfortunately for me, I am 
responsible for the phrase ‘blot on Hinduism’, notwithstanding 
my claim, often repudiated 1 know, to be a sanatani Hindu. If 
the institution of war, in spite of its being contrary to the spirit of 
the Christian teaching, may be said to be a blot upon Christian- 
ity because war is universal in Christendom, untouchability may 
safely be regarded as a blot upon Hinduism in spite of the con- 
tention of a growing number of Hindus that untouchability has no 
place in true Hinduism. If the expression pains some Hindus, it is 
a healthy sign. When it pains the majority of Hiudus and they 
repudiate the charge, there will be no occasion to repeat it. And 
if it is a blot, why may not a Mussalman who believed in the 
truth and purity of Hhxduism hold with his Hindu co-member 
that it is a blot? 

Tom^ India, 16-2-1928 


31. LETTER TO C. RAJAGOPALACHARl 

Thb Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
FAruaty 18, 1928 

MY DEAR Q. R., 

Herewith Kelappan’s letter. I have asked him to discuss his 
scheme with you. Whatever you think is feasible should be done. 
You will not hesitate to sanction anything for fear of funds being 
exhausted. All I am anxious about is that whatever work is done is 
substantial and honest. 

I hope you are now not worrying about my health. I have 
not yet taken any vow about the milk and I am not going to do 
anything unless I find the experiment to be absolutely successful. 

t The letter, dated February 9, from S.D. Nadkami is not reproduced hete. 
The corre^ndent had taken exception to the expression "blot on HOnduisto" 
with reference to untouchability in a resolution on reorganization of the 
Gujarat Vidyapith. He had suggested that it could be changed to "blot on 
humanity" or deleted altogether. 



31 


letter to Q. RAjAGOFALAOHARl 

And not only 1 am carefully watching myself, but so also are 
the Ahmedabad doctors. It is open to them to veto the experiment 
at any time they like and I have promised to stop it. But I want 
you, instead of thinlfing of somehow dodging and making me to 
take milk, find out doctors or physicians who will help me to 
arrive at a proper, purely vegetarian diet which will be more than 
a substitute for milk. I am sure it is perfectly possible. Do please 
therefore think over my suggestion. 

Have you heard fi:om Singapore friends at aU? If we are to 
go, I should like to start during the first week of April, because 
the hot weather commences in right earnest in April in Ahmeda- 
bad and it would be better to avoid it. And then there is the talk 
of a visit to Burma from Singapore. I should like to negotiate it 
and, if that also is to be done, there is very litde time left. And 
then there are two invitations firom Europe to go there during 
July and August.^ I am inclined to accept them. The idea is 
cooking in my brain. One is firom the World’s Youth Peace Move- 
ment. It seems to be an important movement managed by a good 
organization. You may also consider the propriety or otherwise 
of accepting these invitations. 

Lakshmi must not have a relapse. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13063 


I Vith "Letter to A. Fenner Brockway", 11-2-1928. 



32, LETTER TO AYLMER MAUDE 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Ftbrutay 18, 1928 


DEAR FRIEND, 

I thank you for your letter. I shall consider it a privilege to 
do whatever I can in connection with Tolstoy’s works being 
popularized in India. I hope at an early date to notice your letter 
in the pages of Young Indian 

Yowrs svmcmly^ 

M. K, Gandhi 

M. Aylmer Maude 
Hon. Oroanizino Seqretary 
The Tolstoy Society 
Chelmsford (England) 

From a photostat: Q.W. 4514. Courtesy: Aylmer Maude 


33, LETTER TO ESTHER MENON 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Fehruary 18, 1928 

MY DEAR CHILD, 

I had your two letters under one cover. It did appear to me 
that you had forgotten me entirely, and yet 1 knew that that wasn’t 
possible. . . ? was looking a picture of health when I saw her at 
Madras, and she told me all about you. 

You must have heard about the relapse in my health. I am 
now under strict orders not to do any serious work involving men- 
tal or physical strain. Except for spinning, therefore, I am on 
my bad:. I am dictating this whilst spinning. But there is no cause 
for anxiety. 1 am getting better and hope soon to be allowed to 
move about. 


1 Tirfj “Tolstoy Ceatenaiy”, 1>S'1928. 
> The original is damaged here. 



LETl^ TO V10t£T 


33 


Yes. The Ashram remains what you have seen it to be. The 
population is daily increasing and we have too few houses to accom- 
m<^ate all the inmates. 

I am asking for a complimentary copy of Toung India to be sent 
to your address, and 1 shall see that as many back numbers as can 
be spared are also sent. 

1 am so glad that all of you are flouriahing in health. What 
is Menon doing in England? Please send my love to him when 
. . whom you know is in the Ashram just now. She has come 
to pass a few days on her return from Delhi where she had gone 
to attend a women’s conference. Mirabai is here and keeping very 
good health indeed. 

With love, 

Bapu 

Mbs. Esther Menon 
14 Asylvey 
Taaroae, Denmark 

From a photostat: S.N. 14241 


34. LETTER TO VIOLET 


Tbs Ashram, 
Sararmati, 
Ftbrua^ 18, 1928 

MY DEAR VIOLET, 

1 have your letter. I am very glad you have written to me so 
frankly and fully. Bad though this proposed wedding of the ex- 
Maharajah of Indore is, I would like you to understand the distinc- 
tion between that wedding and the Simon Commission. The 
Simon Commission is a public thing, whereas the wedding is a 
private affair. A wedding caimot affect the future of three hun- 
dred millions of India but the doings of the Simon Commission 
are calculated for better or for worse to affect the future of the 
whole of India. You can now understand the public resentment 
over the Simon Commission. Nobody thinks anything of the mis- 
deeds of private Englishmen or other white men. But when an 
Englishman does anything wrong in lus official capacity, it is im- 
mediately resented and quite properly too. If you have not yet 


1 The original is damaged here. 


XXXVI-3 



34 QOixzatiBS> VrosxA os iiAdAxuA OAMl>£tt 

understood or do not appreciate the distinction I have made, 
please write to me. 

You ask me whether I would again come to Ceylon if one U fcit 
rupees worth of khadi is taken up by the people there. 1 have no 
.doubt that the generous people of Ceylon are quite capable of 
taVing up more than a lakh rupees worth of khadi because there is 
nothing strange about [it], but what will induce me to come back 
to Ceylon is another donation to khadi. Buying of khadi is merely 
f^r. han gin g , valuable as that is, and donation to khadi enables me 
to widen the sphere of work among the poorest classes. 

fours sinetrsly, 

SsstmuTi ViouiT 

G/o Miss Lily Mothukbishna 

Oasa-Dbl-Mas. 

Alexandria Road 
Wellawattb 

From a photostat: S.N. 13075 


35. HAKIM AJMAL KHAN MEMORIAL 

Readers know that tliis memorial is with regard to the Na- 
tionalist Muslim University in Delhi. This Vidyapith is not 
meant exclusively for Muslims. Hindus may also join it. The 
teachers too are not exclusively Muslim; Hindus and Christians 
also are there. However, as in the case of the Gujarat Vidyapith, 
where the students are mostly Hindus, since Muslim students rarely 
join it, so at the Jamia Millia too, few Hindus are enrolled. If the 
authorities of the Gujarat Vidyapith could be blamed for tlic reluc- 
tance of Muslim students the autliorities of the Muslim university 
can also be blamed for the reluctance of Hindu students to join them. 
Considering the present vitiated atmosphere we sliould be con- 
tent and grateful to God if tlie management and the staff of both 
the institutions are free from rancour and mutually accommoda- 
ting. It is my belief that just as* the Gujarat Vidyapitlx will contri- 
bute substantially towards the attainment of swaraj and wiill help 
to safeguard it, that is, in implementing such constructive pro- 
grammes as Hindu-Muslim unity, etc., so too will this Vidyapith 
at Delhi. This prophecy of mine may or may not come true but if 
we owe anything to HaHm Saheb, and if it brings us credit to have 
a memorial to him for ever with us, we should aU, to the best of our 
abilities, contribute to this Fund. The Fund is growing at less than 


‘= 3 °- 


To tHB PtlAmTS OP BABBOU 


35 


a snail’s pace, from which 1 gather tfrat the Gujaratis do not res- 
pond to this cause as they do to other causes. I regard it my duty to 
say that this is not the correct attitude. Those who wish to achieve 
Hindu-Muslim imity should help this cause. Everyone is inclined 
to contribute to a popular cause. People remain indifrerent to 
a fimd which is not popular, though it be beneficial in the long 
run, if there is no one to rouse them. This is my appeal to that 
indifferent class. It is not that the readers of XavajUian always 
encourage only what is popular. The readers of Xave^ivan have 
contributed in other ways, if not in the form of money, to funds 
that were not popular but would increase people’s strength. They 
must now show that liberal spirit and power of discretion. Let not 
the Jamia Millia be crushed between the two opposing forces. 
Since die Jamia Millia does not nourish the present atmosphere 
of hatred, the general Muslim masses appear indifferent towards 
it, and if the Hindus too should be indifferent under the pre- 
sumption tiiat Muslims alone should support it, the Jamia Millia 
would be nowhere and Hakimji’s memorial would meet with the 
same fate. It is the special duty of Swarajists, Hindus as well as 
Muslims, not to let this happen. I hope the readers of Xavajivm 
will observe this dharma. I suggest donors should not rest content 
after giving in their personal contributions but should also try 
to collect as much as possible firom their neighbours. 

[From Gujarati] 

J^avajivan, 19-2-1928 

36. TO THE PEASANTS OF BARDOU 

There is not a corner of India familiar with the word *swa- 
raj’ which is not also familiar with Bardoli. The country has, there- 
fore, a right to expect something distinctive and courageous in all 
the tasks that are undertaken by this taluk. You have taken the 
very grave step of offering satyagraha. You have now no alternative 
but to prove yourselves worthy of it. No one could have found fault 
with you if you had not taken that step. However, having once 
taken it, you will make yourselves an object of ridicule in the eyes 
of the whole of India if you beat a retreat now. No one can* 
blame Bardoli for the postponement of the fight for swaraj that it 
had pioneered. People in a far-off province committed an act of 
indiscretion and the Bardoli movement had to be postponed. I 
have not the slightest doubt that it was all to the good. However, 
on this occasion, I think it is proper to remind you that thereafter 



36 THB QOLLfiCrmD Woiues of IIAHATIiIA OANDitl 

you have not been keeping to the extent you should your vows 
about khadi, untouchability and so on. And, because of this laxity 
on your part, 1 have my doubts about how far you will adhere to 
the pledge you have taken this time. I hope you will dispel this 
fear by your determined conduct. 

Shri Vallabhbhai Fatel has given you a clear warning. It is 
not in his hands to make a success of your struggle. The key to 
success is in your own hands. Even if he goes to the gallows, 
Vallabhbhai cannot fulfil your pledge. As the saying goes: “One 
cannot go to heaven unless one dies.” So also one has to fulfil 
one’s own pledges. 1 do not think there are two opinions about the 
justice of your cause. If, however, you do not have the strength 
to prove it you will not triumph despite its justice. If you under- 
stand it, rather than till the land only to pay the vigjhoti^ it would 
be saving yourselves a great deal of trouble if those who collect this 
tax confiscated your land. If the Government will not listen to you 
and you do not bow down to them — and if the Government aima 
at ruining you, it will ixot send you to jails, but will rather seize 
your property. As in Khcda, here too they would confiscate your 
utensils and your land. Nevertheless, you have one invaluable 
thing which they cannot attach and that is your soul, your 
self-respect. If you put your person and all your property in one 
scale and your self-respect in the other, the latter will always be 
found heavier. Satyagraha is the maaira for safeguarding it. Vic- 
tory is yours if you are prepared to withstand whatever loss you 
may incur while safeguarding it and you will prove worthy of 
having a leader like Vallabhbhai; moreover, you yourselves will 
be induded in the category of the courageous. You must see to it 
that by fulfilling your pledge you enhance your own prestige as 
well as that of Vallabhbhai, Gujarat and the whole of India. 

[From Gujarati] 

Naoajioan, 19 - 2-1928 


^Land levame 



37. LETTER TO DR. C. MUTHU 


Thb Ashram, 
Sabarmati; 

Fehruary 21, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

A son of a valued jeweller friend has a tubercular bone. He 
has been treated in a sanatorium in Solon from where he is . now 
being brought to Bombay. The father would now like to place his 
son under your treatment if you would handle the case. He can 
be sent anywhere you may advise. If you think that he should be 
examined by you in Bombay before you corild finally decide, the 
father is well able to bear the expenses. I shall thank you if you 
can let me know by wire your advice in the matter, and in order 
to save time, repeat it. to Sjt. Revashanker Jagjivan Jhaveri, 7 
Laburnum Road, Gamdevi, Bombay, whose telegraphic address is 
“MoraHty”. 

I do want to write to you about my diet, but of this later. 1 
seem to be doing well. 

Tom tinetnly. 

Dr. C. Muthu 

Eomore 

Madras 

From a photostat: S.N. 13076; also G.N. 1271 


38. LETTER TO ALICE MCKAT KELLT 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
February 21, 1928 


DEAR nUEND, 

What you tell me and what I read about the poisonous influ- 
ence of Moihtr India distresses me, but I take comfort in the thought 
that untruth is always overcome by truth and that that book is frill 
of untruth. 

I know that Mr. Dhan Gopal Mukegee is doing good work. 



38 TBE OOLLECrrSD WORKS OF MAHATMA OANSm 

I have forwarded your cheque for five dollars to the Manager, 
Young India, and I hope you are now receiving your copy. 

Tours siiutnly, 

Mrs. Auoe McKay Kelly 
130 East 40th Street 
New York City 

From a photostat: S.N. 14244 


39. LETTER TO ROHIMI POOVIAH 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Februtay 21, 1928 

MISS KOHINl POOVIAH, 

Your letter was an unexpected pleasure. As I am under 
orders not to work and have still to lie on my back as much as 
possible, I must not dictate much beyond telliag you that I have 
often thought of you and wanted to know what you were doing. 
I do hope •that you will get something suitable in the near future. 
Do please keep me informed of your movements and I shall forgive 
all your past crimes. Sita has promised to look in now and then. 
Axe you keeping good health? 

Tours sinmefy. 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13077 


40. LETTER TO RAMESHWARDAS PODDAR 

Tmsdqy [Fehruaiy 21, 1928y 

BHAJ RAMBSHWAROASJI, 

Your letter. Gertainly, do leave the boys at the Wardha 
school. They will be well looked after in the Ashram. Be at peace 
by imprinting Ramanama in your heart. 

I am keeping good healih. 

Blessings fiom 
Bapu 

From a photostat of fiie Hindi: G.N. 194 


* From the postmark 



41. LETTER TO NORA S. BAILLIE^ 


February 22 [192ll\^ 

I have your letter for which I thank you. In reply I can 
only say we must each approach and worship God in accordance 
with the light He has vouchsafed to us. 

M. K. G. 

From a photostat: S.N. 14222 


42. LETTER TO DEVI WEST 


The Ashrah, 
SABARHAn, 
February 22, 1928 

The card you mention in your letter is now missing. You must 
please therefore send the one you have. I am glad you are now 
getting InAian Opinion regularly. Ramdas was married now nearly 
a month ago. He and his wife arc leaving tomorrow for Rajkot 
where he expects to settle down. You must have read the account 
of the wedding in the pages of Toung India.^ It was a magnificently 
simple affair. It could not have been made simpler. 

I am personally feeling quite all right, but doctors being an- 
xious have imposed complete rest on me. I must not, therefore, 
dictate a long letter. Devdas is here. He is going to Delhi short- 
ly. Chhaganlal has gone to Orissa to serve tbe poor people there. 

Ymtrs sinetrAy, 

Miss Devi West 
^3 Georoe Street 
Louth, Lma. 

Enolanu 

From a photostat: S.N. 14246 


1 Wife of the Rev. A. A. BailUe, Superintendent of the Indian Mission in 
Natal 

2 This note was in reply to a letter of the addressee dated December 12, 
1927. 

3 Vide Vol. XXXV, pp. 499-500, ... 



43. LETTER TO HENRT NEIL 


The Asheam, 
Sabaruati, 
February 22, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your Ictteri. 

Under British rule, niillions of children arc starving for want 
of nourishing food and they are shivering in winter for want of 
sufficient clothing. And this I say not of the cities of India, which 
contain but a microscopic minority of the population of India, 
but I say this without fear of contradiction about the seven hun- 
dred thousand villages of the country scattered over a surface 
1,900 miles long and 1,500 miles broad. 

I suppose your first question ‘under non-Christian Religions’ 
is included in the second. But, if your first question relates to 
India before Britirii rule, I can only give you my inference that the 
little ones were infinitely happier ffian they are now under British 
rule. 

Your third question is difficult to answer. Which Jesus have 
you in mind? The Jesus of history? Not being a critical student 
of history, I do not know the Jesus of history^ Do you mean the 
Jesus whom Christian England and Christian Europe represent? 
If so, your question is, it seems to me, already answered. If you 
mean the mystical Jesus of Sermon on the Mount who has still to 
be found, I suppose the condition of India’s children will be a trifle 
better than it is now when men conform to the precept of Love. 

Tours sinesrefy, 

M. K. Gandhi 

Judge Henry Neil, Esq,. 

C/o Auerioan Express Co, 

Rue Sqribe 
Paris-Franob 

From a photostat: S.N. 14248 

* Dated January 3, 1928;^ it read: . . Please tell me the condition of 
the poor children of India, under their non-Christian religions, and under British 
rule. Then in contrast please tell me what you tiunh would be the condition 
of these children if Jesus was in full control of India and the people followed 
His teachings. . . .” (S.N. 14224). 



44. LETTER TO L. LE MONS 


Thx Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
[Fehruaty 22, 1928^ 

dear friend, 

I thank you for your letter of 2nd December which was re- 
ceived some days ago with a postal order for S.s. 1,190. Please 
convey my thanks to the donors for their donation for khadi as 
also for their assurance that a similar donation will be renewed 
from year to year. 

Tours sincardy, 

Mons. L. Le Mons 
Baqueu 

French Cochin China 
From a photostat; S.N. 14249 


45. LETTER TO P. C. GHOSH 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Febniaty 22, 1928 


MY dear PROFULI.A BABU, 

I have been able to reach your letter only today lying on my 
bed, though, accurately speaking, 1 am just now not on my 
bed, but at the spinning-wheel for which and which alone and for 
prayer I am allowed to leave it And whilst I am spinning or 
whilst I am lying on my back, I dictate some little cotrespon- 
dence and in this condition I am trying to overtake arrears. In 
doing so, I came upon your letter. 

I am glad about the compromise^. I hope that now there will 
be no more violent scenes, 

^ Hie letter was dictated by Oandhyi in English on February 22 and 
given to Mirabebn to translate into French. Hie Frendi version was signed 
by Oandhiji on February 24. 

^Arrived at betwe^ the Hindus and the Muslims at Oomilla as a 
result of which all oases pending in courts were withdrawn 



42 THE aOLLECnSD WORES OF MAHATUA OAMDHl 

Wbat you say about the Congress is largely true.* And those 
who beUeve in constructive work and non-violence have to counter- 
act the talkative activities and falsities by silent, dignified, un- 
revengeful work and that alone. 1 do not make of the Congress a 
fetish, but the oldest political institution we have in the country has 
to be approached with becoming respect and tenderest feeling. 
All public institutions have their ups and downs. Has not the 
House of Commons got its hypocrisy and humbug? I know that 
it is no model for us, but for the British nation, modelled as it is, 
it would be wrong to decry the House of Commons. They can 
only mend it wherever it is possible, unless there are Englishmen 
who consider the civilization that the House of Commons repre- 
sents is worthless. Personally, I still cling to the ideal tliat the 
Congress represents, and, Aerefore, generally observe silence 
where I cannot serve and I atic you and co-workers who are non- 
violent non-co-operators to do likewise. We have to be non- 
violent even towards erring co-workers, erring Congressmen. 

toms sinemfy. 

Dr. Profulla Chamora Ghosh 

Abhoy Ashram 

COMILLA 

From a photostat: S.N. 13046 


46. FIGHT SQJJARE IF YOU MUST^ 

The foregoing is dealt with below. The headline Tight 
Square If You Musti is, in my opinion, a mote correct rendering 
of SscFT ^35 instead of ‘At Least Wage a Religious War’ in 
the authorized translation. 

Young India, 23-2-1928 


* The addressee, in a letter dated January 19, had written: “Humhuggism 
is writ large on the Congress .... The CSongress President and the working 
General Secretary ate the two hest illustrations of the doctrine that ‘we are a 
nation of talkers’. . . . Personally I have lost all faith in the Congress which I 
consider a place for hluffers” (S.N. 14046). 

2 xhis was an article published in Swangya, 15-9-1927, a translation of which 
was published in Tomg India. For Gandhiji’s comments, aids the following 
item, 



47, REMINDING OF OLD TIMES 


Sjt Shankarrao Dev and Sjt V. B. Harolikar were convicted 
the other day at Poona under Section 124-A and sentenced to 
undergo imprisonment for two years with hard labour. There 
were two charges against them; waging war against the King 
(Section 121) and attempting to excite disaffection against the 
Government established by law in British India (Section 124-A). 
Sjt. Dev as editor of Swarajya wrote the article which was the 
subject-matter of the offence and Sjt Harolikar was the publisher. 
I print elsewhere the authorized translation of the offending article 
as produced before the court by die prosecution. Though it ad- 
mits of improvement, it cannot be called an unfair presentation of 
the origin^. 

The accused will not be defended by counsel though free as- 
sistance was volunteered by Dadasaheb Karandikar and other 
lawyers of distinction. Friends advised them to be defended. They 
Were told that everybody nowadays sought legal advice without 
any slur being cast on them. But these non-co-operators were 
adamant. They did not care what others did. They were non- 
co-operators on principle and therefore did not wish to listen 
to any advice based on prudential considerations. I knew Sjt. Dev 
in Yeravda. He with Sjt. Dastane had undertaken a severe fast 
from which it was difficult for me to wean them. I tender my 
congratulations to these fnends on dicir firmness in abiding by 
tlieir own convictions. For I am convinced that of such will the 
Kingdom of Swaraj be made. They have undoubtedly brought 
swaraj nearer by their crystal-like sacrifice. Let no one think that 
such solitary individual sacrifice has no place in national up- 
building, or that it does not produce great consequences. Indeed, 
it is the purest sacrifice alone that will count in ffie end. It lays 
the surest and the purest foundation of swaraj. 

The article is undoubtedly written to promote disaffection 
against the existing Gk>vemment To promote such disaffection is 
the bounden duty of every nationalist. Every Congressman is, I 
hope, an avqwed enemy of the existing Government. We have no 
quarrel with men, but if we axe worthy of swaraj, we must destroy 
the existing system of Government by aU legitimate and peacefiil 
means. The recent debate in the Assembly on the Statutory Com- 
mission was an object-lesson in disaffection in which aU parties. 



44 THE dOLLBOTED WORKS OF UAHATICA OAMDHI 

be it said to their eternal credit, whole-heartedly joined. The 
late Harchandrai ^^iahandas risked his life in travelling to Delhi 
for the sake of registering his vote in fovour of disaffection. One 
daily comes across stronger articles than Dev’s in point of dis- 
affection. His is a reasoned appeal to Hindus and Mussalmans to 
disown the protection of a Government that enslaves the country 
and if fight they must, fight fairly, squarely, honourably. I have 
read the article more than once and whilst I may not use the same 
language, there is nothing in the argument that I cannot adopt. A 
prejudiced critic may cavil at the verse quoted from the MahabhareOa. 
But, read together with the context, its meaning is clear. We have 
no King. We have a rule masquerading under the sacred name 
of law. Rulers are many. They come and go. The rule abides. 
But it is a corrupt, mischievous, soul-destroying rule which has to 
be ended at any cost. The cost that Dev and people like him are 
prepared to pay has to be consistent with their creed of non- 
violence. They seek to establish the rule of real law not by killing 
other people, however misguided or cruel they may be, but by be- 
ing themselves killed, if need be, in the attempt. This is the neces- 
sary limitation imposed upon them by their very conception of 
swaraj. It is, therefore, most difficult for me to understand why 
these two innocent workers were singled out for prosecution, or shall 
I caU it, persecution. If they are fit for imprisonment, Lala Lajpat' 
Rai and company are surely fit for tran^ortation, if nothing worse. 
If it be said that the Assembly gives members privileges for statu- 
tory crimes which ordinary mortals outside do not enjoy, there is 
then, perhaps, no one who is guilty of such calculated and deli- 
berate disaffection towards the ‘Government established by law’ 
as I am. The whole of my being is worked in order to achieve the 
destruction of this Government and to that end to spread disaffec- 
tion as wide as possible, and I think I csm lay a fair claim to having 
a somewhat larger audience than Dev and Harolikar. But real con- 
sistency, justice and coinage are hardly to be expected of govern- 
ments that are based upon exploitation sustained by violence. 

, Toung India, 23-2-1928 



48. HAMDLOOM v. SPINNING-WHEEL 


Apropos of the contention often thoughtlessly advanced that 
the handloom is the only thing worth preserving and that it can only 
be preserved through the use of mill>spun yam, Sjt. G. Balaji 
Rao writes: 

An effective answer to those who, in order to belittle the charhha, 
would exalt the handloom, is given here. Lord Gurzon was voicing the 
opinions of his departmental scientific advisers when he declared at the 
Delhi Durbar that it was inevitable that the handloom should be super- 
seded by the powcrioom, just as the hand punkah wsu being superseded 
by the electric fan. 

Of course, Lord Qurzon’s dictum need not be accepted as a 
conclusive answer if the longevity of the handloom can be sustain- 
ed through mill yam or any other means save the spinning-wheel. 
And these pages, I hope, are daily making it clear that hand- 
spinning can save the handloom in spite of the prediction of Lord 
Gurzon. Indeed, if the wheel regains its ancient status in our na- 
tional life, the handloom and many other domestic industries must 
revive automatically. 

Toung India, 23-2-1928 


49. THE ORIGIN OF IT 

I observe that newspaper paragraphs have been going round 
tliat I have predicted my own death by the 12th of March next 
and that, as a consequence, I am in a despondent mood. It is also 
stated that I am my own astrologer. I would have passed over this 
delicious morsel of news but for the fact that many anxious friends 
have taken it seriously and have, therefore, been upset. If the en- 
quiring friends had only followed my advice never to depend upon 
newspaper paragraphs, but always to ascertain, at their source, 
the tmth of statements seen in the Press, they would have been 
spared all that anxiety. The correspondent who set the news in 
motion could also have spared the enquirers considerable anxiety 
if he had been good enough to test the tmth of statements made 
by him. But if the correspondents became more scrupulous 
about statements they .may make, their occupation would be largely 
gone. I may then state for the information of frdends that I sun 



4^ QOLLBOfBD WoRBS OF lUBtATliA OANSEtl 

not an astrologer, I know nothing of the science of astrology and 
that I consider it to be a science, if it is a science, of doubtful value, 
to be severely left alone by those who have any faith in Provi- 
dence. Nor am I in a despondent mood, despondency being foreign 
to my nature. What precisely, however, did happen was this. When 
I was convicted six years ago and was asked what I thought about 
the projects of swaraj, I said that it was highly likely that there 
was the hand of Gkid in the limit of six years and that during that 
time either we ^ould win swaraj or that 1 should die and that 
six years’ time was long enough time for the country to win her 
fteedom. This statement was based upon an observation of the state 
of things as then prevailed in India. I never attached any impor- 
tance to it beyond this that I should myself leave no stone unturned 
to contribute so far as an individual could to the attainment of 
our freedom. Hie statement was on a par witli the conditional 
statement made by me in 1920 about attainment of swaraj within 
one year.^ That statement has served the purpose, if of nothing 
else, of giving satisfaction to my critics of laughing at my folly 
and to me that of seeing a tremendous effort being made by the 
country during that eventful year. I did not hesitate to say at the 
end of the year, when the Congress was held in Ahmedabad, that 
whilst we had not been able to achieve statutory swaraj, the free- 
dom that politically-minded India gave itself and the unity that 
seemed to exist among the various communities amounted to sub- 
stantial swaraj, and that if the people had carried out the condi- 
tions mentioned by me at Calcutta and Nagpur, they could have 
even attained statutory swaraj within the year. But even as I re- 
mained unaffected, in spite of the failure to attain statutory 
swaraj within the year specified, so do I remain unaffected in spite 
of the approaching termination of six years which, by the by, is 
not the 12th of March but the 17th of March next.* Not only am 
I not preparing for the imminent approach of the dissolution of my 
body, but I am making every effort to put it in as good order and 
condition as is possible, and have already fixed some provisional 
appointments for the coming summer and the rainy season. After 
all the relevant portion of my talk six years ago, twice repeated to 
friends, was the attainment of India’s freedom. Nothing depends 
upon the death of an individual, be he ever so great, but much 
depends upon the freedom of India. Let us, therefore, all forget 

1 Vidt .Vol. XVIII, pp. 270-3, and also Vol. XTX, Appendix I. 

*. Gandhlji was sentenced to six years’ imprisonment on March 18, 1922; 
vidt Vol. XXin, pp, 110-20. 



I F 1t» t^KUlf A liKVI 


47 


iiuitviiiti.iU ^iimI f ruurnfiatr attaiiiuiK ih.tt pirruatK ttmlutii 

whit It %v}li ltr\ri hr !ittiA\riril ti|t<4ti iih liitfu ih4UU^ll^ SIiitI tii 
rlM'wiif ir. hill uhitii i *in hi' 1*4 lltr ttiiy thtv rvrti 

iuNulr ««t ihr i 7ih t«t M.oth* Nu ^ir.it |iii saw 4 ttsnilal 

irvttitifiMU t'l f(f t4 \*i4iv luf 11 s llituliis, Mttv*».iliitaits, «SiLhS| 

t ami JrtiiN 4U«I ttllins Kit ti ri a** utir iiHli\isthir ii.ithm 
,tiiil AS ha\iti^» a « «*iti]iit»st slaLr lit <hr tKiiitfiy, IU4 IS ttiurr ittaii ;t 
litmiai If «|iutii| Ua ftiutht'i ti* lli.il 4it>t*ur is lit 

Ih^ I Hftviilt If t| t>i any laiirt .isitl In ir^alit llir sit^i ailrt} 

'uiiftaii it.ihh 'k' fit Ih' ilii'ii t«uii kilh aiitl kill, iittt Ih itituh rlKfil 
tri|ilit«^ii it Ur hut tlt.ikr <}ir trMii\r In at hii \r itittl|itf fr hiiyt itlt 
ill t><tf i){it t Iitllt, 1 if |«<\tf uhaf t itaxr s.iiti Mt t4lru, .il ttii f i>k ttl 

r3t« iKuit{ ihal it ur .11 IttrvcMhii II i|»tr |tt«t^l.ttitliu% iiti |tf turr 

till f.iifli t.tti |urviiii ns litiiii .itiattiiti^ nut ttiiihiiKhL Ills litr u;i 
lit umik tiiil t*ui lavii Mlvaiiiui as il is tit its {«t iiiiti}»a\s out iiwti 
iiiuiuiiitf. 

tnduf, 


♦fi. t.HUKH iO VHMtU /MI7 


Amimau, 

KAtlAMMArt, 

KV MStrU. 

t liavr yiuir Irlirr. 7*ttr tirws|i*t|irf« ultuliy rxuKgrratr llir rrji{ 
fliiiifC* S«i far n% I am awarr, tlirir t4 liiilliinf; wrimg wiiti »«tr. 
(M fiititsr. t .till wrak l*r«aii«r itt itty titMi-fiiilk IVtiilariaii rit|irn- 
iiiriii. Ihif I ant iimirr iifitl tiinltial ulisrrvaltim ami lliakiitg ihr 
tiitilrt litrtt wall It atiil with (hrir |irrifitJMittiii« "Mirrr 
is litrif fiirr tttti llir tlfghirtt taiftr liir af»^irfy» 

I am s«uty alMiiif %tntr ryrs, Vitit mtisf iinl \VMik lltnii hrymicl 
ihrif rapaiilv. Maliatirs^ just iitiw iivrs iHlwrnt Ihinhili ami Sahar* 
MtaKt. itr is hrl|uiig \'alhthlthiiai< Itr wriif fn flaiiltili last iisglit 
am! H«m*f rritint lirlurr Mumlay fniiriiiitg« 

Yuti Htll srr siiiitrllititg frttiii mr iit fhr riirrriit insiir ftf 
loitHf: Mt4 with rrirrriiir fu lltr I'iih iif Marrh almi,* Rraliy 
itrwftiia|}rf rr{itiiH ihi iiiiirr tiarin itiaii KtwitL Hill I mitit iti«f give 
yim a tiMig Iriirr, waul mr lolakr rmitfilrtr ml ami I am 

carrying ttui lUrtr ifuiruclhms alnuNil to the Irlirr. I write or cUc«> 


t ihc pmrrdlifif limi* 



48 TBB aOlXfiCrrEt) WORltS of itABJiTHA OANOm 

tate just a little con:eq)ondence and confine myself to editing 
Towig India and Jlaoajam, and for the most part remain lying on 
bed except for iq>inning, attendance at the prayer meetings and a 
few minutes’ walk early in the morning and in the evening. 

Tours smeenlj, 

Shbbcati Urmiia Dbvi 
Kaliohat 

From a photostat: S.N. 13081 


51. LETTER TO GAURISHJLKKER BHARGAVA 

The Ashram, 
Sabaiuiah, 
Fehruaty 23 119211]^ 

HEAR FRIEND, 

It is really not possible for me to attend the wedding. Apart 
from every other thing, doctors’ instructions are peremptory. But 1 
am glad about the proposed wedding. I hope that Ae ceremony 
will pass off without a hitch and that the bride and bridegroom 
will have many happy years of tiseful service to the coimtry. 

Ramdas is not here, and it is not convenient for Devdas to 
leave Sabarmati just now. 

Tours sineerely, 

Pandit Gaurishanxer Bharoava 
‘Phdi. Nivas’ 

Civil Lines 
Ajmer 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13082 



* This letter has been found placed among 1928 papers. 



52, LETTER TO BOYD W. TUCKER 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
February 24, 1928 

MY DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your very delightful letter which I deeply appreciate. 
I must not however accept your advice. ‘Resist not evil’ with me has 
never meant passive resistance. The word ‘passive resistance’ I have 
described as a misnomer for the resistance which I have known 
and ofiercd. The paraphrase of ‘resist not evil’ means resist not evil 
with evil, and tlierefore necessarily means resist evil with good. 
And, if at the present moment, 1 do not seem to be actively resist> 
ing evil, it is a mere appearance. For, if you are a constant reader 
of Bhagavad Gita, you will recall the passage, “He who sees 
action in inaction and inaction in action sees truly.”* Or is there 
not the corresponding English saying “He also serves who waits and 
prays” or something like that? Anyway such is absolutely my posi- 
tion today. If I could see my way clear leading to boycott move- 
ment, do not imagine for one moment that 1 would sit still for a 
single moment. But the way is not clear. It may clear any day. 
I want a living faith on the part of known workers in the boycott 
as I have prescribed from time to time in the pages of Young India. 
I am positive that no other boycott can possibly succeed, as I am 
equally positive that this boycott must succeed if there is enough 
work behind it. Huge demonstrations that have been taking place 
in Calcutta are good in their way, but not good enough for me. 
There is no reality beliind them. They have their use too, but tliey 
cannot enthuse me as an active soldier. 

I hope I am clear. If not, do please tackle me again. I am 
anxious for you to understand me and my movement through 
and through. 

Tours sincerely^ 

Rev. Boyd W, Tucker 
Goluns High School 
140 Dharamtala Street 
Calcutta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13084 

‘IV. 18 


XXXVI-4. 



$3. LETTER TO SATIS CHAJfDRA DAS GUPTA 


The Ashrau, 
Sabakuati, 
Februaiy 25, 1928 

DEAR SATO BABU, 

I have your letter. I did indeed know that Congress Gommit- 
tees were practically sleeping. It would be a great thing if you can 
put life into them without giving rise to any suspicion about your 
notice. 

What is this British goods boycott demonstration?. And what 
are these ten thousand volunteers? I see Dr. Ray also has been 
in this thing. Please let me know the inwardness of this move- 
ment. 

1 do not at all mind your haying gone third class if it agrees 
with you. I am glad you are giving Kuhnc’s batlis to Nikhil. Why 
not consult Bose. He is a water-cure specialist. You know he had 
an institution in Bow Bazaar where I used to go for my treatment. 
At that time Bose was away, but Mazmudar used to give me mas- 
sage and electric bath. Often the simple remedy succeeds where 
specialists faiL 

The meaning you have given to the word 'sankard is original, 
but thoroughly in keeping with my definition of ‘vama’, and, 
after all, my definition is the literal definition of the Veda. The 
third chapter is undoubtedly the key chapter of the (Eta. The 
first two are introductory and the last fifteen a conunentary. I 
think I told you that fi)r some time now in tire Ashram we have 
been reciting the (Eta every day, the whole of it being finished 
every fijrtnight, Chapters VII and VIII, XII and XIII, XIV 
and XV, and XVI and XVII being recited eacli pair one day. 

Ytms sitamly, 


From a photostat: S.N> 13085 



54. LETTER TO X. BHASKARE 


The Ashsau, 
Sabarmati, 
Februaty 25, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter. I am very sorry I am under strict medical 
orders not to tiike up any new burdens however slight they may be 
and even to reduce the existing responsibilities to the lowest possible 
minimum. 1 do not therefore in this circumstance comply witli 
your request. 

•Tours sinetrsly. 

Miss Y. Bhaskare 

Women’s Christian Temperanoe Union 

742 Near Petit Hall 

Poona 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13087 


55. LETTER TO RAMACHAJfDRAN 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Febmaiy 25, 1928 

MV DEAR RAMAOHANDRAN, 

I have opened your telegram to Mahadev. As I know notliing 
about your correspondence with him, I am not taking any action 
upon it. Mahadev is at present in Bardoli. He returns on Mon- 
day at the latest when he will tell me all about your telegram 
and I shall do whatever is needful. 

Tours sinstnly, 

SjT. Ramaohandran 
Narayanath Thaikad 
Trtvandrtjm 


From a microfilm: S.N. 13569 



56. LETTER TO RMVASH ANKER JHAVERI 

Sabarmati, 
February 25, 1928 

RBSPEaTED SEVASHANKBRBHAI, 

I have Dr. Muthu’s wire today; I sent you one* on receiving 
it, and you must have got it. If Dhiru has arrived by now, I think 
it advisable that you should wire to Dr. Mutliu Aat he should 
come. He is right in saying that he cannot come to any conclu- 
sion without an examination. 1 do not know what his fee is, but 
whatever it is, it is necessary that you should cheerfully pay it. 

My health is better. But the doctors still keep me in bed. 
hope you are well. 

On Thakore Saheb’s request, Shri Parnerkar, who knows 
veterinary science, was sent from here to examine his cattle and 
explain the scientific method of feeding them. 

Respectful gieetings from 

Mohandas 

From a photostat of the Oi^amti: G.N. 1272 


57. WHO WILL RESCUE THIS HUMAN COW? 

A gentleman, nearly 70 years old, belonging to tlie Brahma- 
bhatt caste was married four times. M four wives are dead. He 
has no sou, only a daughter who is fifteen. She has already been 
married. He now wishes to marry for the fiftlr time in order to have 
someone to run his household and fulfil his desire for a son. This 
gentleman has been abroad. He held a decent post in the Gack- 
war’s State. He has lost his eyesight owing to cataract. This, much- 
married old man is waiting for some cruel father who is prepared 
to sell his daughter. Some young men of the Brahmabhatt com- 
munity are trying to save the meek cow from being sent in this 
way to the slaughter-house. One of them wrote a letter to tlie old 
man in order to persuade him not to commit such an act. The 
gentleman has replied to it at length. A copy of this has been sent 
to me. I give below extract^ firom it: 

*Thu tcle^am is not available. 

3 Not translated Here 


WHO WILL RESQUE THIS HUMAN OOW? 


53 


I publish this letter at the risk of being considered foolish. If 
there is an absence of feeling for young girls in the Brahmabhatt 
community, if sensitive people in the community lack courage and 
if there is no such thing as public opinion in it, no one will be able 
to prevent this ill-matched miion. However, the handfol of kind- 
hearted young men or women belonging to that community must 
not neglect tlieir duty. Reform, if it is to be carried out in a 
peaceful manner, can be carried out only tlurough love and par 
tience. We must put up witli anger in any form if it is the result 
of self-interest. We should not be dazzled by anyone trying to 
impress by his knowledge. Within the last one year, two sudh mar- 
riages could be prevented through diligence and by arousing pub- 
lic opinion. An engagement that had already tiken place was 
broken off whereas in tliis instance there has only been talk of 
an engagement. If public opinion can be created the meek cow 
is likely to be rescued from being slaughtered. 

Let us now examine the letter from this gentleman, who had 
been to England. I am unable to understand what he intends to 
prove by giving instances of men becoming fathers at an advanced age. 
His arguments are the same old ones that have always been advanc- 
ed by sinners. In novels, we have come across murderers describ- 
ing the benefits of murder in beautiful language. And we have also 
come across robbers singing praises of their deeds. These acts may 
well have benefited those who committed them; but they have not 
benefited the world. Let us take the practice of ill-matched unions. 
In the instances which have been cited in the above extract, the 
men concerned may well have seen in it advantage to themselves. 
However, these old men of experience who are motivated by self- 
interest and a desire to gratify their lust are misinterpreting these 
instances in trying to get their own acts approved. This gentleman 
does not have the time and does not fed the need to think what 
these young girls must have thought when marrying these old men, 
how often they must have sighed. If one old man has tlie right to 
marry a girl of thirteen or fifteen, all old men should have this 
right and, if all of them were to follow this practice, we can easily 
imagine what consequences it would have on the people. Nowhere 
in -the world have wise men been known to commend ill-matched 
unions. They have been condemned in aU countries and in India 
we actually see the many evil consequences that follow firom them. 
Hence, I hope this gentleman would review his own letter, written 
in a!n angiy and impulsive mood, in a new light and gain control 
over his lust. And, if he cannot do it, he should look for a 
widow who is prepared to marry him of her own free will. 



54 THE COLEECTED WORKS OP MAHATMA OANDHl 

The craving for a male offspring needs to be given up. It 
cannot be said that this desire is always noble. Amongst a people 
where the birth and death ratio is regijlarly balanced it is noble to 
restrain rather than indulge the desire for a son. In India today 
because we are slaves, everyone is in a state of fear, and because 
we have lost the capacity to protect ourselves, our relatives as well 
as om property, I regard it as a sin to beget children. 

Now about the desire to be nursed. What a misconceived idea 
that only one’s own people can render this help. I regard it as the 
limit of audacity to grab an innocent girl by bribing or luring her 
father and then regarding her as one’s own. Instead of callup 
that girl one’s own, it would be nearer the truth to say that a 
slave girl has been bought’. As for service one can still get good 
loyal servants if one is prepared to pay well. I wish to leave aside 
now the other atrocious ideas in the letter. If he happens to read 
thia article, I humbly request him to calmly reflect on it and save 
himself from the misadventure on which he is about to embark. 

[From Gujarati] 

Naoajivtai, 26-2-1928 


58. STUDENTS' NOBLE SATYAGRAHA'^ 

In referring to the univrasality of satyagraha I have tirne and 
again observed in these columns that it is capable of application 
in die social no less than in the political field. It may equally be 
employed against Government, society, or one’s own family, father, 
mother, husband or wife, as the case may be. For it is the beauty 
of this spiritual weapon that, when it is completely free from the 
taint cSlamsa and its use is actuated purely and solely by love^ it may 
be Tised with absolute impunity in any connection and in ^y 
circumstances whatever. A concrete instance of its use against 
a social evil was furnished by the brave and spirited students of 
Dharmaj (in Eheda District) a few days back. The facts as glean- 
ed from the various communications about the incident received 
by me were as follows: 

A gentleman of Dharmaj, some days back, gave a caste din- 
ner in connection with the twelfihrday ceremony of the death of his 
mother. It was preceded by a keen controversy about the sub- 
ject among the young men of the place .who shared with a number 

^The Gujarati original^ of which this is a translarion, was published in 
NaDqjioofu 26 - 2 - 1928 . 


\iiHfl sVIVAt*K\UA 


lit titlirt Ilf thu 4 tliry 

|r|| llial, **11 llm ViilirlltttljUl lir tbiti*'. A* * ‘’hIiikIv, 

IU««'t 1*1 Vhriti ^aiir t«t lltirr Vi»WA: 

{, \iif U* fh>'M iM»i« ihf iliittur 1*1 **tltriU't\r 4tf 

tlir >ri%rtt f*it lil.lf 

*J, |ii *4*v‘i\r l.nl *>11 ihr *l.i\ III itir as .tti riupli.ilu |iUi- 

frul llii4 {ii.uKti* , 

Ill tirjf |i.«t|ri|||v .liltl i ltrrilitliv .llt\ ll.liOt (MMIiIIv III lit.ll 
lumhl 1*^ .11 * #*i*l**«! i*« ifirin h% iIm'Ii rMrM |»n lakiiijL^ ili'jii 

ill <' •*! lh»% »}r« tvMifi, ijmlr a lUIMlln'l i*l 'll*- 

ilriib, liu Itiflitti^ viitir iUlUisrn «i| triiilrf .l^r, *.i|i ihr il.t* till 

\lllitii llir littiliri 1 % .o ;ilul l**ifk ll|Mt|l lh«"ll4V'lvr4 llli’' Ul.tlll 

t»i liini w»'>c,tilrit rhf<’ti. \mi lltr «lr{t lirr liiitU tli** ul 

r% |fi ihr %tiit|rttl%, I |i»* V|i|rf^* 

ffMiril III ihi' .kllMii.iiurA Ilf llirii iifiVt .Hill r%^il In uiltull*l\V 

•lltV t.ti .tut IImI iltrv %%rir |*U itlv* In l>9l ,tl iit'tilMliiniii, litll the* 

iIihh! lifitt. A' ifi^itv .it fun litimlrril .tiul rti{li(v Itvr 
tllUi rrliiv^it lu l,»kr p.irl lit flir i A\tr ilitiiiri .iiii! nf llirfil 

f^'lrit, 

I irifitn m \' t Im ttir%r tmv^ aiitl t«n|ir lliat rvriv« 

wlirfi* %%lH l.ikr' .1 junumiriif |Mrl ill rllri *in*:ial srItiriUf 

TUr\ ItoM III llirii |*n« krl, as if \vrtr, ihr kry In t.it irfuliu 

aiitl iIk |H«tiriU<itt t*f iltrtr fitnl a% lltrv lt.4%*r tit llirir {Hf*** 

ikrumit iiir krv f«* Mvata} ftititt|{li ihry Mtay nut iir .iwarr mI' il nHtitft 
111 iltrtr iirKlittriiir *«r t.trrlrmirM« Hill I iici|ir citril ftir riHit1l|tlf* 
irt liv iU^ tiiitiritit <4* IMiatittA} will Awakrii lltrm Itt n «rit«r ttf flirtr 
IMitvri. In tiiv iltr Uitr tktuttJka of tltr ttrrra4w:*tl l^tty %ytts 

|irrr*niiKt! Iiv ilirtr ittrit faftiiiK tni ilut titty, wlillr liiiiMr 

\%ltn titr tittkitrt %vaiilril KiNait mr»fl<ry Urt tt Itatl rttamtitt* 
lit lltr Ilir lit It, iitiiitiril rU«i iiitKitI ft« unr iltnr (itut-nivrii 

wraiili fnf ‘Hiry ttittnltl uMtlrniittiitt llml 

llir |ti«iir I attiiiil ititntti In ifUr r^ilr iliittirni titi wrcMiitK nr tin ftiMr- 
rill irtriinmim, "lltrir IfittI itrarlirr* luvr |ir«tvrtl It* Ir llir 
ttitit tif tii4tiy II fitMtr niitn. If lltr tttiiitry (htt€ in |}ii4r« 

Itiaj ml lltr r^tlr tlUitirr ItAt) lirrit iiurct fur itrl|iitiK {nttir ultulrtili, 
tir fttnir wtiitiVk**, ur f«ir ktiAtli nr fitw*pr0imHiti i>r llir Ainrliiirnliuii 
tif llir tttiifiiirh4htf% it wrntUI Imvr htimr Irtiil itnil ttrnu|{lil prnce 
In ihr clriMfirtl tnitl. But, 4i It the iHftnrr hit* itlrriifly tirrn 
fiirfiiitirii, il iMt |*rofiirri ttoliiKiy nfiH it hiii ntittrci imiti to the 
iliHlniiii And lltr triiiililr •rrtkin cd* ihr Dluirtimj iHtblic. 

txi iin imr tm4vntir ihiil the Mtyiiiinihfi hiii ipitir in vnin 
IrcAtitr if dill ii«*i ttHrrrft in prrveniiiiK ihr dinner in qtirniioii 
fniin lakiiiK plarr. Utr ttudriiii themitfim knew Uiitl Utrre wm 



56 THE aOUBQTBO WOKKS 07 MAHATICA. GANDHI 

little possibility of their satyagraha producing any immediate 
tangible result. But we may safely take it that, if they do not let 
their vigilance go to sleep, no shetMa^ will again dare to give a 
post-mortem dinner. A chronic and long-standing social evil can- 
not be swept away at a stroke; it always requires patience and perse- 
verance. 

When wiU the ‘elders’ of our society learn to recognize the 
signs of the times? How long will they be slaves to custom instead 
of using it as a means for the amelioration of society and the coun- 
try? How long will they keep their children divorced from a practi- 
cslI application of the Imowledge which they are helping them to 
acquire? When will they rescue their sense of right and wrong 
from its present state of trance and wake up and be mahajanfi in the 
true sense of the word? 

Toung India, 1-3-1928 


59. LETTER TO WILFRED WEDLOCK 

Satyagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Febnuay 26, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I am sending you an autographed volume of the so-called 
autobiography. You wiU be interested to know that all the boimd 
volumes are bound in khaddar and every rupee invested in khad- 
dar means at least twelve annas into the pockets directly of the 
poorest people. 

Tours sinetrefy, 

Wilfred Wellook, Esq. 

. ViGTORiA Avenue, Quinton 
Birmingham 

From a photostat: S.N. 14250 


^ Rich man 
* Leaders 



60. LETTER TO V. S. SRINIVASA SASTRI 


Satvaoraka. Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Febrmiy 26, 1928 

MY DEAR BROTHER, 

I have been duly receiving tlie duplicates of your semi-ofEcial 
notes for Sir Habibullah. Manilal and others too keep me informed 
of your movements. Already urgent letters are being received to 
implore you not to leave South Africa at the end of your year. 
They say you arc already counting your months. And they are 
trembling in their shoes, and more than them am I trembling, and 
perhaps, my tremble is weightier because of the absence of ^oes. 
For I really feel that except for grave reasons of health it would be 
a national tragedy for you to leave South Afiica at the present 
moment. And I am sorry to have to say — ^but it is true — that no 
one else can successfully replace you at the present moment. The 
familiarity that your stay in South Africa might have produced has 
certainly not bred contempt; on die contrary, it has gained greater 
respect for you from those whose respect counts for the work. And 
just as you have gained influence amongst the Europeans, you have 
gained staunch adherents amongst our own countrymen. You 
may not desert them. Do please therefore let me have a reassur- 
ing letter. Of course I don’t know what the Government may want 
you to do. Verb. sap. 

Widi love. 

Tows sinctnlj), 
M. K. Gandhi 

[PS.] 

If you were here, you would not appreciate our politics just 
now. 

M. K. G. 

From a photostat: O. N. 8814; also S.N. 11963 



6L LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU 

Satyagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmaoi, 
Februaiy 26, 1928 

MY DEAR JAWAHAR, 

I have your letters. I am sensing all that is going on in Delhi 
and can understand every word of what you have said in your 
letter. I can’t give you ein adequate conception of my grief as I 
follow the Gonference proceedings from day to day and read bet- 
ween the lines. Father’s Oliuninating letter only confirmed my own 
reading from a distance. Then came Rripalani’s letter yesterday 
to Elrishnadas, and yours has come today to put the finishing touch.^ 
What a miserable show we are putting up against the insolence 
of Lord Birkenhead and the crookedness of the Commissioners? 
I had not expected much from Sir John Simon, but I was not at 
all prepared for his resorting to all the known tricks of bureau- 
cracy, and this the latest trade on imtouchables adds to the 
ugliness of the whole picture. However, we have to be patient. 
You must therefore patiently go through the agony and mend 
where you can. 

Do come as early as possible. I hope Kamala is keeping up 
her strength, if not actually adding to it. I wonder if Father has 
told you that, before you came, when Father was with me in Banga- 
lore, he and I had contemplated your stay in Bangalore because 
of its magnificent climate during summer. There are just four weeks 
of somewhat trying weather, but you could always go to Nandi 
Hill only 35 miles from Bandore where you have delightfully cool 
weather. In no case should Kamala be allowed to lose what she 
gained in Switzerland. 

Tours sineerely, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13079 

^ In his letter, dated Allahabad, February 23, Jawaharlal Nehru had 
written: “I wrote to you a few hours ago and informed you that I hoped 
to be in Sabarmati on Monday or Tuesday night. Immediately after I received 
a summons from Delhi to go there and remain there for the next fortnight or 
more to assist in constitution drafting. . . . Personally I have enough of 
All-Parties Clonfetence. After ten days of it, the strain was too great for me and 
I fled to avoid riot and insurrection I I feel better already after a three^ay 
absence, but another dose of all the parties may go to my head. I am thus 



62. LETTER TO MANILAL AND SUSHILA GANDHI 


February 26, 1928 

QHI. tlANIIAL AND SUSHILA, 

I got your letters. I also got the cable, to which I have already 
replied. If I were seriously ill, I would certainly liave had a cable 
sent to you. Others, too, would liave cabled, but do you think a 
man who was so seriously ill would wait till the steamer had arrived? 
Even in case of such illness, therefore, it would be best for you to 
suppress the desire to abandon your work and run back home. 

Ramdas and Nirmala have gone to Rajkot, and from there 
they will go to Amreli. They have decided, both of them, to take 
up some work connected with my activities and devote themselves 
wholly to it. Tlic place of work too will be decided before the 16 th 
of March. 

Devdas is still here. He is keeping well. Brian Gabriel left for 
Bombay today edler staying here for three days. This letter will 
be carried by the same ship by which he sails. 

I wish to see Sushila restored to perfect health. Which book 
in English is she studying? Send me a sample of her handwriting. 

Tell Mr. Kallenbach that I am waiting for him to come. 

Blessings fim 

Bapu 

From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.N. 4734 


not at all desirous of attending the meetings in Ddhi. But I do not know what 
might happen. I shall wire to you ftom Delhi” (S.N. 13079). 



63. LETTER TO TULSI MAHER 


Phdgun Shukla 6 [Februaiy 26, 1928}^ 

am. TULSI MAHBR, 

Your letter. Illness is such a thing that most often one never 
knows whence and how it comes. Do not be sorry on this account, 
but make furtlier introspection and be thankful to God even for 
the illness. Try to remove your own shortcomings if you notice 
any. Keep writing to me. If necessary, do take milk. 

Blessings from 
Bapu 


Skri TUI.SI Mahbr 
Gha-rkha Praoharak 
Shri Tulsi' Bhadurji 
Via ViRGUNj 
Razaul, Bihar 

From a photostat of the Hindi: O.N. 6533 


64. LETTER TO L. W. RITCH 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Fehruary 27, 1928 


MY DEAR RTTOH, 

I was glad to receive your long lettCT diough a bushicss letter. 
Unlike you, I am going to commence with domestic business. I was 
distressed to hear from Miss Knudsen, who by the way is staying 
with me at the present moment, that you had lost one of your legs. 
But she was unable to give me the reason for it. You shall give 
it. And how is Mrs. Ritch doing? And what about Erick and 
Harold? The daughters’ names I forget I hope they won’t accuse 
me of want of chivalry. What are they all doing? For me, I am 
dictating from a sick-bed, not that I feel anything particular 
within me, but doctors have warned me against exerting myself 
either physically or mentally for some time yet. Mrs. Gandhi is 
keeping quite well. Harilal has practically forsaken me. He 

1 From the postmark 



LEirrER TO L. W. RlTODH 


61 


driaks, eats and makes himself merry. But he is a brave boy in 
one sense that he makes no secret of his vice and his rebellion is 
an open rebellion. If he had not done his creditors down, I would 
not have minded his other lapses as I mind this betrayal of lus 
creditors. ManUal you know is in Phoenix and Ramdas and Dev- 
das are assisting me in my work. Polak is in India just now, travel- 
ling about his business. I met him for a few minutes in Madras 
and he is likely to call at the Ashram before he re-embarks for 
London. Andrews is a frequent visitor to the Ashram and he is due 
here about the third of March. This Ashram is a big, gi'owing 
affair. We are at the present moment supporting a population of 
about two hundred, quite a little village by ourselves. And not 
only do we go through all the processes of cotton till it comes out 
as dotli, we are conducting a little dairy, a little tannery and we are 
having a little bit of farming. We have some fruit-trees and we 
grow our own vegetables. We grow some grains and enough fod- 
der for cattle. We have as a rule one or two Europeans with us 
and there is a constant stream of such visitors. Life is very simple, 
and yet not simple enough for the Indian setting. You can’t have 
any notion from that distance of the grinding poverty of the masses. 
And if we could only sustain ourselves well enough for our work 
in less, I would straightway reduce our expenses which amount to 
a pound per month on an average including clothing but exclud- 
ing rental. Of course we are paying no rent. We have nearly 75 
boys and girls for whom we are conducting what I may call a model 
school making tuitional experiments. 

Now for business. My own opinion is that neither Andrews nor 
Sastri could have got more than they have. I quite agree wth you 
that these Union Ministers will be driven to getting out of the 
bargain. But if Sastri is permitted to remain in South Africa for 
any length of time, I am inclined to think that his correct, that is, 
his righteous, diplomacy will triumph over the crooked diplo- ' 
macy of South Africa. If we are to achieve tlxc full result of the 
struggle of 1906 to 1914, we must act on the square and cleanse 
our stables, and I feel sure that if those who have entered surrepti- 
tiously will cease to be greedy, will make a clear confession and 
truthfully, not encourage any single fraudulent entrant in future, the 
position can be saved and the condition of the resident population 
steadily improved. If, however, the desire is not only to cover sur- 
reptitious entries already accomplished, but to leave the door open 
for more, I think that the community will be unable to remain in 
South Africa with any degree of self-respect It will hold on some- 
how or other I have no doubt, it will be difficult to wipe out such 



62 THE aOLLEOTED WORKS OF liABAtUA GANDHI 

a large and resourceful couuHunity, but it would be a sordid exis- 
tence; whereas I would like the Indians of Soutli Africa to play 
an honourable part not merely for the upbuilding of South Afiica 
but for the upbuilding of India itself. If we play tlie game in 
South Afiica, it is possible in course of time to secure full rights 
of citizenship. You may share this letter with any friend you like. 
With regards to you aH, 

Tours sineerdy, 

M, K. Gandhi 

From a photostat; S.N. 11965 


65. LETTER TO K. BALASUBRAMANIAM 

The Ashran^ 
Sabarhati, 
Februa^ 27y 1928 

dear friend, 

I have your letter. The more I think of it tlie more confirmed 
I become tliat boycott of Britidi goods is a useless cry. I have not 
contemplated boycott of India’s mills. All I have said about them 
is that they do not need any advertisement as khadi does, even 
as an old established trade needs no advertisement whereas a new 
one does. 

Tours sineer^, 

SjT. K. Balasubramaniah 
6 Lakshmi Vilas 
Mambalam (Near Madras) 

From a photostat; S.N. 13088 



66. LETTER TO K. NARASIMHA ITENGAR 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
Febnuay 27 [1928^ 

DEAR FRIEI«D, 

With reference to your letter of the 18th ultimo, I am askiug 
the manager to exchange [with] you Tom^ India. I have not seen 
the Supplement which you say you have sent. 

My message to you is that an Indian journal outside India 
has a need for double caution. I hope that your journal instead 
of pandering to the evil tastes of the people wherever tliey exist 
will stand out boldly for social and moral reforms and show the 
emigrants that it is their duty to represent the best of Indian cul- 
ture in tlie land to which they may migrate and to keep up the 
bond between themselves and the motherland by adopting 
khaddar at least. 

Toms sinttrdy, 

SjT. K. Narasimha Iyengar 
Manaoino Editor, 

“The Tamil Nbsan” 

212 Batu Road, Kuala Lumpur 
(F. N. U.) 

From a photostat: S.N. 14-251 


67. LETTER TO PRAGJI K. DESAI 

Februay 27, 1928 

QHI. PRAGJI, 

I have your letter. It is a pretty difficult problem in which 
you have been caught up. All the difficulties will be solved if you 
have patience and scrupulous regard for truth. Do not, for the 
sake 9 f immediate gain, lend your name to falsehood. I have con- 
veyed my views to Mr. Ritch.* I had a long letter from him, which 
1 have read with care. I do believe that we can still save the situa- 
tion, if only people will stop the practice of bringing in unautho- 

* The letter under reply was dated January 18, 1928. 
a ride “Letter to L. W. Riteh”, 27-2-1928. 



64 the OOLLBOtfiD WORKS OB litAfiATUA OARDBI 

lized persons. Try to keep Sastriji for another year. I will also 
try from this end. How is Medh faring? What do you think now 
will be the result of your case ? 

My health is good; there is no cause at all for worry. Try to 
suppress your desire to return to Bardoli. 

Blessings from 

Bapu 

From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.N. 5031 


63. LETTER TO RAMNARATAN CHOUDHRI 

February 27, 1928 

BHAJ RAMNARAYAN, 

Your letter to hand. I had no idea of what was being 
written about me in Shraddhanaad. I glance at one or two news- 
papers for a few minutes only. I do not want that anyone should 
defend me. Moreover, it hurts me that someone should be at- 
tacked on my account. You can use this letter as you like. 1 am 
writing to Pratap.^ 

Yours, 

Mohandas 

[From Hindi] 

Bapu: M(une Kya Dekka Kya Somajhe?, p. 161 


69. LETTER TO REVASHANKER JHAVERI 

Satyaqraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
[Before February 29, 1928']} 

RESPBOTED REVASKANEERBHAI, 

1 have your letter. 

You did well in sending a telegram to Dr. Muthu. I have had 
good experience of him. He has a great reputation. Send me a 
telegram when you hear that he is on his way, so that I may write 
to him again. I have in any case to reply to his wire. 

* Pratap, m aa editorial, had “caustically criticized” an article by Vinayak- 
rao Savarkar in Shraddhmmd. Gandhiji’s letter to Pratap, however, is not 
available. 

2 It is clear from the contents that this was written before February 29; 
aide “Letter to Revashanker jhaveri”, 29r2-1928. 


65 


tSTtER to ABBAB tVABJI 

If you find him a fiiendly person, consult him about your 
health too. Swellings indicate weakness of the heart. It is proper 
that you have stopped physical movements. But you need firesh air 
the most. 

Manilal* wants Ghi-. Jeki^ to join him immediately. He seems 
to be doing well in Aden. He has also paid JekL’s fare to Thomas 
Cook. He is suflfering firom hydrocele and wishes to be operated 
upon in Aden, that is why he wants her there. I believe that he 
would have called her even if he had not been suffering from 
the disease. He wants the children, too. Jeki is completely at home 
here. The kids are making great progress in dieir studies. All 
of them keep fit. But 1 feel that, since ManUal wants her, it is 
Jeki’s clear duty to go to Aden. She, too, is ready to go. Let me 
know your opinion about this, so that I may act accordingly. 

I am keeping well. 

. Rtspectful greetings from 
Mohandas 

From a photostat of the Gajarati: G.N. 1273 


70. LETTER TO ABBAS TTABJI 

Satvagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
FAruary 29, 1928 

MV DEAR BHRRR^, 

You arc a good young man of twenty-five to brave the Govern- 
ment and the heat of Bardoli. No defeat if you please. 

Tours^ 

Bhrrr 

From a photostat; S.N- 9562 


1 Maniial Doctor, husband of Jayakunwar 

2 Jayakunwar, daughter of Dr, Praojivan Mehta 

3 This was a manner of greeting between Gbrndhiji and the addressee. 


XXXYI-5 



71. LETTER TO DUNICHAJfD 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
February 29, 1928 

DEAR lALA DUNIOHAKD, 

I have your letter delivered through Lala Suraj Bhanu. I 
have put him on work which he had least expected and told him 
that he is not likely to take to die Adiram life unless he became 
a labourer pure and simple. But he seems to have taken to it very 
gracefully and pleasantly. 

Now about your donation. I did not know that you were 
a pucka bania by choice. But you litde knew that you were deal- 
ing with a still more pucka bania voluntarily acting as the agent 
of Daridranarqyana. You say that you had announced a donation 
to the Ashram of Rs. 500 on the marriage of your son and you pro- 
pose, to use the language of law, wrongfully to divert part of the 
funds to the payment of a debt voluntarily incurred by you with 
Sjt. Manilal Kothari. How can a donation be utilized for dis- 
charge of a debt whether morrd or legal? And what connection 
can your promise to pay the AU-lndia Spinners’ Association have 
with the Ashram which represents multr^ous activities — ^tanning, 
dairying, farming, experiments in hygiene, cotton-growing, ginning, 
caring, spinning, weaving, dyeing, printing, carpentry, smithy, 
conducting educational experiments, looking after widows, taking 
care of so-called untouchables, etc.? And why such a donation, not 
paid on the date on which it was announced, should not carry 
double interest in the hands of the donor who from date of an- 
nouncement becomes a trustee? You will please deal with these 
conundrums before 1 can deal with your cheque finally. And I 
would ask you in deciding this question to consult bhrs. Dunichand, 
who, when I had the pleasure of being under your roof, was found 
to be less bania-like than you have proved to be. 

Tours sineereb>, 

LAIA. DUKIGHAim 
Advooate 
EIbiradivas 
Ambala City 


From a photostat; S.N. 13080 



72. LETTER TO B. RAJARAM PANDW^ 

Thb Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Fehnuuy 29, 1928 

DEAR ERIEND, 

I have youF letter. If you have the courage of your convictious, 
then of course you will not send the two boys to the school and 
make either private arrangements for them or send them to a 
national school. I must at the same time say that I do not like 
the tone of the letter you adopted, and it would have been far more 
dignified if you had frankly told the head master that you did not 
send your boys because of the national declaration of boycotL 
The boys would have been sent out of the school, it is true; but it 
would have been a courted and, therefore, dignified dismissal. 

Tows sincmly, 

SjT. B. Rajaram Pandian 
Bhaskara Vilas Palace 
Ramnao 

From a photostat: S.N. 13090 


73. LETTER TO MOTILAL JfEHRU 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
February 29, 1928 

DEAR MOTTLALJE, 

Jawahar had prepared me for your letter.* I am sorry that 
our meeting is delayed. But I am glad that you are staying 
there if per chance some tangible result may be achieved. What 
a sorry exhibition we are making of ourselves in the face of this 
organized insult to a whole people. But I suppose we have to make 
the best of a very bad job. I do hope &at the Committee of 

* In bis letter of February 24, Motilal Ndiru bad written: . I am 

sorry it will not be possible for me and Jawahar to leave for Sabarmati on the 
26tlL The very day that I wrote to you giving the points of agreement and 
disagreement between the various parties, Mr. Jinnab announced that it was 



68 THE COLLBQTED WORKS OR MAHAim 

twenty is being fufly attended. We are engaged in an unequal 
duel; on the one hand are clever whole-timers acting with one 
mind and with the greatest deliberation; on the other we are part- 
timers having many irons in the jfire and having almost as many 
noinds as our numbers. My hope however is in the justness of our 
cause. 

I hope your eyes are not causing you much trouble. 

Yours sincerely f 

From a photostat: S.N. 13083 


74. LETTER TO PADMARAJ JAIN 

The Asedkam, 
Sabarmati, 
February 29, 1928 

DEAR PADMARAJ BABU, 

I have your letter. My views have been frequently and un- 
equivocally expressed in the pages of Toung India. I have no notion 
of what is being done there at the present moment. But I suggest 
your seeking advice from Pandit M^viyaji who knows more of the 
inwardness of the present movement than I do lying on a sick- 
bed. As you will notice, therefore, I am simply satisf^g myself with 


wrong to say that anything had been agreed upon by the Muslim League which 
had not yet formally appointed its representatives to the Conference. He added 
that he was no doubt personally of the opinions he had expressed, but he 
felt that, in the absence of dejSnite authority from his League, he was not com- 
petent even to bind himself with those opinions. Ihus it was that the long 
sittings and elaborate discussions occupying ten days came practically to nothing. 
It was also found that the attendance at the Conference was thinning away from 
day to day until it came down to 14 on the 2l8t. The Executive of the Muslim 
League b meeting on the 26th and Mr. Jinnah has promised to do his best to 
bring them round to his point of view. In dl these circumstances, I thought 
it was futile to go on with the Conference and suggested that a sub-committec 
be appointed to go into the whole question and mnJke its report as soon as 
possible to an adjourned sitting of the Goirferencc. This was agreed to and the 
Conference was adjourned to the 8th March, a comnuttcc of 20 being ap- 
pointed to enter upon their work at once. We have a large field to cover, but 
will either be able to get on better after the 26tb or give up the attempt. I 
feel that my presence here is necessary till either of the two contingencies I have 
mentioned happens. ... I shall write or wire as soon as I am free.’* 



LETTER TO DEVOJIAND PAJREEH 69 

an expression of my general views on swade^, boycott, and the 
like. 

Tours smeorub>f 

SjT. Paduaraj Jain 
Bengal PROvrNOiAL Hindu Sabha 
160 Harrison Road 
Galoutta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13089 


75. LETTER TO DEVCHAND PAREKH 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 

Wednesday \FebTmry 29, 192 

BHAISHRI DBVQRANDBHAI, 

I have your letter. A chemist told me that if oil is frozen, 
the acid in it separates out and only the fat remains. 

There was indeed good news concerning Morvi. If Reva- 
^nkerbhai agrees, we can make him the president. If he falls ill, 
we can then elect someone else. I find this the best solution. 

Since Fulchand and the others have gone to Bardoli, who is 
helping you now? What have you done about the Antyaja School 
at Morvi? I also want you to do something for implementing the 
resolutions of the Pori^d^. I do not know the English word for 
ehUgoztP. If I get some, I will send you a little as sample. I’ll also 
try to find out its English name. 

Vmidemtamm from 
Babu 

From a photostat of the Cxiyarati; G.N- 5695 


t From the postmark 
2 Kathiawar Political Qonferesce 
® Pine seed 



76, LETTER TO REVASHAJfKER JHAVERI 


Wednesday, February 29, 1928 

RXSPEOTED REVASHANKEBBHAI, 

I got your letter, as also your wire. On getting the wire, I 
wrote a letter to Dr. Muthu only yesterday, addressed G/o you. 
You must have passed it on to him. If you have not sent a tele- 
gram or have not been able to write a letter even today, inti- 
mating the result of his examination, inform me by wire. I have 
also written to Dr. Muthu requesting him to write to me in detail. 

Ghi. Jeki is not at all keen on going to Aden. She is ready to 
do what we advise her to do. But we must consider what our 
duty is in regard to her. Is it right fijr us to keep Jeki with us 
against Manilal’s wishes? What would the doctor* wish in these 
circumstances? If I were firee to decide myself, I would certamly 
support Jeki in her desire not to go. But I feel that the doctor 
would not wish that, nor perhaps would you. I cannot bear to see 
the miserable condition of women. I would, if I could, save every 
woman from the burden which her husband in his sensuality puts 
upon her. However, if God let things happen according to our 
wishes, the world would certainly turn upside down; we should, 
therefore, do whatever we can while keeping ourselves detached. 

Respect greetings fiam 
MOHAiqUAS 

From a photostat of the Giuarati: G.N. 1274 


77. FOREIGN PROPAGANDA^ 

I have no desire to start any hot controversy over the question 
of foreign propaganda, but I publish the foregoing as it summarizes 
the views of many workers who hold them in no sense weakly be- 
cause they do not e3q)ress them in public. If the pure Non-co- 
operation of 1920 is not witnessed on an extensive scale at the pres- 
ent moment, it is most decidedly going deeper with some and 
everything that is happening today in the land goes to strengthen 
their belief. But they cannot make themselves felt by being vocal 

*Dr. Franjivan Mdita 

* For G. Rajagopalacbari’s articl^bearing this title, vide Appendix I. 



OHAOS - 0 , MISRULE 


71 


in season and out of season. On the contrary, they feel that they 
serve the cause of swaraj better by observing silence where they 
cannot serve by speech and helping humbly and actively where- 
ver they can. 

Tomg India, 1-3-1928 


78. CHAOS V. MISRULE 
An esteemed fnend writes:* 

It is not often that I intrude upon your expressions of political 
opinion. But a sentence of yours in a recent editorial, repeating a heresy 
uttered by you long ago, compels me to ask you whether you have measured 
your words with the care that one expects of an expoimder of moral issues. 
You declare that you would accept chaos in exchange for freedom from 
the English yoke. That an Indian should desire and work for freedom 
from any foreign yoke is perfectly natural, normal and healthy. Ihat 
anyone in his senses should exchange any kind of orderly government 
for chaos is simply incomprehensible, for the one implies some sort of dis- 
cipline, whether imposed or stimulated, whereas the latter is the very 
negation of self-discipline. . . . ■ 

If non-violence be, as you claim it to be, creative, purposeful, and 
divine in its nature, then chaos cannot be its consequence or characteris- 
tic. If you have used the term with ddiberadon, then I should comment 
that you have rendered no service to mankind, who need rather a reminder 
that they should acquire the cosmic vision rather than the diaotic one 
to which they arc already prone. . . . 

There is no mistaking the earnestness nmning through the 
letter. And I have so much regard for the friend’s views, tibat if 
I could have suited mine to his, I would gladly have done so. 

But I must say that my choice was deliberate. Chaos means 
no rule, no order. Rule or order can come, does come out of no 
rule or no order, but never directly out of misrule or disorder mas- 
querading under the sacred name of rule or order. My friend’s 
diifrculty arises, I presume, out of his assumption that the present 
Government of India represents “some sort of discipline whether 
imposed or stimulated’’. It is likely that our estimates of the exist- 
ing system difiEer. My own estimate of it is that it is an unmiti- 
gated evU. No good therefore can come out of this evit I hold 
misrule to be worse than no rule. 


* Only extracts are rqpioduced here, 



72 TBB GOIXEdTED WOEUCS OF UAHATUA. OAin>HI 

Nor need my words cause any confusion in the minda of the 
ignorant or the violent. For I admit my correspondent’s conten- 
tion that chaos can be the result only of violence. Have I not often 
said in these pages that if I were compelled to choose between 
this rule and violence I would give my vote for the latter though 
I will not, I could not, assist a fight based on violence? It would be 
a matter for me of Hobson’s choice. The seeming quiescence of 
today is a dangerous form of violence kept under suppression by 
greater violence or rather readiness for it. Is it not better that 
those who, out of a cowardly fear of death or dispossession, whilst 
harbouring violence refiain fivm it, should do it and win &ee- 
dom fimm bondage or die gloriously in the attempt to vindicate 
their birthright? 

My non-violence is not an academic principle to be enunciated 
on favourable occasions. It is a principle which I am seeking to 
enforce every moment of my life in every field of activity. In my 
attempt, often fhistrated through my own weEikness or ignorance, 
to enforce non-violence, I am driven for the sake of the creed it- 
self to countenance violence by way of giving mental approval to 
it In 1921 I told the villagers near Bettiah^ that they had acted 
like cowards in that they had instead of resisting the evil-minded 
Amlas left their wives and homes -on their approach. On another 
occasion I expressed myself ashamed of a priest who said he had 
quietly slipped away and saved himself when a ruffian band had 
entered his temple to loot it and break the idol. I told him that 
if he could not die at his post defending his charge non-violently, 
he should have defended it by offering violent resistance. S imi larly 
do I hold that, if India has no faith in non-violence, nor patience 
for it to work its way, then it is better for her to attain her freedom 
fix)m the present misrule even by violence than that she should help- 
lessly submit to a continuing rape of her belongings and her honour. 

Look at the shameless manner in which, for sustaining the 
spol^tion of India, British statesmen (?) are setting one party 
against another. They have suddenly discovered the untouch- 
ables, for they seem to fear that the Hmdu-Muslim dissensions alone 
might not prove enough security for retaining possession of the 
‘most glorious diadem in the British Grown’. They are trying to 
set the helpless princes against the people. Sir John Simon , finds 
it necessary to play Ihe same game. The penetrating intellect he 
is said to possess does not penetrate the very thin veil that covers 
the firauds that are set up for his edification and he finds nothing 

‘ Vidt Vol. XIX, pp. 89-90. 



TOLSTOY QENTENAB.Y 


73 


seriously amiss in the Indian atmosphere. This sort of ‘orderly 
discipline’ has unmanned and unnerved the people as nothing in 
their previous history has ever done. 

' My own position and belief are clear and unequivocal. I 
neither want the existiag rule nor chaos. I want true order esta- 
blished without having to go through the travail of chaos. I want 
this disorder to be destroyed by non-violence, i.e., I want to convert 
the evil-doers. My life is dedicated to that task. And what I have 
written in the previous paragraphs directly flows from my know- 
ledge of the working of non-violence which is the greatest force 
known to mankind. My belief in its efficacy is unshakable, so is 
my belief unshakable in the power of India to gain her freedom 
through non-violent means and no other. But th^ power of hers 
cannot be evoked by suppressing trutli or facts however ugly they 
may for the moment appear to be. God forbid that India should 
have to engage in a sanguinary duel before she learns the lesson 
of non-violence in its fullness. But if tliat intermediate stage, often 
found to be necessary, is to be her lot, it will have to be faced as 
a stage inevitable in her march towards freedom and certainly 
preferable to the existing order which is only so-called but wliich 
is like a whited sepulchre hiding undiluted violence underneath. 

Toting India, 1-3-1928 


79. TOLSTOT CENTENART , 

Mr. Aylmer Maude than whom there is no better English 
authority on Tolstoyan literature wiites: 

Knowing your iiitctxat in Toktoy, I am sending you copy oT a cir- 
cular just issued to mcmbeis of the Tolstoy Society, as well as copy of a 
letter by Bernard Sbaw. 

We arc anxious that this Centenary Edition should lind a place in 
public libraries and also that its publication should enable us to give 
assistance to members of Tolstoy's family, who are in distress since the 
Russian Revolution. 

Should you have an opiwrtunity of mentioning the Edition to librari- 
ans or members of the committee of any of your Indian libraries, the 
Committee of the Tolstoy Society would feel greatly indebted to you. 

I take the following from the printed notice of the Tolstoy 
Society:* 

* The notice about the publication and price of Tolstoy Centenary Volumes 
is not i^roduced here. 


74 


THE cniXEOTED WORKS OR UAHATICA GANDHI 


The Secretary is Miss L. E. Elliott, Ladywell House, Great 
Baddow, Cbelmsford, Elngland. 

Anyone can become a member of the Tolstoy Society by pay- 
ing at least £ 1-1-0 and an associate by paying a minimum sub- 
scription of 2s. 6d. 

!tbia^ India, 1-3-1928 


THE C0W-PR0TEC770II BIBUOGRAPHT 

The foregoing list* has been prepared by Sjt. V. G, Desai out 
of his extensive study of the literature available on the question of 
cow-protection in terms of the objects of the All-India Cow- 
protecdon Association. It is not suggested that a study of all the 
foregoing literature is necessary for the lover of the cow or even 
that it is all valuable. The list is intended to help the careful stu- 
dent. 

Touifg India, 1-3-1928 


8L KHADI jmiR MEERUT 

Dr. Ray gave me soon after his recent visit to Meerut an ac- 
count of his impressions. I talce the following &om his letter:^ 

... I was taken to a village 20 miles north of the town where the peas- 
ants are comparatively prosperous. ... In almost every house I visited the 
mother, the daughter and sometimes the daugher-in-law were found 
basiking in the sun and spinning 10 to 12 coiint yarns. The coarse cloth 
woven in the village itself is used by the locid people and ready-made 
sliver hawked about. In the fields also side by side with the standing 
crops there are patches of cotton cultivation. The march of ‘civilization* 
has not yet fully overtaken the imfortunate villagers, but they have begun 
to taste of it . . . The Banaras Gandhi Ashram with the help of a local 
band of devoted sacrificing workers is doing its level best but funds and 
proper organization are both badly needed. 

The hum of the wheel need not die either in the Punjab or 
elsewhere in India, if we would be true to our trust. The band of 
workers from the Banaras Ashram who attracted Dr. Ray’s atten- 
tion are working in and near that district to put khadi on a stable 

1 This is not reproduced here, 

2 Only extracts are reproduced here. 



LBTISR to HEMPIIABHA. DAS OtlFTA 


75 


footing. Now that the parent of the Ashram, Acharya Kripa- 
lani, is in the midst of his workers, there should be redoubled zeal 
on their part and greater support and appreciation from the pub- 
lic. 

Toung India, 1-3-1928 


82. LETTER TO HEMPRABHA DAS GUPTA 

Friday [On or after March 2, 1928y 

DEAR SISTER, 

I have your letter. I am happy to learri that there has been 
some improvement in Nikhil’s healdi. Rest and water-treatment 
may bring about a complete cure. 

Study the Ramqyana well. Recite the quatrains and couplets 
over and over again and meditate on them. Keep your mind 
absolutely calm and never give way to depression. This is the 
teaching of the Gita. This is the purpose of Ramanama. Those 
blessed by Grod do not regard sorrow as sorrow. Daily we chant 
here the verse; 

It means that sorrow is not sorrow, happiness is not happiness. 
Sorrow is forgetting Vishnu; happiness is remembering Narayana. 
He who has Narayana in his heart, how can he know sorrow? 

Blessings Jhm 
Baeu 

From a photostat of the Hindi; O.N. 1651 


> From the reference to water-treatment of Nilthll the letter appears to 
have been written after the one to Satis Chandra Das Gupta dated February 
25, the Friday following which was March 2. 



83. LETTER TO MOTJLAL XEHRU 


The Ashraj^ 
Sabarhat. 
March 3, 192< 


DEAR KOTCIALJJt, 

I have your letter. I have discussed it with Jawaharlal, bu 
he suggests, and I agree, that it will be better for me to reduce t( 
writing the views I have expressed to him so that there may b< 
no misunderstanding about the correct interpretation of my views 
and so that he may also know whether he understood me cor- 
rectly. 

Electorate: I am of the same opinion that I expressed 
years ago at Delhi that we should not be party to separate electo- 
rates or to reservation of seats, the latter should be by mutual 
voluntary arrangemeut if such is necessary. But unless the Mus- 
sahnans agree, there is no going back by us on reservation oi 
seats. The Congress is committed to it. I think, therefore, that we 
must simply adhere to the Congress resolution and expect Hindus 
and Mussalmans to carry out that resolution. If the AH-Parties 
Conference cannot discover another method acceptable to all, 
we must simply work out the Congress formula. 

The CoNsnTunoN: Personally I am of opinion that we 
are not ready for drawing up a constitution till we have develop- 
ed sanction for ourselves. Any constitution that we may arrive at 
must be a final thing in the sense that we may improve upon but 
we may not recede ^m it even by an inch. Tbere seems to be no 
atmosphere for arriving at such a constitution. I would personally 
therefore prefer instead of a constitution, a working arrangement 
between ill parties upon which all may be agreed. This would 
be not a constitution but chief heads of it, as for iirstance, the 
Hindu-Muslim arrangement, the fi'anchise, the policy as to the 
Native States. If we are to make this thing popular, I should 
bring in total prohibition, and exclusion of foreign doth as an 
indispensable condition. Of course we should guarantee equd- 
ity of treatment of all religions as also of the so-called tm- 
touchables. I am not exhaustive in the list of things on which 
there should be an agreement, but I have simply given, a few 
things by way of illustration. I think that if we go beyond such 
a general agreement, we would be making a mistake, In any 



77 


TBI.KOKAM TO JAMNAf AL RAJAJ 

cjisc, I do hope that the (iiufiTfiue will uul Iwak up without 
doing nnythiiig, and even if it does, tlte Working (toitiiuillet* 
should take tiie nutter in its owtt hattds aut! issue its «m«i 
authoritative stattnneiu oil hehalf of the (!oiigre.ss on all the 
matters for wltieh the tJonfereitee has laieit iitiivened. 

SANcrriUN: More iinportaat than the two linegtiiug iiiiugs, 
in my opinion, is the .sanetion. Unless we have er«*atrd some lou e 
Qurselves, we shall not aitvance heyoiul the postlioit of Ueggars, 
and I have given all my time to ihiukiug over this tme question, 
and 1 can think of luilhitig else hut hoyeou of iiireigii eloih with 
the asslstauct^ of mills if possihli*, without if lu't'essai y. t hold it to 
;)C perfeetly capable ttf alt.iiiiuieiit within a ute.tsitr.tbk; distame 
if time if we can create sullieienf puliiie ttpitiiou in its linour. I 
/irould have exeiusive coneeiiiralioii upon this thing if 1 had luy 
Aray. Though i have said itothhig in public, ! dt* not at all like 
Arhat is going on in HtaigaL ,So far as t I'ait .see, it is doomed to 
ailurc! and 1 can see much harm ouiiiiig iuit of that failure; ami 
mlikc boycott of foreign cloth, it is valueless, unless it suct'eetls 
.0 the extent we want. Javvahai'lal ami i have given most of 
mr time to a consideration of thi.s question. Amt he will ex. 
)lain it all to ytni. As .soon as In* can be dispensed with, 1 wonltl 
ike you to send him back lor fuiTlier discussion of this problem if 
VC do not littish iKdtire he leaves tin' Delhi. 

I sec that I am not to expect yon here in the near future. 

Itwrii o«rw#(r« 

From a mierotitiii: K.N. llOUft 


-7, riiUiOHAAt TO pmXiUL HAjfAJI 


SA»AHMATt, 

Aliitth tKUt 

AMNAtAL BaJAJ 

Varuha 

[AY OO »K1.|« tK NUaeWAMV. tIXAt.ril HXCf'l.t.KKT, 

lEOAN TAKINtl Mtt.K l-KOM VKSTEMIIAV HiH MOMAI. 

[BASONS. 

llArtj 

[From Gujnr.iti] 

Pmehma PtOrtm Bapim Aihitvad, |i. 5!» 


85. HAWKIJ^ KHADI IN GUJARAT 
Shri Vithaldas Jerajani writes to say:* 

It was necessary ta undertake such work in Gujarat. Now 
that it has begun, it will help in creating a khadi atmosphere if it 
gains a foothold. I take it for granted that help from local work- 
os will be available everywhere in Gujarat. 
pProm Gujarati] 

Naoajivan, 4-3-1928 


86. CATTLE IN KATHIAWAR 

An expert in cattle breeding writes from Elathiawar to say:^ 

This letter deserves the attention of rulers (of Indian States) 
ind their officers. The several methods of cattle-protection shown 
lere have been discussed in various ways in the letter itself. How- 
ver, I mention them here as they have been stated with reference 
3 the local conditions by a person who has lived in Kathiawar. 
!lie cows and bullocks of Kathiawar were at one time famous, 
t is a matter of shame Sot every State in Kathiawar that today 
ley are being sent to the slaughter-house and that economically 
ley are regarded as a burden. 

This reform requires neither a large sum of money nor any 
reat courage. It is only a matter of giving up let^gy and 
paring a little time from politics. It requires no great effort to 
et scrub bulls castrated or to regulate cattle fodder. The States 
lould train some students by offering them scholarships. In the 
lean while, they should carry on the work with whatever help 
ley can get. 

The heads of pinjrapoles too should take note of the above 
iggestions. Infirm cattle ought to be looked after. However, it 
a thousand times more important to prevent useftil cattle firam 
ring sent to the slaughter-house. 

[From Gujarati] 

Nemajivan, 4-3-1928 

* The letter, which dealt with the door-to-door sale' of khadi in Gujarat, 
not translated here. 

2 The letter is not translated here. 



H7, SATYAaRMhi W HAlilHiU 


mii<‘ tht‘ riMtlcr will Uiiti ilic ititcts iir> 

Cytiv<‘i'Uiiit‘i>t :mu 1 Sliri Vall*ttiiihli;tt. lii a way iltiii 
»«v is a SMii)' fhii|»l<T, Sti lar as { tait tlir lai fj* 
*y Sltri \'alial)ii)«liai vr (hr ai'Kiuth'itts (hal h«' li.is hami 
Ic ‘i'ht* (htvrrainriU's ('t'{>ly is iiiaikrti h^ t iat- 

|titv«*r.a(tr«u auct aintiiiiil.s tu a .siiui), il fiiakrs «iir saU 
lluis inaktts a prrstin utul that hr iti his ai* 

‘S his hinuautty atul ftiii«ri.s hiitisrir, Alfi»*iiKh wr tiiay 
(hoitsarids tti' siirh iitst.uavs itt' hatiiau wraklirss, rarh 
ttitiutl to ratisv |»aiii. This is irraiisr limut^h is luii 
tilt, at In* wants U* tin ih ttrr hr is paiiirtl 

S ijist.SHjrtrsy, rtr., ulhrts. 

*»*»( rutrr ii>t.u tlii' rmm'tia sf. *.»“ nlhriwisi' nl fhr tarls 
ttturitts. 'l‘hr nsaha ((lay larf havr lirliiir him all thr 
*hirh W'unhl ritahlr him l*t « xaitiiitr thr prns ami 
t-'is it, hr may u»rt havr ihr patirm r t<« irail amt (♦•iJm 
IstWTVri', Shii Vailahhhhai's tlrmamls will tu' Itaiiml 
*y llir tlisiiitrioird rratln rvrii mu (hr basis mI‘ itistivr 
thhhhai tlurs ut>( iusist ihal his atitumriKs shMtihl hr 
thr tJuv«,Ti»iin»(. What hr in tart says is that, whilr 
irnt is oit mw shir, iltr {tt'itpir air «iit ilir irthrr. 'I'hrrr 
n‘r ot‘ (i{}iiuiiu hrtsvrru (hr iwti irgaii|iii|{ ihr fat'M 
‘riirrr .shmihl Ir a ihinl |iaiiy (m adiitratr hi ihiii 
tulrvrr awanl is givru hy (his |»aily svtif Ir ari'r|ilrtt 
*}iai oit trhalt mI' (hr {riipir, 

ihr nils, (hr rssrarr, irf VaiiahhhhaiN Irdn. ‘Ihr 
f »«i\v arisrs is svhrdtrr Ihrir nnthi l«* stuh artiilra- 
tUsjJMirs hrtwrrii jljr (Hisriiimriit am! ihr )n>{iir. 
firt'mrr ihr Mitti'rmr aiilhiH'ity lit iiiaitris I'rhitititj 
this (itivniiiiiritt is thriftrih'aiiy |tir|>airtt |t» utaiul tit 
it I'tim t nf law. 'I'hr (HivTrniiirtii rrifanU ihr i|iir«» 
rrvnmr as rxira-jiiillrial. 1‘hr rr.iwiti litr thili is IrynitU 
mail’s ]}i»wrr.s uf rirtt(|arhri»iiiii, lari its mu rnier 
■itacirs ul' this iHKHiitnit at lliia iiimtirnt. 
r, if ihr (|ursthnt <if lamt rrvrnur it tntliiittr iltr jurit- 
>itrts, what cutihj Valiaithhhat ihi hut utk Itir Mrblira« 
ci he atlyisr thr priiplc to u|i|iral lu Uir Guv«rn< 
w?u ait tjuirt? Evrit if he wialtcil hi give auclt advicCi 


^6 odu^cnrab WoRJES of MASATitA OANDkl 

the people had not left: the door open to him; they had already 
appealed to the Government. VaUabhbhai would not help them 
mdce such appeals, so they approached those who would. Having 
been unsuccessful there, ^ey returned to VaUabhbhai to make 
him accept their leadership in offering satyagraha. 

In accordance with the rules of satyagraha, VaUabhbhai 
approached the Government with a polite offer of peace. He 
said that the Government might not be wrong, it was possible 
that the people might have misled him. He asked the Govern- 
ment to appoint an arbitrator and ask him to dispense justice. He 
hoped the Government would not claim infallibility. The Gov- 
ernment, by committing the grave mistake of rejecting this propo- 
sal, cleared the way for the people to offer satyagraha. 

The Government, however, claims that VaUabhbhai is an 
outsider and does not belong there, that he is an alien and, 
if he and his alien friends had not entered BardoU, people would 
have certainly paid up the revenue — ^that is the trend of the Gov- 
ernment’s letter. 

This is Uke the thief trying to punish the poUceman. As long 
as Bardoli is in India neither VaUabhbhai nor anyone else 
amongst us wiU understand how either he or any Indian Uving 
within the territory between Kaslunir in the nordh and Kanya- 
kumari in the south and between Karachi in the west and Dibru- 
garh in the east, can bu caUed an outsider. It is the Briti^ 
officers of the Government who are foreigners, outsiders who do 
not belong here, and, to speak more plainly, aU the officers — 
whether they are black or white — ^who serve this foreign, out- 
side authority belong to this category. Those who owe their 
livelihood to the Government would of course be on its side. Even 
persons Uke Drona and Bhislima had to teU Yudhishthira that they 
were on the side of those who provided them their livelihood. How 
crooked of this foreign Government, to call a person like VaUabh- 
bhai an outsider in Bardoli! This is like darkness at noon! It is 
because of such things that people like me regard it a sin to be 
loyal to such a Government, and practise non-co-operation. How 
can we hope for any justice where such gross impertinence 
prevails? Who can teach justice to this Government? Only a 
satyagraha. The Government cannot be vanquished by intellec- 
tual arguments. For the mighty, reason lies in might. It weighs 
justice at the point of the sword. 

This sword becomes blunt when it meets the swOrd of the 
satyagrahi. If the satyagrahis of BardoU are capable of standing 
by truth, dther an arbitrator wiU be appointed, or Vallabhbhai’s 



tMtnssL to pstsiOENt/ Kisit UASAviihrAtAyA tumrsEB 81 

.eats will be accepted and he will cease to be considered 
^der and come to be accepted as a ‘native’, 
he other questions arising out of this correspondence will be 
with later. It is enough for the people of Bardoli to re- 
^ that it is for them to win or lose the game. 

^rom Gujarati] 
vgivan, 4-3-1928 


88. LETTER TO REVASHANKER JHAVERI 

Sunday [March 4, 19281^ 

TED SEVASHANEESBHAl, 

have your letter. Please keep me informed about whatever 
I for Dhiru. WiU you yourself have to go with him or will 
le else go? Do you need anyone from here? 1 understand 
Jeld. 

Rispee^ greetings from. 
Mohaitoas 

a a photostat of the Gujarati: G.N. 1276 


ETTER TO PRESIDENT, PREM MAHAVIDTALArA 
TRUSTEES 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Marchs [192S^ 

RESTDENT 

dAHAVTOYAIAYA TRUSTEES 
BAM 


RTENU, 

vas delighted to receive yotir wire that the Trustees of the 
Mahavidyalaya had unanimously decided upon Adhyapak 
Sishore acting in Acharya Gidwani’s place. You are wel- 
D Sjt. Jugal Eishore’s services for twelve months. 

Yours sineerely. 


1 a microfilm: S.N. 13097 


ran the postmark 

tun the oontents it is clear that the letter belongs to' 1928; vide “Preaa. 
yalaya”, 8-3-1928. 


-6 


90. LETTER TO A. J. SAUJ^DERS 


The Ashram 
Sabarmah 
March 5, 1921 

dear friend, 

I thank you for your letter and money order for Rs. 50. Wfl 
you please convey my thanks to the students and tell them that ] 
hope this is merely the first instalment of their gift on behalf o: 
Daridranart^ana and that they are wearing khaddar habitually! 

Tours sinesrdy 

A. J. Saunders, Esft. 

Bursar 

The Ambrioan Golleoe, Madura 
From a microfilm: S.N. 13096 


91. LETTER TO V. S. BHASKARAN 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
M(Brch 5, 1921 

M? DEAR BHASKARAN, 

I was glad to receive your letter. Of course I forgive you fbi 
all the mischief you have done. But your letter only confirnu 
what I heard about you, and it was undoubtedly wrong. 

You now ask me with my influence to restore the money tha 
you withdrew and say that you will accept penance in the way o 
fasting and what not. That would not be correct penetnee. Yoi 
must now submit to what Ramanathan or Rajaji may say with 
out in any way being influenced by me. That is the correct posi 
tion for you to take. And, if you can’t have the money restored 
you should submit to their judgment cheerfully and expect to ean 
it by honest means in future.^ 

Tours sinarslj 

SjT. V. S. Bhasxaram 
C/ o Postmaster, Ranibet 

From a photostat: S.N. 13098 
» Vide also Vol. XXXV, p. 513. 


92. LETTER TO R. MORA BROCKWAT 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
March 5, 1928 

DEAR FRIEIO}, 

I was delighted to receive your letter and to find that Mr. 
Brockway was doing so well. I hope the recovery has been pro- 
gressively rapid. 

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru is here at the present moment and 
1 have shared your letter with him. 

Tours sincerely. 

Miss R. Nora Broqkway 

St. Christopher’s TRAmma College 

Kilpaxtk 

Madras 

From a photostat: S.N. 13099 


93. LETTER TO ROLAND HATES^ 


March 5, 1928 

DBAS. FRIEND, 

Mr. H. Chattopadhyaya writes to me saying that you are 
likely to visit India in the near future. If you do and if you visit 
Gujarat, please regard this little Ashram as your home. 

Tours sincerely, 

Mr. Roland Hayes 

C/o The Ambrioan Express Co. 

Paris 

From a photostat: S.N. 14253 


* American Negro singer 


d4. LETTER TO W. E. STARR 

Satyaoraha. Ashram, 
Sabarmait, 
March 5, 1928 

DEAR ERIBRD, 

I have your kind letter enclosing your donation, for both, of 
which I thank you. There was no occasion for you to apologize 
for the amallnftM of the donation. The smallest donation in mone- 
tary value is a big thing when it comes from a big heart as I 
am sore yours has done. 

The question of reform of the legal profession is a big one. 
It does not admit of tinkering. I am strongly of opinion that 
lawyers and doctors should not be able to charge any fees but 
that they should be paid a certain fixed sum by the State and the 
public should receive their services free. They will have paid for 
them throu^ the taxation that they would have paid for sudi 
lervices rendered to citizens automatically. The poor will be un- 
taxed but the rich and the poor will have then the same amount 
of attention and skill. Today the best legal talents and the best 
medical advice are unobtainable by the poor. 

Tours sincir^j, 

W. B. Starr, Esq. 

Manager 

EiiaHiAND Sprinos Farm 
Chsoo, Texas (U.SA.) 

From a photcatat: S.N. 14254 


95. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 

March 6, 1928 

DEAR SATD BABU, 

I have your letter. The resolutions seem to be good. I hope 
they will be followed up by action. I do not like the idea of 
having the membership open to those who may love khadi or 
work for it for pay even though they may not wear it. 

With bve. 


Fccmi a photostat: OJN. 1586 


Bafu 


96 . WAR AGAI}fST WAR 


A correspondent writes: 

My excuse for writing this is that the autobiographical chapter 
about your attitude towards war as a follower of truth and ahimsa has 
apparently stirred the thoughts of many^ and abler people would be 
writing to you about it. But I wish to present some aspects that have 
struck me. Ts it not a fimdamental doctrine that to the true disciple of 
truth and ahimsa, there can be no tampering with bad things even 
though one connot resist them? War is a necessary evil as some say, 
but that is no excuse for supporting it in the hope that afkier it there 
will come to the world a realization of the wickedness of waging war. 
It cannot be. On the contrary, the callousness of man is increased iurther 
in intensity and the feeling about the aacredness of life is destroyed. The 
anarchist could argue just as you do and say: **We cannot stop Euro- 
pean aggression and terrorism. We cannot resist terrorism by mass force. 
But if we can only demonstrate to them the wickedness of such methods 
by using them against them, they will see the folly of their attitude and 
we shall become free, and we shall also save the world frx>m terrorism. So 
long as himsa is resorted to by our rulers and so long as we hate terror- 
ism, what is the harm in using these weapons provided we do not allow 
them to obsess lu?” Has the Great War actually done any good to the 
nations and particularly to the victors? Materially, morally, and socially 
they have lost heavily as a result of the victory. Their moral standards have 
all been upset and the strife after the life of the moment, and the dis- 
regard for truth and honesty in international dealings is becoming more 
and more apparent every day. Gan any good come out of a war, how- 
ever ‘righteous’ it may be? Are we not bound to oppose it and invite 
suffering for the cause rather than in any way acquiesce in it either 
passively or actively? Do you not believe that the pacifists served the 
cause better than those who actively engaged in the War? What you say 
might represent the state of your mind in 1914 when you thought there 
was a sense of justice in the British mentality. Do you now feel that it was 
right? If another war was declared tomorrow, would you volimteer your 
help to England in the hope that you would be making things better 
after the war? I know I have not presented the case in the best way but 
you can understand what it is that I am trying to tell you, and I shall 
be glad to have your rqply. 

I agree with the correspondent that he has not presented 
his case ‘in the best way’, but he does represent a type of readers 
vrho will not read care&Uy even writing that are pieant to 



86 THE aOLLBOTED WORKS OF UAHATHA. GANDHI 

serious simply because they happen to be found in a weekly 
journal. If readers like the correspondent will re-read the chapter 
in question they will be able to deduce from it that: 

1. I did not offer my services because 1 believed in war. 1 
offered them because I could not avoid participation in it at least 
indirectly. 

2. I had no status to resist participation. 

3. I do not believe that war can be avoided by taking part 
in it even as I do not believe that evil can be avoided by parti- 
cipation in it. This however needs to be distinguished from sin- 
cerely helpless participation in many things we hold to be evil or 
undesirable. 

4. The anarchist’s argument is irrelevant as his participation 
in terrorism is deliberate, voluntary and preconceived. 

5. The War certainly did no good to Ae so-called victors. 

6. The pacifist resisters who suffered imprisonment certainly 
served the cause of peace. 

7. If another war was declared tomorrow I could not with 
my present views about the existing Government assist it in any 
idiape or form; on the contrary, I should exert myself to the utmost 
to induce others to withhold &eir assistance and to do everything 
possible and consistent with ahimsa to bring about its defeat 

Towig India, 8-3-1928 


97. PREM MAHAVIDTALATA 

This creation of Raja Mahendra Fratap has a proud record 
and is one of the very few pre-non-co-operation institutions that 
were created and have lived without Government aid, recognition 
or affiliation. Like all such undertakings it has had to pass through 
many vicissitudes but has come'out scatheless through them all. 
Recently it celebrated its anniversary. Dr. Ansari presided on the 
occasion. The report before me states that “the proceedings began 
with a iakli demonstration and hoisting of the national flag by Dr. 
Ansari and singing of the flag-song by the volunteers of the L^du- 
stani Seva Dal followed by Vande Mataram”. The report then proceeds 

Principal Gidwani had every reason to anticipate my support 
for an institution for which he was able to claim so much. The 
reader may not know that Principal Gidwani is going to Karachi 
to join his new post imder its Municipality. Sjt. Jugal Elishore’s 
services have been loaned to the trustees by Acharya Kripalani’s 

* The excerpt is not reproduced here. 


NOTES 


87 


Ashram at Banaras. But it is understood that though Sjt. Jug^ 
Kishore will act on behalf of Acharya Gidwani, the latter will 
continue to be interested in the Mahavidyalaya and guide its desti- 
nies in so far zis it is possible. 

Toung India, 8-3-1928 


98. NOTES 
The Supreme Arbiter 

In answer to the blind adherence one often sees given to 
everything written in Sanskrit verse and going under the name of 
Shastra, Sjt. S. D. Nadkami sends me the following verses taken 
from sources universally regarded as authoritative and support- 
ing the final authority of reason: 

Bri«f HrPwtwi.ii 

n 

‘A Shastra, though man-made, should be accepted, if it appeals to 
reason; and the contrary one rejected, though claiming to be inspired. 
We should be guided by our sense of the just alone. A saying sound in 
reason should be accepted, though it proceed from a child; and the con- 
trary one rejected as a straw, though it piuport to proceed from the God 
Brahma.’ — iE!rom Togeamishtha {I{yayarprakar<matri) 

‘A convention adopted by the good shall be as good an authority 
as the Veda.* 

— From the MadkaBa-Smnti (otherwise called the Madhaaiya jyakhya) 
The verses show that the Shastras were never intended to 
supplant reason but to supplement it and never could be 
pleaded in defence of injustice or untruth. 

For Those Who Would Sugoeed 

There is so much despondency on the one hand and bluster 
retarding success on the other, that I gladly reproduce the follow- 
ing maviTna handed by a friend and intended to cheer the despon- 
dent and warn the blusterers. There is practically nothing impos- 
sible for those who would persevere in the face of the heaviest 
odds. Nothing is possible for those who would brag, bluster and 
merely make a brave show. Here are the maxims: 

Every noble work is at first impossible. 


— Garlyle 



88 


THE GOLLEQTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI 


Success in most things depends on knowing how long it takes to 
succeed. — MONTESQpiEU 

Victory belongs to most persevering. — Napoleon 

Perpetual pushing and assurance put a difficulty out of countenance, 
and make a seeming impossibility give way. -^Jersbiy Collier 

Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel. 

The nerve that never relaxes, the eye that never blanches, the thought 
that never wanders, these are the masters of victory. — ^Burkb 

However discordant or troubled you have been during the day, do 
not go to sleep imtil you have restored your mental balance, until yotir 
faculties are poised and your mind serene. — Cartwright 

Toting India, 8-'3-1928 

99. OBITUARIES^ 

The Late Loro Sinha 

To the many tributes that have been paid to the memory of 
this distinguished servant of India I respectfully tender my quota. 
Lord Sinha’s contribution to the making of modem India will al- 
ways rank high whenever the estimate of such contributions comes 
to be made. Ehs advice in all matters of State was .always sou^t 
and esteemed. The country is the poorer for Lord Sinha’s death . 

A Great Reformer 

Death has removed from the public life of Gujarat in Sir 
Ramanbhai Nilkanth a man of great purity of character, a reformer 
of equally great zeal and intrepidity, a public worker of singular 
constancy and a scholar who has made a permanent contribution 
to Gujarati literature. In common with the numberless Gujaratis 
I tender my respectful condolences to the bereaved family. 

Toung India, 8-3-1928 


100. BARDOU AJfD GOVERNMENT 

The illuminating correspondence that has passed between 
Sjt. VaUabhbhai Patel and the Government of Bombay regarding 
the assessment in the Bardoli Taluk afihrds food for reflection to. 
the pubUc worker and reveals in its true light the natute of the 
Government under which we are living. V^abhbhai is not un- 

‘ Fia also “My Notes”, 11-3-1928. 


BAltDOU AND OOVBRmiENT 


89 


known to fame or to the Government. They have been obliged 
to acknowledge his worth as a public worker of great capacity, 
integrity and industry. They have acknowledged his great work 
in the Municipality of Ahmedabad. Only the other day he receiv- . 
ed unstinted praise for his philanthropic services in coimectbn with 
the floods in Gujarat. 

But his work seems to have counted for nothing when they 
fljund him engaged in an activity calculated to cause them em- 
barrassment and possibly loss of prestige and what is the same 
thing to them loss of land revenue. Their prestige they need for the 
sake of their revenue. They are no believers in empty prestige. 

And so in their very first letter in the matter, they thought it 
becoming to insult Sjt. Vallabhbhai by calling in question his pro- 
fessions of goodwill and describing him as an outsider in Bardoli. 
The last letter emphasizes the insult by leaving no doubt that Ehs 
Excellency the Governor too was party to it. Sjt. Vallabhbhai had 
courteously^assumed in his letter that whilst His Excellency might 
be identified with a policy enunciated in Government communi- 
cations, he need hot be identified with the manner of expression, 
more especially the insulting language often adopted by civilian 
secretaries incensed over any the least resistance or independence 
betrayed by the public in their correspondence with them. That 
the (^vemor has chosen to become a party to the unwarranted 
insult shows how difficult it is for Governors, however well-inten- 
tioned and impartial they may be reputed to be as the present 
Governor is, to escape the bureaucratic coil. ‘Pride goeth before 
destruction and haughtiness before a fall.’ 

But Vallabhbhai has a back broad enough to bear the wordy 
insults that the bureaucracy may choose to heap upon him from its 
safe and entrenched heights. My reason for dwelling on the insult 
is to draw attention to the utterly irresponsible nature of the Gov- 
ernment that dares to insult a public worker of the foremost rank. 

But let us see for the moment what it is that has upset the 
Government Land revenue is a close preserve beyond the pale of 
law such as it is. The regulation of assessment rests entirely with 
the executive authority. Every attempt hitherto made to bring it 
under popular or judicial control has f^ed. The Government must 
somehow or other meet the ever-growing expenditure, bulk of 
which is military. Land revenue lends itself to arbitrary increase 
as it affects the largest class and a class that has no voice, a class 
that can be squeezed without wincing. There would be an end 
to irresponsible government if the governed are either allowed to 
have a say in their taxation or to resist it successfully, Bardoli does 



90 THE aOIXECSTED WORKS OF lilAHATHA GANDHI 

not appreciate the increase made in its assessment. Its people 
approached the Government with petitions and exhausted aU the 
means that are regarded as constitutional to secure redress. Having 
failed they invited Vallabhbhai to advise them and if necessary 
to lead them in resisting the Government through satyagraha. 

Vallabhbhai investigated their case and though he found it 
to be just, sought to approach the Government with a view to save 
them embarrassment and spare &e people prolonged suffering 
and suggested an honourable course, i.e., suggested that if the 
Gk)vernment did not admit the justice of the people’s case, they 
should appoint an impartial tribunal to investigate the case on either 
side and assured the Government that the people would abide by 
the decision of such a tribunal. This reasonable suggestion the 
Government has scornfully rejected. 

The public, therefore, are not called upon to accept the popu- 
lar version as against that of the Government. They are asked 
merely to support the demand for the appointment of an impar- 
tial tribunal and failing such appointment to support their heroic 
resolve peacefully to resist the assessment and suffer all the conse- 
quences of such resistance even including confiscation of their land. 

Sjt. Vallabhbhai has rightly distinguished the proposed satya- 
graha from the Swaraj satyagraha. This campaign cannot be pro- 
perly deemed to be a no-tax campaign launched for the attain- 
ment of swaraj as Bardoli would have done in 1922. This satya- 
graha is limited in scope, has a specific local object. Every man 
has the right, nay, it is his duty to resist an arbitrary unjust levy 
as the Bardoli assessment is claimed to be by its ryots. But though 
the object of the proposed satyagraha is local and specific, it has 
an aU-India application. What is true of Bardoli is true cff many 
parts of India. The struggle has also an indirect bearing on swaraj. 
Whatever awakens people to a sense of their wrongs and whatever 
gives them strength for disciplined and peaceful resistance and 
habituates them for corporate suffering brings us nearer swaraj. 

Toung ItuHa, 8-3-1928 



101. LETTER TO MURIEL LESTER 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March <?, 1928 

MY DEAR MURIEL, 

This will be presented to you by Mr. Rajendra Prasad, one of 
the best among my co-workers. You will show him all your acti- 
vities and know aU about me and the Ashram from him. 

With love. 

Yours, 

Bafu 

Miss Muriel Lester 

From a photostat: G.N. 6566 

102. LETTER TO SIR DANIEL M. HAMILTON 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 9, 1928 

dear FRIEMI), 

Our common friend Rev. Mr. Hodge tells me that you were 
complaining of absence of acknowledgment from me of the hand- 
woven scarf you have kindly sent me as also your two papers on 
the banking system. I have a vivid recollection that when I was 
convalescing in Bangalore last year I sent you a brief note of 
thanks. Evidently that letter has miscarried.^ Please therefore 
regard this as a token of my thanks for your kind gift and for the 
very interesting papers which you sent me. 

Your description of the Scotch banking system was very ins- 
tructive for ine« I have now received a copy of your evidence 
before the Statutory Commission. I know that I shall read that 
with interest 

Yours sinesrsly. 

Sir Daniel M. Hamilton 
The Warren Hill 
L ouaHTON, Essee 
Enoland 

From a microfilm: S.N. 12907 
* However, vide Vol. XXXIV, p. 159. 



103, LETTER TO PREMULA THACKERSET 


Satyaoraha. Ashram, 
Sararmati, 
March 9, 1928 

DEAR SIS1RR, 

I got your loving letter. Doctors will certainly advise me to 
go for a change of air, but I am sure I have told you what I am 
greedy about. As 1 have explained, I wish to take a change 
and also do my work at the same time, and I have been writing 
to friends with that end in view. Ordinsirily, I would certainly love 
to be your guest. I shall keep your invitation in mind if I go to 
Sinhgadh for a change. I am keeping well. 

Vandmataram from 
Mohandas 

From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.W. 4811. Courtesy: PremlOa 
Thackcisey 

104. LETTER TO REVASHANKER JHAVERI 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sararmati, 
March P, 1928 

rBSPEOTED REVASHANKBRBHAl, 

I had asked Mahadev to write to you but I am afraid that 
he forgot to mention one thing in the letter. Mahadev is not 
here so that I can ask him. 1 wanted him to write about Dr. 
Ansari. There is no doubt that Dr. Ansari is a very intelligent 
man, but he has no special knowledge of this subject. He has a 
high opinion of a Swiss doctor’s remedy, which consists in serum 
drawn from many horses. That doctor charges ,^1,000 for one 
tube, but the serum does not necessarily benefit everyone. Nor 
do aU doctors in Europe accept this man’s treatment as scientific. 
I don’t think we need go in for it. We should put Dhiru in the 
hands of a good doctor and then rest content. 

I have now started taking milk. I keep good health. 

Rtspeclfid greetings fiom 

Mohandas 

From a photostat of the Gi^arati: G.N. 1278 



105. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 


The Ashrau, 
Sabasmait, 
March 10 ^ 1928 

DEAR SATIS BABU, 

I have your two letters. They only confirm the fears that were 
raised in me on reading the sensational reports about boycott 
and I feel sorry that Dr. Ray signed the manifesto which he ]^ew 
was perfectly useless. 

I do not like the proposal contained in your article. I tbinlc 
we must not be mixed up with the use of foreign yam under any 
circumstances whatsoever. We must leave it to regulate itself or 
to those who have not a living faith in khadi. If we mix ourselves 
up with the use of foreign yam, you will see that we shall have 
surrendered our position. I want you to consider this well and con- 
fine your assistance and activity to the supply of khadi if they 
want it. Our own mills may come in if they wish to and if 
they will develop the national spirit But even there, our institution 
will have to be most cautious. 

I am glad that Hemprabhadevi, Nikhil and Tarini have gone 
to Giiidih. I received a very despondent letter fix>m Hemprabha- 
devi. She was herself reported to be unwell. Please let me know 
all about her condition. 

Tours sinesrsly, 
Bapu 

From a photostat: G.N. 1587 



106. LETTER TO IDA S. SCUDDER 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 10, 1928 

Alt J^KjFiNiJy 

I am thankful to you for remembering Mrs. Gandhi and me 
1 connection with the opening ceremony of your building. You 
dll be interested to learn that there is no hospital and no institu- 
on where there is a ward endowed in my name. If there was, it 
'ould be a fraud. For, how can a ward be endowed in my name 
'hen I have not one farthing to pay for it. If I can induce 
lends to endow wards or beds, the endowment should be in their 
ames. But 1 can think of none to whom 1 can speak about en- 
owing a hospital ward. All influence is exhausted in asking them 
> endow spinning-wheels and institutions for the so-called un- 
•uchables or for a member of the dumb creation, the cow. 

Tours sincsnijf, 

bss Ida S. Soudder 
'eixore 

From a photostat: S.N. 13093 

107. LETTER TO DUNICHAJID 


The Ashram, 
Sararmatc, 
March 10, 1928 

£AR LAIA DUNIOHAND, 

I have your letter. As a man may not look a gift horse in the 
juth, I must accept your terms and waive the interest^ to which 
i Ashram is legitimately entitled. Be sure that Sjt. Koth^ is 
t as lenient as I am and, unless you pay your debt to him in 
le, he is likely to charge a proper bania interest and I shouldn’t 
>nder if he insists upon compound interest. 

About Lala Suraj Bhanu, I see that the Managing Board 
re are disinclined to let him come with his wife. A letter is being 

^ Vide “Letter to Dunichand”, 29-2-1928. 



iBTitlt to BBUtBNtSA NAttAYAM SfaB 


posted to him with reasom for their decision. And, if it is true that 
he desires to go on a cycling tour after a time, the Ashram is hardly 
the institution where he should recuperate for such a tour. It is 
designed for those who choose some humble occupation contribu- 
ting to national uplift; and go on with it with dogged pertinacity 
irrespective of results. 

Tours sinesrdy. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13094 


108. LETTER TO BHUPENDRA NARATAJf SEN 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March lOy 1928 

MY DEAR BHUFEN, 

I have your letter. I think the best course is for you to reftmd 
the loan and then put in an application for a grant and let the 
grant be considered on its merits. I would personally feel inclined 
to favour the grant, but I have undertaken not to influence the 
Council unless it refers matters to me. 

I hope you are keeping good health. 

Tours sinetrtly, 

SjT. Bhupendra Narayan Sen 
E-76 College Street Market 
Caloutta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13100 



109. LETTER TO DR. B. C. ROT 


The Ashram^ 
Sabaemati, 
Manh 10, 1928 

DEAR DR. ROY, 

Wliat is this bill* and wheare should I pay it from if I am ex- 
pected to do so? For I am myself living on public charity. I may 
not use Ashram funds for a private purpose. It is no [small] indul- 
gence that I give myself the benefit of expert assistance and advice 
which I caimot place equally easily at the disposal of every 
inmate of the Ashram. But for me to pay Rs. 46 or anything at 
all for analysis of my blood or any other constituents of the body 
would be the last straw. If, therefore, this bill has got to be paid, 
the payment has to come out of your generous pocket. 

Toitrs sinetrdjf, 

Dr. Bidhan Roy 
36 Welunoton Street 
Gaixtotta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13102 


no. LETTER TO A. S. MAKNADI NAYAR 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
March 10, 1928 

1 have your letter. I have forwarded it to Dr. Roy with a 
letter^ copy of which I enclose herewith. You will appreciate the 
moral difficulty that faces me. Though 1 have claimed to be the 
richest person perhaps in the world, you wiU realize at the same 
time the dept^ of my poverty. I quite recognize that between 
Dr. Roy and myself you should not be made to suffer. But if you 
cannot get reli^ from him or from Captain Basu, you will treat 
this incident as a lesson never to have anything to do with 

* Vidt the following item. 

2 Vide the preceding item. 



IfiTiM fo JOMK titAYMfiS fidUlfiS 

A^atinfmaa or those who use their names. Mahatmas are the most 
slippery customers treading on this overburdened earth. 

Tows sineerdy, 

SjT. A. S. Mannadi Nayah 
Professor of Biochemistry 
Madras Medioal College 
Madras 

From a photostat: S.N. 13101 


111. LETTER TO JOHN HATNES HOLMES 

The Ashram, 
Sararicati, 
March 10, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

1 have again to acknowledge with thanks a further contribu- 
tion of 10 dollars for the relief fund. All these amounts have been 
passed on to the Secretary of the Relief Fund Committee. But I 
hope that you have adopted some means of conveying to the 
donors my sincere thanks fbr their generosity. 

About the general situation here, I would warn you against 
going by newspaper reports. Whilst there is the bitterest resentment 
over the Commission camouflage, we are not yet organized enough 
to offer effective non-violent resistance though I have faith enough 
that that resistance is inevitable and is coming some day not very 
far [off]. 

Tours sinesrdy, 

Rev. John Haynes Holmes 
12 Park Avenue and 34th Street 
New York City 

From a photostat: S.N. 15181 


XXXVI-7 



112. LETTER TO RAMI GAKDHI 


Satyaoraha. Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 10^ 1928 

am. RAMI, 

So this time I did get a letter from you. I hope all of you 
are keeping well. Ghi. Kumi is arriving tomorrow. Tulsidas is 
going to Bombay. Ghi. Devdas has gone to Delhi. ' I am keeping 
well. Give up the habit of beating children and getting angry with 
them. You can take a lot of work from them by amusing them. 
Food habits should be regular. 

Blessings fim 
Bapu 

From a photostat of the Gpjarati: S.N. 9708 


113. MT NOTES 
The Late Sir Ramanbhai 

Sir Ramanbhai has passed away leaving Gujarat in tears. 
Ramanbhai embodies the history of modernism in Gujarat. 
Ramanbhai stands for social reform. Ramanbhai was the fiiend 
of the poor. He was the warp and woof of the civic life of 
Ahmedabad. His service to the Gujarati language was of a very 
hi gh standard. His high moral code never failed to leave an im- 
pression on whosoever came into contact with him. Ramanbhai’s 
humour permeates his works. He did not however look upon 
life as something of a jest. He found the fulfilment of his life in 
devoting it to the performance of duty. Ramanbhai would indeed 
help any good cause. In matters of national welfare he always 
contributed his full share. 

He never hesitated or spared himself in anything that he 
regarded as service. In spite of his serious illness and in spite of 
severe differences in political matters he recognized the value of 
VaUabhbhai’s service to the municipality and he unfailingly co- 
operated witii him to the utmost whenever occasion arose. There 
could hardly be a pubHc institution in Ahmedabad which did not 
wish to have Ramanbhai’s name associated with it. 



NOTES 


99 


The loss of such a jewel of Gujarat will uot be felt by his 
family members aloue; the whole of Gujarat shares this grief 
of separation. 

Nowadays, it has become customary to underestimate the 
quiet, unostentatious service of persons who do not take part in 
politics, especially in active politics. In my humble opinion this is 
a mistake though time will certainly rectify it. He who wipes the 
tears of even a single widow, who saves a single young girl feom 
the inunolation miscalled marriage, who renders selfless service to 
a single Aniyaja, serves the country eind society in a pme manner, 
and it is likely that, when the fight put up by a valiant political 
warrior is forgotten, this other service done in some obscure cor- 
ner will still keep bearing firuit. That service which is accom- 
panied not by ovations but by God’s blessings is indeed true ser- 
vice. Such was the service rendered by Ramanbhai. He received 
his share of ovations too, but why describe what Ramanbhai never 
cared fori He was a brave warrior. Who has not seen him stick to 
his views as well as his own place amidst the whistlmg and shout- 
ing of young men? Let us pray that we inherit his virtues. 

Lord Sinha 

India has suffered a great loss in the death of Lord Sinha. 
He was a pillar of India. He had reached the highest office on the 
strength of his inteUecL Although it is true that that office has 
little value in this age of non-co-operation, the abilities that were 
required in order to reach it have mu(h value. Lord Sinha did 
not go out of bis way to seek office. It coifld be said on the con- 
trary that offices came seeking him. However, I do not wish to dis- 
cuss here the various offices that he held at different times. The 
reader must have come to know of these from other newspapers. 
I wish to give a short account of my acquaintance with him. 

I saw him for the first time at the Congress in 1915. This was 
my second experience of the Congress. At this session, I came to 
know only of his intellectual powers. Everyone appreciated his 
erudite speech. His criticism of the Empire carried weight Every- 
one on the Congress Working Committee admired the way in whi^ 
he transacted business. 

We cannot all emulate his intellectual powers. There was 
however one quality of his, of which I came to know at a recep- 
tion in his honour, which we could all imitate, and that is his 
humility. 

I came to know more of this quality at the time of Desh- 
bandhu Das Memorial Fund. All of us felt that Ihe association of 



Ido fdE doii^aTk) Wositd of MAkAlMA oandMi 

his name with the raising of this Fund would indeed be welco: 
Persons belonging to all parties felt that, if his name was associs 
with it, it would facilitate the raising of the Fund and that 
would make people from all parties readily associate themse 
with it. I was among those who approached him. He was in 
different health at that time; but he would meet people whene 
necessary. He willingly agreed to the inclusion of his name : 
also agreed to give all possible help. On these occasions, I beca 
well aware of his humility, his courtesy and his greatness am 
felt that India would add to her prestige if all our elder statesn 
possessed these qualities. 1 noticed that he did not crave for i 
pect but was always eager to show respect to others. Those who 
not crave for respect deserve it; privileges cling to those who 
to shake them off. Lord Sinha happened to be in this happy sit 
tion. May all of us inherit that humility and that courtesy. 

[From Gujarati] 

Naoajioan, 11-3-1928 


114. WHO WILL ACCEPT THE AJITYAJAS^ HUNDI? 

This hundi^ should have been put out earlier. But as the s 
ing goes the affairs of the sick are managed in a sickly manner a 
its publication was delayed. It is therefore expected that th' 
who are prepared to accept it would send in their contiibutio 
along with the interest, to Bhai Mulchand Farekh. Not all H 
dus like to serve the Antyajas. Hence I hope that those who 
gard untouchability as a disease of the Hindu faith will reme 
her that they have a twofold duty to help this cause. 

[From Gujarati] 

Jfaoajaaa, 11-3-1928 


^ Aa informal Ijill of exchange or a cheque. Here Gandhiji uses the w( 
to describe his appeal for funds. 


115. LETTER TO JANE HOWARD 

Satyaosaha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 12, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I was delighted to receive your long letter. I endorse every 
word of what you say about Mrs. Gandhi and the wretched inci- 
dent I have related in the autobiographical chapters.* Of course 
you have not imagined that I am in any way proud of recalling 
the brutality or that I am today capable of any such brutality. But 
I thought that if people recognize me as a gende peace-loving man, 
they should also know that at one time I could be a positive beast 
even though at the same time I claimed tb be a loving husband. 
It was not without good cause that a fiiend once described me as 
a combination of sacred cow and ferocious tiger. 

It would have been a pity if you had burnt your beautiful 
letter as at one time you thought you should. You have certainly 
not appeared to me to be rude or ill-mannered but most natural 
and on that account lovable. I ,do indeed wish that I had come 
in closer contact with your dear brother, but I knew him enough 
to love him and to appreciate his sterlhig wrorth. 

Tours svuerdy. 

Miss Jane Howard 
‘Rosemary* 

50 PAiiDORA Road 
Malvern 
Johannesburg 
(Transvaal, S. Abrjqa) 

From a photostat: S.N. 11967 


. * Vide An AsAobiography, Ft. IV, Gh. % 



116. LETTER TO B. W. TUCKER 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmaii, 
March 12, 1928 

MY DEAR FRIEND, 

I like the manner in which you axe combating my views. I 
discovered the difference between us even in Orissa. For me, there 
is no difference between the individual and the social position. 
At the same time there is ample room for the compromise of the 
nature suggested by you, for the simple reason that I ever com- 
promise my own ideals even in individual conduct not because 
I wish to W because the compromise was inevitable. And so in 
social and political matters 1 have never exacted complete ful- 
filment of the ideal in which I have believed. But there are always 
times when one has to say thus far and no further, and, eadi time 
the dividing line has to be determined on merits. GenoaUy speak- 
ing where ffie sum total of a movement has been evil, I have held 
non-co-operation to be the only remedy and where the sum total 
has been for the good of humanity, I have held co-operation on 
the basis of compromise to be the most desirable thing. If I seem 
to be holding myself aloof fi:om some of the political movements 
just now, it is because I believe their tendency to be not for the 
promotion of swaraj but rather its retarding. It may be that I have 
erred in my judgment. If so, it is but human and I have never 
claimed to be in&llible. You will see this point somewhat deve- 
loped in a recent autobiographical chapter dealing widi my 
participation in the late War.' TeU me now if 1 have answered your 
question, even if I have not solved the puzzle. 

Andrews is here and will be for a few days longer. How nice it 
would be if you could come and pass a few days of quiet with me so 
that we could discuss the important problems you have been raising 
in your letters. This is however not to say that you may not discuss 
tiiem through correspondence. Please do, so long as it is necessary. 

Teurt dtuanily, 

B. W. Tdqker 

CALOnTTA 

From a photostat: S.N. 13104 

' Tide An AvUMogmp}^, pt, IV, Ch. XXXVHI, 


I 



117. LETTER TO J. B. KRIPALAJ^I 

Satvaoraea Ashram^ 
Sabarmati, 
March 12, 1928 

MY DEAR. PROFESSOR, 

With reference to a letter by the Secretary to the Association 
dated 1st March, I want to say that in spite of all the difiEiculties 
in our way we must aim at getting a complete list of the spinners 
who bring their yam to the common bazaar. I hold it to be abso- 
lutely necessary for the movement itself. If we are to really serve 
these spinners, we must establish direct contact with them. It may 
take a little time but our work is incomplete till we know our spin- 
ners and know them in their own homes and see how they work, 
where they get their cotton, how they pass their time otiierwise 
and so on and so forth. If we would consider this to be a neces- 
sary part of our work there will be no question of sparing or not 
paring workers, just as there will be no question as to the keep- 
ing of our accounts or knowing the quality and the quantity of 
yam we receive, I have no time to say more to you, I speak to 
you on other matters through Erishnadas. I hope there is no 
trouble about the seat of operation now. 

Tourt smeertfy. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13105 


118, LETTER TO HEMPRABHA DAS GUPTA 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 12, 1928 

DEAR SISTER, 

I have received all your letters. 

You must be well by now. Even if you are not I wish you 
to be healthy. God has ordained that our mind must be “un- 
troubled by sorrows and long not for joys”.* It is on such occa^ 
sioDs that we have to rue our learning; that is its trae purpose. 
You should give up thinking constantly of Anil, His body was 


* Bhagaotd Gita, II. 56 



104 THE aOLLEOTED WORKS OF llAHATMA OAKHHI 

composed of the five elements, and in them it has merged. The 
soul is immortal. Then why worry? Let us say with Mirabai: 
“Let what must happen happen,” It is Rama’s will that is done, 
in this belief we must rest content. Keep reading carefully in 
Tulsidas’s work on the power and glory of Ramanama. May 
Ramanama sustain us in life and may we have it on our lips when 
we die. Let this be your constant prayer. 

BUssif^s ,fTom 

Bafu 


From the Hindi original: GJi'. 1655 


119. LETTER TO TREASURER, AJMAL JAMIA FUND 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 13, 1928 

The Hon. Treasurer 
Ajmai. Jamia Fund 
395/97 Kalbadevi Road 
Bombay 

DEAR SIR, 

Re: Ajmai Jamia Fund 

Your letter dated 10th inst. 

I am sorry to say that you have not replied to my letter of the 
3rd instant. Mr. Zakir Husain, Jamia Millia, Delhi, has under 
instructions fi-om Seth Jamnalalji been sending to us copies of lists 
sent to you of donations received by him for the above Fund and 
deposited by him in the Central Bank of India, Delhi. We have 
published his first list on 8th March in Toung India. He has sent us 
another one for Rs. 1,492-13-0 which we are publishing in the 
forthcoming issue of Toung India. We have added to the list foe names 
you have sent to us on 3rd as also on lOfo instant. We would 
request you to compare foe lists up to now published in Toung 
India with your account books and let us know there are any dis- 
crepancies so that we may correct foe same in foe next issue. You 
will please advise us also as to whefoer we could publish foe lists 
that are being sent by Mr. ZaJdr Husain fi'om time -to time, Or if 
not, would you kinfoy [send them so as to] reach us not later 
than Monday every week? 

I wonder how you were able to get Rs. 1,559-0-0 as per foe list 



WHAT QAN OUR MILLS DO? 105 

sent by you on 3rd March when you have taken Rs. 1,254-0-0, the 
amount previously acknowledged in Toung India. 

Tours sineerdy, 

From a microfilm: S.N. 14911 


120. WHAT CAN OUR MILLS DO? 

Everybody is anxious that at this critical juncture in om: his- 
tory, we should be able to exhibit some real strength. It is be- 
ing more and more realized that such strength can be developed 
and shown only through boycott of foreign cloth as distinguished 
from British cloth. In this boycott it is possible for our mills to 
play an important, indeed a decisive, part if they wish. 

Some day or other they will have to choose between this 
alien Government and the people. There is no doubt that to a large 
extent they are dependent for their existence upon the toleration 
if not the goodwill of the Government. Thoreau told the truth when 
he said that possession of riches under an evil government was a 
sm and poverty was virtue. The riches of the rich are always at 
the disposal of the government of the day whether it is good 
or bad. 

But if the mills are dependent for their existence on the tole- 
ration or goodwill of the Government, they are no less so on the 
toleration or goodwill of the people. They can afford to ignore 
the people only so long as the latter remain ignorant, supine or 
disunited. But the past seven years have not been lived in vain by 
the nation. The mass awakening that has taken place will never 
die. No one can teU when and how the people will show Iheir 
strength. 

But the nulls occupy a privileged position. By showing a little 
courage, a little consideration for the true interests of the nation 
and by exerdsiag a. little self-sacrifice they can serve both the 
Government and the people. They can convert the Government 
and advance the people’s cause. 

This is how in my humble opixuon they can do it: 

They can standardize their prices taking the lowest average 
of a number of top and lean years. 

They can come to terms with the leaders organizing boycott 
as to the quantity and quality of cloth required for the nation. 

They can refrain from manufreturing those varieties that can 
be easily and inomediately produced by khadi organizations, thus 



106 THJt aOLLBOrSD WOHZ8 OF MAHATICA. OAMDBI 

fi^eing their energy for manufacturing more of the varieties they 
can at the present moment more easily manufacture than the kha<H 
organizations. 

They can limit their profits to a minimum and let the surplus, 
if any, be devoted to the fulfilment of the boycott or, if that be 
unnecessary, to the improvement of the condition of the labourers. 

This would mean all-round honesty, perseverance, mutual 
trust, a voluntary and honourable triple alliance between labour, 
capital and the consumer. It would mean capacity for organiza- 
tion on a vast scale. And if we are to attain boycott of foreign 
cloth through non-violence, we shall have some day or other to 
fiilfil the tests just enumerated by me. 

In my humble opinion we are eminently fitted for the task. 
The organization required for the purpose is not unfamiliar to us. 
The only question is, have we the will? Have the mill-owners 
enough vision, enough love of the coimtry? If they have, they 
can take the lead. 

Let me redeclare my own faith. For boycott to be swiftly 
brought about a combination between khadi and truly ind^fenous 
mills is desirable, but not absolutely necessary. I use the words 
truly indigenous, because we have bogus mills in India which are 
Indian only in the sense that they are located in the country but 
whose shareholders, whose management, whose spirit are mainly, 
when not wholly, foreign. But if the indigenous mills cannot or 
win not lead or join the national movement, I am convinced that 
khadi alone can achieve the boycott if the politically-minded India 
has the will, the faith and the energy required for the piupose. We 
have not enough horsepower expressed through steam engines, 
oil engines or electricity, but we have an inexhaustible reservoir of 
manpower lying idle and pleading to be used, and essentially quali- 
fied for the purpose. Oh, for a faith that would see and use this 
supply of living power! 

Tomg India, 15-3-1928 



121. HOW TO DO IT? 


Notice has already been taken in these pages of the West 
Khandesh Zilla Mandal of which Sjt. Shankarrao Dev is the founder 
president and guardian angel. This Mandal has village re> 
construction as its principal activity, and has become convinced 
that spinning must be the centre of every activity connected with 
reconstruction, if it is to prosper and respond to the deep poverty 
of the masses. All its work is as thorough as it can be made. Sjt. 
S. V. Thakkar has been training himself for some time before set- 
tling down in a village for reconstruction service. He has been 
travelling together with Sjt. Balubhai Mehta in those centres 
where such activity is going on. The brief report he has presented 
to the president of his Mandal is worth reading. I therefore repro- 
duce the main part of it for the guidance of those who do this 
work:* 

Yout^ India, 15-3-1928 


122. NOTES 
A.I.S.A. Membership 

The foregoing summaries^ tell their own tale. There is a 
drop from the figures of 1927 in all the three classes. The reason 
is that there has been little or no canvassing for membership be- 
cause the policy of the Association rightly has been not to incur 
any expenses over sacrificial spinning. It loses all merit when it 
requires to be canvassed and stimulated through paid agency. 
But the membership can be easily doubled if every member 
were to undertake to find one new member. It is worthy of 
note that whilst the membership has decreased, there has been a 
marked increase in the production and sale of khadi as well as 
in the number of spinners who spin for hire. 

For the information of juveniles, I reproduce below the reso- 
lution of the Council of the Association. National schools can do a 
great deal for increasing the number of juvenile members: 


* The report is not reproduced here. 
> Not rq)roduced here 



108 


THE QOLLEOTED WORKS OF BIAHATMA GAKBHX 


Resolved that a B class of juvenile members of the Association be created^ 
consisting of persons below 18 years of age who habitually wear khadi 
and contribute to the Association an annual subscription of 2,000 yards 
of self-spun yam well-twisted and uniform. 

Instruotive Figures 

I have been always repeating at public meetings that 50,000 
spinners were being served by the AU-India Spinners’ Association 
in 1,500 villages. This statement was based on the figures com- 
piled by the AU-India Spinners’ Association on the basis of yam 
production and was made in 1927. Since then more than a year 
has passed. An attenipt was made to arrive at the total number 
from direct evidence, i.e., by taking a census of spinners and 
incidentally of weavers and carders supported by the All-India 
Spinners’ Association. The table* appended to this note gives those 
figures. It wiU be seen that aU the provinces have not made their 
returns nor have all the organizations in the provinces that have 
sent their figures been able to comply with the requirements of 
the AU-India Spinners’ Association. The figures given below are 
therefore in every way an underestimate and yet they are a decided 
advance upon 50,000 spinners and 1,500 vUlages. But this is 
merely a foretaste of the possibilities of a movement which awaits 
the tangible support of an enUghtened pubUc opinion. There is 
an illimitable scope for production of khadi if demand can only 
be guaranteed. 

Toung India, 15-3-1928 


123. STILL AT IT 

The autobiographical chapter dealing with my participation 
in the late War continues to puzzle fiiends and critics. Here is one 
more letter:* 

, No doubt it was a mixed motive that prompted me to parti- 
cipate in the War. Two things I can recall. Though as an indi- 
vidual I was opposed to war, I had no status for offering effoc- 

* Not reproduced here 

*Not reproduced here. Referring to dhaptcTB XXXVIII and XXXIX 
of Part rv of the Autobiography the coirapondent had asked: “What impeU^ 
you to participate in the War? Was it' right to join the War with the hope 
of gaining something? I do not know how to reconcile this with the teaching 
of the Gita which says that we should never act with & view to the fruits of 
action.'* 



tive non-violent resistance. Non-violent resbtance can only follow 
some real disinterested service, some heart-expression of love. 
For instance, I would have no status to resist a savage offering 
animal sacrifice until he could recognize in me his fidend through 
some loving act of mine or other means. 1 do not sit in judg- 
ment upon the world for its many misdeeds. Being imperfect my- 
self and needing toleration and charity, I tolerate the world’s im- 
perfections till I find or create an opportunity for firuitful expostu- 
lation. I felt that if by sufficient service I could attain the power 
and the confidence to resist the Empire’s wars and its warlike 
preparations, it would be a good thing for me who was seeking 
to enforce non-violence in my own life to test the extent to which 
it was possible among the masses. 

The other motive was to qualify for swaraj through the good 
offices of the statesmen of the Empire. 1 could not thus qualify 
myself except through serving the Empire in its life-and-death 
struggle. It must be understood that I am writing of my mentality 
in 1914 when I was a believer in the Empire and its wfiling abi- 
lity to help India in her batde for fieedom. Had I been the 
non-violent rebel that I am today, I should certainly not have 
helped but through every effort open to non-violence I should 
have attempted to defeat its purpose. 

My opposition to and disbelief in war was as strong then as 
it is today. But we have to recognize that there are many things 
in the world which we do although we may be against doing 
them. I am as much opposed to taking the life of the lowest 
creature alive as I am to war. But I continually take such life 
hoping some day to attain the ability to do wiffiout this firatii- 
cide. To entitle me in spite of it to be called a votary of non- 
violence, my attempt must be honest, strenuous and unceasing. 
The conception of moksha, absolution fi'om the need to have an 
embodied existence, is based upon the necessity of perfected men 
and women being completely non-violent Possession of a body 
like every other possession necessitates some violence, be it ever 
so little. The fact is that the path of duty is. not always easy to 
discern amidst claims seeming to conflict one with the other. 

Lastly, the verse referred to firom the Gita has a double mean- 
ing. One is that there should be no selfish purpose behind our 
actions. That of gaining swaraj is not a selfish purpose. Secondly, 
to be detached firom fiuits of actions is not to be ignorant of them, 
or to disregard or disown them. To be detached is never to 
abandon action because the contemplated result may not ffiUow. 



110 TB£ aOLLEOlBD WOBES OE UABAtidA. OANDOt 

Oa the contrary, it is proof of immovable faith in the certainty 
of the contemplated result following in due coinse. 

Toung India, 15-3-1928 


124. LETTER TO NILRATAN SIRCAR 

Satyaoraha Ashbau, 
Sababmati, 
March 16, 1928 

DEAR SBJ mLBATAN SIBOAB, 

I have established in connection with the Ashram a little 
tannery where I am not making use of power-driven machinery. 
The idea is to have a model tannery to serve the village popu- 
lation. Can you or anyone in your big undertaking help me with 
literature on tanning to be of use for the little enterprise commenced 
at the Ashram and give me any hints for my guidance ? 

May I ask you to share this letter with Mr. Das of the 
Research Tannery if you have not proposed it yourself and pro- 
cure for me similar assistance from him? 

We are aU at the Ashram without any knowledge of conduct* 
ing tanneries, and what I want to do is to learn from the begin- 
ning, i.e., how to skin dead cattle and treat hide from the very 
commencement as it comes out of the carcass. 

Tours sinesrsly, 

From a photostat: S.N. 11394 


125. LETTER TO MALHUSUDAJI DAS 

Satyaqbaha Ashram, 
SABABMAn, 
March 16, 1928 

nSAR FBIENI), 

Alter a great deal of thought and bother I have established 
at the Ashram a litde bit of a tannery without any power-driven 
machinery and without skilled assistance save that of a man who 
has received a rough-and-tumble experience of tanning in Ame- 
rica and who is a crank like myself. Though I did not succeed 
in sharing your trpubles and taking the load off your shoulders in 
connection with your own great national enterprise, your inspira- 



IATTER. to A* t. OmWAOT 


111 


tion is partly responsible for the establishment of this little tan- 
nery at ^e A^am. Gan you please help me with a list of literature 
on the subject, a handbook on tanning and the like? If you think 
that there is nothing like it in English, will you out of your own 
wide and varied experience write out something that may be of use 
for prop£^anda, just a few hints? What is happening at the Tan- 
nery? Who is in charge? I may add that my idea is to make the 
Ashram Tannery a model for vilkges so that the villagers may be 
able to treat their ovm dead catde and make use of the hide them- 
selves. 1 have asked many people without success as to how I 
can skin dead cattle. Everybody knowing anything of tanning 
has something to say about hides after they are received from the 
village tanner; but nobody has yet told me if I take charge of a 
dead animal I can skin the carcass economically and hygienically 
and make use of other contents such as bones, intestine, etc., for 
purposes of manure. 

Tours sinesnfy, 

SjT. Madbusodan Das 
Mission Road 
Cuttack 

From a photostat: S.N. 11395 


m. LETTER TO A. T. GIDWAJfl 

Satyaobaba Ashram, 
Sabarmait, 
March 16, 1928 

MY DKAR CIDWANI, 

X see you are already in harness. Brij Krishna, who was here 
when I received your letter, has promised to send you name and 
address of a good man after he reaches Delhi. He went today and 
expects to be in Delhi in two days^ time. 

You must get Gangabchn now to write to me. I hope you will 
all keep much better health than you did at Brindaban. 

Tows smcsrely^ 

SjT. A. T. GmwAMi 
6 Qjrens Road 
Kas^chi 

From a photostat: S.N. 13107 



127. LETTER TO V. S. BHASKARAJf 


Satyaoraka Ashram, 
Sabarmati,' 
March 16, 1928 


MY DXAR BHA8KARAN, 

I have your letter. I am glad the matter is now settled and 
tliat you are not to siiffer amy appreciable pecuniary loss. 

I hope you will get a satisfactory letter from Rajaji. 

What are you doiag now? 

Tours smeerdy. 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13108 


128. LETTER TO SHARKER 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati^ 
March 16, 1928 


MY dear SHANKBR, 

I have your letter. I have, so far as letters are concerned, 
neglected you entirely; but you have never been out of my mind 
especially because 1 am myself taking an active part in the con- 
duct of &e kitchen and I give early in the morning about an hour 
shredding vegetables which is my contribution to the joint work. 
Giriraj was feeling weak and overworked. He has therefore gone 
to the model vilU^ which is being constructed these days and 
Pyarelal has taken his charge for the time being. 

I am keeping well. I am sorry to say that I was obliged to 
revert to the milk diet though there is hope of my being able 
to return to fruits and nuts. 

The massage that you saw me take is still being taken. The 
Swedish lady’s massage is in addition. It is a very simple thing. 

TeU Mathuradas that I get no time to write. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13109 



129. LETTER TO VIOLET 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 17, 1928 

MY DEAR VIOLET, 

1 have your long and interesting letter. I honour your opinion 
but I cannot agree with you. It surprises me however to find that 
you do not see any distinction between a private person commit* 
ting a private wrong and a public person or a corporation com- 
mitting a public wrong. How can people gag individual conduct 
in the manner you suggest? That is a matter of social reform and 
therefore of individuals living correct lives and [not] letting them, 
i.e., lives, afflict and inflict their surroimdings. 

Tours sineerely^ 

[Shrimati Violet 

G/o] Mrs. Lily Muteuerishna 

445 Hamden Lane 

Wellawatte 

Colombo 

Gbylon 

From a photostat: S.N. 13110 


130. LETTER TO N. D. BHOSLE^ 

Sabarmati, 
March 17, 1928 

I have now heard from Mr, Jayakar and I see from it that 
Sir Furushottamdas is no longer the president. This, however, is the 
opinion he forwards to me: 

He is however of opinion that the scheme is a useful one. He 
. suggests one caution to you that any help that you may be inclined to 
give, if it is to take the form of a collection of funds, should be con- 
ditioned that its control in the way of investment or disbunemcnt should 

1 This was written in connection with the addressee's plan for a hostel 
for the depressed-dass students at Boxnbay. Later a copy of this letter was sent 
as an endostire to ''Letter to Baban Gkikhalay’, 22-12-1928; rtdirVol. XXXVHX. 


XXXVI-8 



114 


THE OOLLEOTED WORKS OR UAfiATUA OAND&I 


be in the hands of a few men of your own choice whose veracity and 
judgment could be implicitly trusted. He assures that the scheme has a 
strong potentiality of being useful to the community, and deserves your 
support. The funds at present in the hands of the office-bearers are only 
a few hundred rupees, and unless they are supplemented it will be diffi- 
cult for the institution to commence its work. 

It therefore resolves itself iato what I have suggested aU along 
the line that there should be a proper trust-deed. I can now 
only suggest that you should see Seth Jananalalji when he comes to 
Bombay which he will do in two or three days. 1 am giving him 
sdl the papers and if he is satisfied about the trust, I shall be in 
a position to do something. 

Tours sineerdy, 
M. K. Gandhi 

Jayakar Private Fapeis, Correspondence File No. 422. Courtesy: National 
Archives of India 


131. TELEGRAM TO MATHURADAS TRIKUMJI 

[March 17, 1928^ 

NEWSPAPER REPORTS ABSOLUTELY ZNOORRECIT. I AM 
OPITE WELL. 

|Trom Gujarati] 

Bapuni Prasadi, p. 91 


132. LETTER TO MATHURADAS TRIKUMJI 

[March 17, 192S\^ 

I got your wire just now. This time the newspaper reporters 
have perpetrated a crime. They should be prosecuted for that. 
But what can we do, since we are non-co-operators? I am quite 
all right. 

[From Gujarati] 

Bapwii Prasadi^ p. 91 


1 2 From the source 



133. THE WEAPON OF BOTCOTT 


haa been reported that the satjragrahis of Bardoli are 
ready to use the weapon of boycott aga^t those who 
p to pay the revenue to the Government. This weapon is a 
one and the satyagrahi can iise it only witliin limits, 
can be violent as well as non-violent. It is only the latter 
a satyagrahi may use. At the moment I will only give 
rtles of the two forms of boycott. 

^on-violent boycott may mean not accepting any service. 
s£iJ serve may involve violence. 

^on-violent boycott may include a refusal to dine at the 
. of the person boycotted, refusal to attend marriages and 
functions at his place, doing no business with him and, 
^ no help from him. 

;^xi the other hand, refusing to nurse the boycotted person 
xs side, not allowing doctors to visit him, refusing to help in 
last rites if he happens to die, refusing to allow 
CO make use of wells, temples, etc., all this is violent boycott, 
ex* reflection will reveal that non-violent boycott can be conti- 
for a long period and no external force can prove effectual 
■rnlnating it, whereas violent boycott cannot continue for long 
sscternal force can be used in a large measure to put an end 
XJltimatdy violent boycott only does disservice to a move- 
IMany such instances can be quoted fi'om the era of non- 
ex*a.tion. However, on this occasion, the distinction that I 
pointed out should be enough for the satyagrahis and the 
Sr'S of Bardoli. 
fVom Gujarati] 
az/^'ivan, 18-3-1928 


134. TELEGRAM TO JV. R. MALKANI 


Sabasuah^ 
March 19, 1928 

Mauecani Flood Rsubf Gommittbe 

Hydbiiabad Sind 

YOU should seston.* 

Bafu 

From a photostat: G.N. 883 


135. LETTER TO JAL KHAMBHATTA 

Satyaoraea Ashrah, 
SaSARMAT!^ 
March 19, 1928 

OHI. JAL, 

I am sorry to hear that you are not well. Have faith that not 
a leaf falls without God’s will, and so, trusting to Him, medi~ 
tate on Him and have patience. If it is His will, you will be all 
right 

Blessings from 
Bafu 

From the Gvuarati original; G.W. 5013. Courtesy: Tehmina Kham- 
bhatta 


m. LETTER TO BEHRAMJI KHAMBHATTA 

Satyagraha Ashrau, 
Sabaruati, 
March 19, 1928 

BHAISHRI EHAldBHATTA, 

I got your letter only today. You certainly have my blesHinga 
for your son. I see no reason why you should feel nervous and 
rim to Europe. We must have trust in God. If some good doctor 
there is prepared to take the risk, I see no harm in getting the 
> Vide “Letter to N. R. Malkani”, 20-3-1928. 



117 


LETTER TO 0. RAJAOOPAIACISAJtl 

operation performed locally. Have you consulted junior Dedi- 
mukh? TeU Chi. Jal to be Inave. Write to me again and let me 
know the developments. How is your health now? 

If no doctor there is prepared to take the risk and if you do 
not feel at peace, certainly go to Europe. Do not treat my letter 
as a prohibitory order. I only wish to explain to you tiiat we 
must do nntlimg in haste and, realizing that this body is perisha.ble, 
should not be excessively attached to it 

Blsssingsfim 

Bapu 

From the Otyarati original: C.W. 5012. Gourtmy: Tehmina 

Khambhatta 


137. LETTER TO RAIHAJ(A TTABJI 

March 19, 1928 

MY DEAR RAIHANA, 

Of course you come whenever you csin and stay as long as 
you wiU. 

Love. 

Bapu 

From a photostat: S.N. 9607 


138. LETTER TO C. RAJAGOPALACHARI 

Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 19, 1928 

MY DEAR a.R., 

1 have your letter. You are out of court about your dietetics 
for your hopeless protest namely, your spinning yams about 
almonds and poor groundnuts, the food of the E^nalayan race. 
Take notice that the experiment is only suspended to enable me 
to return to it, unhampered by the weight of so-called medical 
opinion. I lived on raw groundnuts for at least 6 years without com- 
ing to grief of the sort referred to by you. But of this later. 

What about Europe? My anxiety is to meet RoUand. He 
appears to be the wisest man of Europe. He takes an unusual inte- 
rest in me and feels grieved if he thinks that in any single thing my 



[8 


THE COLLEOTED WOBE8 OF MAHATHA OAKDHI 


>imon is wrong. It seems to me that it would be a tragedy if 
e do not meet. This is the cause that moves me above aU 
he rest is thrown in. 

I do not know what Andrews has written to you. But your opin- 
n will have with me as much weight as Andrews’s. Therefore 
y without fear what you will have me do. 

Many are grieved that I did not die on the 17th. . . . Per- 
ips I am one among them. Perhaps I did die a kind of death, 
^e shall see. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13111 


139. LETTER TO M. R. MADHAVA WARRJER 

Satvaoraha Ashbam, 
Sabarmati, 
March 20, 1928 

SAR FRJEND, 

I have your letter. It is difficult to guide you from this dis- 
nce. But I suggest your going as slow as possible but steadily, 
you will launch out on an ambitious scheme, you will find that 
would prove to be embarrassing in the long run. 

Tows sineenly, 

T. M. R. Madhava Warmer, B.A., LL.B. 

StESIDENT, MuNTC3IPAL GouNCHL 

JJILON 

RAVANOORE 

From a photostat: S.N. 13115 


140. LETTER TO N. R. MALKAja 

Satyaorah^ Ashram, 
Sababmati, 
March 20, 1928 

My DKAR MALKAMI, 

I have your letter. You must have had my telegram.* I 
couldu’t possibly recoacile myself to the idea of your remaining 
in the Cbllege simply for the sake of being able to draw upon it 
for your maintenance. 1 see no harm in Flood Relief Fund 
supporting you. I am in correspondence with Thakkar Bapa 
about it and if it can be done without in any shape or form com- 
promising your present position, it should be done. Whether you 
receive the money through me or the Flood Relief Conunittee, it 
would be from a public fund. We must get rid of there being 
shame in honorary services being paid in the sense in which we 
use the word ‘honorary’. The labourer is worthy of his hire, 
and, all service is honorary when the servant takes no more than 
his hire. That your hire has to be above the normal in other parts 
of India is unfortunate but inevitable. If your honorarium cannot 
be decently drawn from the Flood Fund, I shall hold myself res- 
ponsible for it. But I want you to teU me how much you will 
require. 

Thakkar Bapa tells me that he is going to send you a good 
worker from the Bhil Ashram and that he had left one with you 
already. But if you have anybody particularly in mind, please do 
not hesitate to name him and I shall see whether he can be 
spared. 

Tours siwtrtly, 

Bapu 

From a photostat: G.N. 884 


iVidt “Telegram to N. R. Malkaai”, 19-3'1929» 



141. LETTER TO SURESH CHANDRA BANERJI 

SATyAORAHA AsBXAM, 
Sababuati, 
March 20, 1928 

MY D£AR SDRRSH BABU, 

I have seea the letter fiom the Secretary regarding the num- 
ber of spinners served by you. Do you not see that it is as essential 
for you to reach your q)inDers as it is for you to keep your books 
in a thoroughly good order? If you do not take this precaution, 
you win find that the organization wiU one day collapse like a 
house of cards. It does not matter whose yam in the particular 
week day you have received but it does matter that you send 
some reliable person to the people who are actually spinning and 
find out their condition and talk to them. Surely, it is neither 
an impossible task nor a very elaborate one. When the spinners 
who come to the middle men to sell their yam return home you 
have simply to follow them to their homes and, if they avoid 
you once, they won’t avoid you always. They will give you their 
confidence immediately they cease to distrust you. You must 
have some middle men at least who are fairly honest and who will 
not mind taking your m^enger to the very homes firom which 
they receive their yam. And if this very simple thing is beyond 
your capacity, you are manifestly at the mercy of the middle men 
to whom it is open any day to stop their custom or to impose 
conditions which will be either impossible of acceptance or hurt- 
ful to your self-respect. I wish therefore that you wiU realize the 
importance of the suggestion which Mr. Banker has been making 
fix)m time to time at my instance. 

Tows sineeTsly, 


From a photostat: S.N. 13113 



142. LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 20, 1928 


MY DEAR JAWAHAR, 

I have received your two letters. I write just now only to 
fulfil the promise to send you a message for the friend you men- 
tioned.^ He has now written directly to me, but as I promised 
the message to you, here it is. 

I hope you are following my articles on boycott and mills. I 
am having conferences with the mill-owneis alro. Whether they 
will come to anything I do not know. But if anything appears to 
you wrong or weah you will please let me know. 

How is Kamala doing? Where are you going to keep her 
during the hot season? 

Tours sineertly . 

From a photostat: S.N. 13116 


143. MESSAGE TO MARCELLE CART 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 20, 1928 

There can be no living harmony between races and nations 
unless, the main cause is removed, namely, exploitation of the weak 
by the strong. We must revise the interpretation of the so-called 
doctrine of “the survival of the fittest”. 

< M< K. Gandhi 

From a photostat: S.N. 13117 


^ Vide the &Ilowmg item. 



J44. LETTER TO MARCELLE CART 


Satyaoraha. Ashram, 
Sabasmait, 
March 20, 1928 

I have your letter. Before I got it, I had received your mes- 
sage through our common fiiend Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. As 
I was under promise to him before I received your letter, I have 
sent my message ‘ through him. 

Tours sinurtly, 

Maroelle. Capy 
78 Rue de L’assomption 
Paris (Franob) 

From a photostat: S.N. 14264 


145. LETTER TO DR B. C. ROT 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 20, 1928 


DEAR DR. ROY, 

I have your letter for which I thank you. 

The news in the Press about Dr. Ansari’s visit was wholly 
libellous. It upset so many friends and I had to answer cables 
even from Johaimesburg and Siam. You have now I suppose 
seen the correction that Dr. Ansari’s visit had nothing to do with 
my health. If it had, you as one of the keepers of my body 
would sJso have certainly known something about it directly 
from the* Ashram. Dr. Ansaii came with Jamnalalji and Dr. 
Zakir Husain purely in connection with the National Mudim 
University and as he came he brought the instrument of torture 
and was bound to examine me. Upon examination he found me 


1 Vid» the proceding item. 



LETTER TO ZAKIR HCSAIK 123 

in a satisfactory condition, systolic registering 149 and diastolic 
92 io. the morning and in the evening s. 152 and d. 98. 

Touts sineerdy. 

Dr. Bidhan G. Roy 
Calgutta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13120 


146. LETTER TO Z^IR HUSAIN 

Satyagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 20, 1928 

MY DEAR ZAKIR, 

I have your letter and copy of Lord Irwin’s letter.i Lord 
Irwin’s letter makes it doubly useful to send the letter princi- 
pally in accordance with the (^ail^ made by me. Of course it will 
require necessary changes. I hope you will send me copy of the 
letter that Dr. Ansari may finally write. 

I do not know whether Devdas has drawn your attention to 
the fact that the sanitary condition of the quarters requires care- 
ful attention. I would like you to ask Devdas to point out the de- 
fects he might have noticed. 

I hope you wiU lose no time in issuing invitations^ and follow- 
ing up the programme we jointly discussed and settled when you 
were at the Ashram. 

Tours sineenly, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13119 


1 With his letter, dated March 17, 1928, Zakir Hiuain had sent to Gandhiji a 
copy of the then Viceroy Lord Irwin’s letter, dated March 16, 1928, addressed 
to Dr. Ansati which inter alia read: “. . . I would willingly subscribe to it on the 
general grounds that the late Hakim Ajmal Khan had devoted his life to the 
rdief of the side and that a memorial of the kind proposed seemed to me well 
fitted to perpetuate his memory. I have now learnt from Hakim Ajmal Khan 
[’s son] that an appeal is afoot and I am therefore associating myself with 
it. . . .” 

2 xhis is not available. 

3 Zakir Hiuain had written in his letter: "1 hope to issue the invitation 
to members of Jamia Foundation Qommittee as soon as Dr. Ansari is back” 
(S.N. 14913). 



147. LETTER TO SATIS CHAJfDRA DAS GUPTA 


Satyaoraha. Ashram, 
Sabarmait, 
March 20, 1928 

SEAR RATB BABU, 

It is a sad thing this boycott movement. I want you to read 
carefully my article on mills and boycott*. I am keeping myself 
in toudi with the mill-owners also. If you detect a flaw in my 
argument, you will not hesitate to draw my attention to it. 

The telegram about my health was wholly libellous this time 
because it was absolutely wi^out any foundation. So far as I know, 
I have never been in better health. Dr. Ansaii and Janmalaiji 
came to discuss the Ajmal ELhan Memorial in connection with the 
National Muslim University and nothing else. 

Tours smctrdy. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13121 


148. LETTER TO RADHA GANDHI 


Ashram, 

Tuesday \jMarch 20, 1923]* 

OBI. RADBIKA, 

I got your beautiful postcards. Remember all that I have 
told you. Take great care of your health, and love everyone. 
Rukhi is improving, but there is bleeding whenever she tries to 
walk. The doctor has examined her. You need not worry about 
anything on this side. Tell Durga also to^ write, and see that she 
does. 

Blessings from 
Bapu 

From the Gujarati original: G.W. 8668. Courtesy: Radhabehn Chaudhari 


* Vide “What Can Our Mills Do?”, 15-3-1928. 
2 From the postmark 



149. INTERVIEW TO AUCE SCHALEK 


March 20, 1928 

Mahatma Gandhi received Mias Alice Sdialek on the 20th of March in 
the Ashram at 4 o’clock. When she entered, he said: 

Please excuse me for my remaining on my seat, I cannot 
stand up. 

mss 8.: May I ask some questions? 

oANDHiji: Of course, please do. 

Does your influence grow or decline? 

A. A question difficult to answer, but I fancy it is growing, 
so far as the masses are concerned. 

( 2 . Is it true that in your meaning the British have done no good to 
India? And you even regard the nulways harmful? 

A. Partly true. The total effect of the British rule in Tndia 
has been nothing but evil. The railways have done more harm 
than good. 

Eb.ve they not been useful in famines? 

A. They may serve a temporary useful purpose. But they 
have generally served to carry away from the villager what he needs 
for himself. 

d. But he gets money for it? 

A. But he cannot eat the money. If you were in the desert 
of Sahara and you had only as much water as you needed for 
keeping you alive, would you sell it for any amount of gold? 

But are not they selling only what is superfluous? 

A. They sell their birthright when they sell their raw pro- 
duce. They do so because they know no better. If you have my 
welfare at heart, would you advise me to sell raw hide and 
get from you manufactured shoes, or to sell my cotton and pur- 
chase manufactured cloth? I am asking my countrymen to store 
their cotton and spin it into yam and make their own rlntb , 

d‘ They say that where there are railways there is no starvation. In 
case of famine, they take food quickly from a place' where it is in abundance 
to a place where it is needed. 



l!26 Tfi£ aOLtfiOTBD WolUbS Of UAMATitA. dANDfll 

A. Those who laid out the railways did not tliinlr of the 
welfare of the people. They thought of the interest of the dis- 
tant shareholders or piincipals. The advantage, in case of a famine, 
is small when we think of the counterbalancing disadvantages. It 
is like a robber robbing me of my all and then offering me back 
a trifle. 

Would India Have been better if railways had not been Here? 

A. I have no doubt, other conditions being satisfied. 

ft. How can the railways be made useful? 

A. The policy should be so conceived as to be consistent with 
the real interests of the people, that is to say, they should en- 
able people to remain self-supporting as they were before the 
railways came. Today they are being pauperized both in mind 
and body. They knew how to make the best use of their raw mate- 
rial. They used to turn their cotton into cloth, their hide into 
shoes, their com into bread. Today the process is being reversed. 
I cannot consider anything more [harmful] than that millions should 
have to export their raw material which they can manufacture at 
home, and import finished products. The railways can usefully 
serve to transmit the finished products manufactured by the vil- 
lagers firom one part of the country to another. • 

Q,. There should be a large movement to teach the people to do all these 
things? 

A. There was ample interprovincial trade before. 

n* Is not the foreign method cheaper? 

A. No. Even if it was, our own product would be cheaper 
at a higher cost. For instance when we in the Ashram first began 
to grow our vegetables they cost us more than the market vege- 
tables. But now we grow them better and cheaper than elsewhere 
and our own inmates get work also. 

Q,- 1 speak frankly? I was told in Bengal &at kbaddar is more 

expensive and coaiBcr than British cloth, and that women who pledge themselves 
to wear khaddar have their underwear made of foreign cloth. 

A.^ If khaddar is coarser, patriotism demands that measure 
of sacrifice. There is no doubt that we have made a considerable 
advance on what we used to produce some years ago and we 
have been able to effect considerable reduction in prices. As for 
the ladies you were told about, I can only say that it was not pro- 
per for them to use any foreign cloth if they were pledged to wear 
khadi. 



INtBRVlEW Td ALIQB SOEAL^ 


127 


Q. What are your aims and ideals? 

A. I want perfect freedom for my country through non-violent 
and truthful means. 

{2- Do you think you can reach so far through non-violence? 

A. My own conviction is that we shall obtain it only through 
non-violence and not otherwise. 1 think it more possible of attain- 
ment through non-violent than through violent means. 

(2. What do you mean by freedom? 

A. I want the freedom to make mistakes, and freedom to 
nninalfft them, and freedom to grow to my full height and freedom 
to stumble also. I do not want crutches. 

Q, Don’t you think the British have been very helpful to India? 

A. They have been most harmful in every essential particular. 
By “they” I mean the British Government. 

ft. And why? 

A. Because they have sapped the economic, mental and 
moral growth of the people. 

ft. Don’t you think they have helped in India’s economic growth? 

A. According to the reports of Government officials them- 
selves, India is poorer today than it was fifty years ago. A few 
individuals may have become rich, but generally poverty is deep- 
ening. There has been a little transfer of wealih, but no general 
prosperity of the country. 

ft. Government say there were never before so many purchasers. 

A. It is wrong if they mean that people could not buy then 
and that they can buy now. It is true in the sense that where- 
as people did not buy many things in those days, they do so 
today, and there are more goods to buy. 

ft. But what is the sense of boycotting British goods? England does not 
give preference to her own goods. There ,is free competition for all the 
nations of the world. 

, A. No. It is wrong. It only appears as though there was 
free competition. Enghmd does give preference to her goods in a 
variety of insidious ways. There, is apparent freedom, but no true 
freedom. But even if the British were impartial in favouring 
foreigners, I would have my quarrel with them. I want preference 
for Indian interests. 



128 TWl aOLLBOTED WORKS OR MAHATBIA OAJNDHI 

ft. How? 

A. By prohibiting import of all foreign cloth and by levying 
a heavy tax on all imports that can be manufactured in the 
coimtry. 

ft. But your cost of manufacture will be much higher. 

A. High and low prices are no necessary indication of the 
prosperity or depression of a country. It is infinitely better that I 
grow my vegetables even if the cost is a trifle higher than that 
I shoiild depend for them on someone else. Then I shall try to 
reduce the cost by judicious and skilful management. The gain in 
skill, comfort and the knowledge that we grow our vegetables is 
mudh greater than the little gain we might have in getting vege- 
tables cheap in Ahmedabad. Even in the matter [of] producing 
cloth we could do it in no time and quite cheap if we were left 
to our own resources. ' 

ft. There is no coimtry in the world which is free from foreign competi- 

tion. 

A. Pardon me. Germany was one. Germany erected a 
prohibitive tariff wall on all foreign sugar and then successfully 
produced its best sugar. Every nation protects its infant industry 
by bounties and taiifis. 

ft. Do you mean to say that all foreign impojrts must be stopped and 
that India must use only indigenous goods? 

A. We may have from foreign countries all the things we 
cannot produce, e.g., we may have iodine from Britain or Ger- 
many, we may have pearls from Arabia, diamonds from Johan- 
nesburg, lever watches from England and good readable books 
from England, America and all countries in the world. Indeed 
1 riiould have need[les] and pins — dangerous weapons bothl — 
from foreign countries, and quite a number of other things I can 
mention. And we may profitably esport to other countries what- 
ever they need, but we ^ould never impose anything on anybody. 
For instance I may grow opium, but would not tbinlc of imposmg 
it on China or America. 

ft. But if you make your own things, would you not have to face the 
labour qpiestion? 

A. Why? If it arises, it will solve itself. 

ft. Would you do it all on capitalistic basis or communistic basis? 

A. On a nationalistic basis, in the interests of the people. 


LETT£K to framz eono 


129 


Q,, But who will finance the industries? 

A. We. Our finance consists in our own men and women, 
and we have got them in their millions. 

Should your industry be run by the State or by the country? 

A. It does not matter how it is run, provided it is nm in the 
interests of the millions, not of a class. That principle assured, I 
should not mind who nominally runs it. 

From a photostat: S.N> 14284 

150. INTERVIEW TO ASSOCIATED PRESS OF INDIA 

Abiiedabax), 

March 20, 1928 

Interviewed regarding the report from Delhi stating that he had practi- 
cally aocq>ted the invitation to attend the Youth’s Conference at Vieima and 
that he would shortly leave for Europe, Mahatma Gandhi said that the state- 
ment was altogether premature. He added that nothing had as yet been fixed 
and he was not clear in his own mind whether he should go. 

The Bombay Chromle, 22-3-1928 


151. LETTER TO FRANZ RONO^ 

Satyaobaba Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 21, 1928 


dear ERIBim, 

I tbanlc you for your letter. I can only say to the youth that 
they should turn Iheir tremendous energy of youth through 
spending it in sacred service but not dissipate it tiurough speeches 
and writings and the like which are becoming so much the fashion 
nowadays. 

Tours sitietrslj), 

From a photostat: S.N. 14265 


1 Secretary of Wel^ugendliga, the Austrian division of the World 
Federation of Youth for Peace. In his letter, dated March 10, 1928, he had 
requested Oandhiji “to send a few lines of guidance” (S.N. 14225). 

XXXVI-9 



152. LETTER TO T. DE MAJf^mRLT 

Satyaoraha Abhram, 
Sabaruati, 
March 21y 1928 

It was a pleasure to receive your letter after such a long tiTn^. 
I am sending you the two books you mention and I am arlHing a 
third — ^Hand-spinning Essay, the Guide to Health and Takli Teacher. 

Now about the 2nd paragraph.^ I would just like to say that 
whilst I am a .passionate devotee of simplicity in life, I have also 
discovered that it is worthless unless the echo of simplicity comes 
from within. The modem organized artificiality of so-called civi- 
lized life cannot have any accord with tme simplicity of heart 
Where the two do not correspond, there is always either gross self- 
deception or hypocrisy. 

Tours sinttrdj, 

T. DE Manziarly 

From a photostat: S.N. 14267 


^The addressee in his letter dated December 27, 1927 had written: 
. . You know how I would like to see mankind realizing the necessity of 
becoming more simply to have more time and more energy to be spent, on 
truer things. ...” 


153. LETTER TO MRS. JOSEPH A. BRAUN 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 21, 1928 

DRAR FRIEND, 

It was thoughtful of you and the members of your club to 
send me through Mrs. Sharman a cheque for Rs. 70. I value the 
gift for the heart that prompted it. I am utiliziag the an two for 
supplying the needs of one who had devoted bimaoTf to propa- 
gate ^e message of the spinning-wheel. 

Tours sineertly, 

Mrs. Joseph A. Braun 
RFD 3 
Birminoham 
M iamoAN, U.S.A. 

From a photostat: S.N. 14268 


154. LETTER TO PUNJABHAI 

•Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 21, 1928 

OHI. PUNJABHAI, 

I have your postcard. Do come on Saturday evening. If I 
cannot spare time for you in the evening, I will do so on Sunday 
and will let you return at the time fixed by you. I hope you are now 
completely dl right 


From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.N> 4009 


Blessings Jhm 
Bapu 



155. J^OTES 

Gharkha a Proved Waot 

Akbarpur in U.P. is a little place where Professor Kripa- 
lani’s khadi band worked for seven years. For reasons into which 
I need not go, this band had to withdraw from Akbarpur. Pandit 
Jawaharlal Nehru describes the touching scenes that followed the 
withdrawal and how the centre had somehow to be kept up. The 
fiDllowing from his letter to the All-India Spinners* Association 
will be read with interest: 

I have told you already that the Gandhi Asbram has left Akbarpur. 
We have taken charge temporarily because we felt that pending your 
decision we ought to carry on. If we had not taken charge there would 
have been a break and it would have been more difficult to start a&esh. 
Besides, on sentimental grounds also it was a little difficult to abandon the 
place. It has been a well-known centre for so many years and a large 
number of weavers and others are intimately connected with it. To leave 
it suddenly would have had a bad effect on the whole neighbourhood and 
upset the economy of a great number of poor households who were depen- 
dent on it. Indeed, we were told that some touching incidents were 
witnessed when the Gandhi Ashram azmounced that they were closing 
up. Many old women spinners who used to sell their yam at a distant 
centre, finding this centre closed, trudged up many miles to headquarters 
and wept when they found that their yam was not to be bought. Many 
weavers with their wives and families came up to the Akbarpur office and 
said they would perform satyagraha. For seven years they had been working 
for the Ashram and now they were being left in the lurch. You wiU 
realize how difficult it was for us to refuse to take charge under these 
circumstances. But of course, sentimental considerations cannot decide 
the question. Akbarpur possesses some marked advantages and at the 
same time a very great disadvantage. As a weaving centre it is famous 
and even now some of the finest weaving in India is done at Tanda in 
the neighbourhood. Unhappily this fine weaving — called Jamdani work — 
is done with foreign yam. On the other hand, there is very little spin- 
ning done near Akbarpur and if the centre is to be worked it will be 
necessary to bring yam firnm elsewhere. The Gandhi Ashram, I believe, 
used to get their yarn chiefly from across the border in Bihar, also from 
Muza ff amagar. For us it will be easier to get it from the Northern Dis- 
tricts of the U.P. — Moradabad, Bynor, etc. The cost of sending the yam 
is not great. 


NOTES 


133 


If khadi became as current as ghee or grain, there could never 
have been a thought of withdrawing from any centre. If we had 
funds and workers we would have representatives not only in 1,600 
villages but in 7,00,000 villages. This is no impracticable ambition, 
when we remember the fact that there axe at least two representa- 
tives of the alien Government in each of these villages. If 
anyone before the British advent had suggested any such thing, 
he would have been laughed out of court. But reflection should 
show that the restoration of the wheel in every one of the villages 
is not half as laughable as the hope of imperial Britain being re- 
presented in the republican villages of India would have been in 
the 17th century. What the women near Akbarpur are reported 
to have said demonstrates what a felt want the charkha fills or can 
fill in every village of this ancient land. It is no credit to our 
patriotism that the able weavers of Akbarpur have to fall back 
upon foreign yam for their fu-famed jamdard which it was their 
pride nearly half a century ago to weave out of yam spun by the 
sacred hands of their own sisters living next door to them. It 
won’t be long before the spinners in our villages are able to spin 
as fine and as strong yam as any foreign yam now infesting our 
market. 

Gan It Bb True? 

The president, Arya Samaj, New Delhi, writes:* 

The Baghat State is situated in the Simla Hills and its ruler is 
an enlightened Hindu chief. . . . The population of the State is about ten 
thousand and mainly consists of Rsyputs, Kanets and Brahmins. The 
other tribes are KoUs, Qhamars, etc., who are regarded as menials. 
Although the Kolis chiefly live on agriculture yet the social disabilities to 
which they are subject are numerous. . . . Moved by die inhuman treatment 
which these people suflfer at the hands of their Hindu brethren, 
the Arya Sanuy, Simla, brought them into their fold with a view to 
raise their status in life and invested them with the sacred thread, in- 
asmuch as by occupation they are Vsusyas. . . . This seems to have given 
umbrage to the caste Hindus who challenged the right of their being 
invested with the sacred thread. A summary trial was consequendy held 
on the 6th January 1928 by the Qhief of the State himself and on the 
subsequent day on the plea of antiquity and customs, the poor Kolis 
who were ten in number were sentenced to undergo six months' imprison- 
ment in addition to a fine of Rs. 200 each. No opportunity was given 
to these unfortunate persons to defend themsdvea, nor was permission 

* Only extracts are r^roduced here. 



134 THE OOIXEOTED WOEXS 07 MAHATIIA OANBHI 

givea to the Pandit of the Arya Samaj who happened to be present 
on the occasion to explain the point of view of the Arya Sarnty in this 
matter. It is now reported that they are being coerced in the jail to 
take off their sacred thread. 

The information contained in the foregoing seems to me to be 
unbelievable. The Kolis can in no way be considered to be un- 
touchables or to be of the suppressed or the depressed classes. If 
they are their own farmers, according to the definition of the diffe- 
rent vamas, they are bom Vaisyas and have every right to wear 
the sacred thread. But assuming that they have no right in re- 
ligion, I was totally unprepared for the news that the wearing of the 
sacred thread would be considered a crime punishable in law in 
any State. Equally unthinkable it is that the unfortunate men who 
thought that they had passed through some desirable or merito- 
rious religious ceremony were denied even -the right of defend- 
ing themselves and producing their witnesses. And, if the 
statements about the punishment and farcical trial are tme, I 
should not at all wonder if the sacred thread had been forcibly 
taken off their persons. I would invite the president of the Arya 
Samaj to send further details, if any, in corroboration of the clW- 
ges brought by him against the Baghat State and I would invite 
the State authorities if they wish to send me their version of the 
incident which I shall gladly publish. 

Toung India, 22-3-1928 

156. FOREIGN CLOTH BOYCOTT-SOME QpESTIONS 

A friend intimately connected with mills and desirous of hav- 
ing our mills contributing their full quota to the foreign cloth 
boycott movement asks: 

1 . On what basis do you want prices standardized ? For remember 
all mills are not alike. Some are bad, some are good; some use more 
sizing than others, some have more reserve than others; Bombay mills make 
less profits than upcountry ones. These differences are illustrative of 
many others that might be stated. 

The one general answer that may be given is “where there’s a 
will there’s a way’’. The mills will contribute their quota only 
when they get rid of inertia, think “furiously”, and that too in 
terms of die nation, not merdy the pockets of share-holders, direc- 
tors or agents. But by way of making my position in this matter 
clearer I may say that all the mills who will join the boycott 



135 


FORBION OLOTH BOYOOTT — SOME QpESTIONS 

movement will have to pool all the differences and arrive at a 
standard price which would at le^l^t mean a large slice off from 
the present profits of at least some mills. If their patriotism is 
sound and progressive the flourishing ones will cover the losing 
ones, avoidable differences will be avoided. In the scheme I have 
in view the mills need never lose in the aggregate and they must 
not profit at the expense of the buyer. 

2. Only some mills will undertake not to manufacture khadi. 
But what about those that only spin low counts? What is your test of 
khadi? 

This is a matter of common honesty and arrangement between 
hhadi organizations and mills. At present I am sorry to have to 
say that even some good mills are not ashamed to label their cloth 
‘khadi’ simply in order to take an illegitimate advantage of the 
growing khadi atmosphere in the mofussil. If a workable arrange- 
ment is come to, I e3q)ect that there will be a line of demarca- 
tion for the time being between the cloth to be manufactured by 
khadi centres and mills. The manufacture of cloth will be control- 
led as it often is in times of war. What in a war based on vio- 
lence we do by compulsion, in this war based on non-violence we 
shall do by choice. Our ability volimtarily, i.e., merely under 
pressure of public opinion, to arrange boycotts, etc., will be the 
outward but indispensable test of our non-violence if we have 
any in us. 

3. How will profits be regulated? You know as well as I do that 
prices of cotton fluctuate with irritating irregularity. 

This assumes our inability to control the cotton market. Surely 
if the largest manufacturers of the country combine in the patriot- 
ic effort, they will control the cotton market. America rules our 
cotton prices becatise we stupidly, thoughtlessly, and selfishly 
send out our cotton. But boycott means that we shall control the 
movement of cotton, as we shall control many other things, if we 
are to achieve complete boycott, as we must if we have developed 
the true national spirit and have confidence ia ourselves and the 
nation. 

4. If you lay mu<fii stress upon honesty, perseverance, mutual trust, 
etc., you are doomed. 

As I have no bayonet at my command and would not have 
it even if I could command it, I must press for the qualities which 
the fiiend fears are at a discount. I do not share his fear — what 
is more I have patience enough to wait for the development of 



136 THE aOLLEOTED WORKS OF iSASATtSA. PANPHT 

those qualities if they are not available in sujSScient measure 
today. For this nation will never come to her own utiIpm we 
exhibit them as a nation. I know too that we shall take much 
longer to discipline ourselves for violence, fraud and the like than 
we shall for truth and non-violence and all that they imply. 

The friend then draws my atteotion to the following omis- 
sions in my previous article:* 

(a) The nulls that join the scheme may not use foreign 
yam or foreign artificial silk as many now do. 

(b) They may not insure with foreign companies. 

(c) They may not import foreign cloth and label it *swa- 
dedii’. 

I had assumed that (a) and (c) were a foregone conclusion. 
I should not care to insist on (b) if the iosistence would hamper 
the proposed joint venture. Much as 1 should like indigenous 
insurance enterprise, I am convinced that it is the foreign cloth 
that blocks the way as nothing else does. If we can put thiq 
Himalayan obstacle out of the way, we shall easily cope with hil- 
locks. 

Toung India, 22-3-1928 


157. DIFFERENCE STATED 

I gladly publish the foregoing.^ It was made clear at those 
meetings of International Fellowship^ that I had meant the 
principal religions of the world and I had maintained that aU. 
were tme more or less and that aU were necessarily imperfect 
Here therefore there is agreement. But Mr. Irelwd’s letter 
leaves on the mind the impression that there is a frmdamental 
difference between him and me regarding conversion, no matter 
by what name it is called. Let me extend the analogy of fragrance, 
foulty as all analogies are in their very nature. The rose imparts 
its fragrance not in many ways but only one. Those who have not 
the sense of smell will miss it. You cannot feel the fragrance 
through the tongue or the ear or the skin. So may you not 
receive spirituality except through the spiritual sense. Hence 
have all religions recognized the necessity of that sense being 

1 Fi* « What Gan Our Mflla Do?”, 15-3-1928. 

2 The letter from W. F. Ireland of Cambridge Miasion is not reproduced 

here. 

9 FI* “Discussion on Fellowship”, Before 15-1-1928. 



DIFFBRENQS STATED 


1S7 


awakened. It is a second birth. A man with intense spirituality 
may without speech or a gesture touch the hearts of millions who 
have never seen him and whom he has never seen. The most elo- 
quent preacher if he has not spirituality in him will fail to touch 
die hearts of his audience. Therefore I venture to think that most 
of the effort of modem missions is not only useless but more often 
than not harmful. At the root of missionary effort is also the 
assumption that one’s own belief is trae not o^y for oneself but for 
aU the world; whereas the truth is that God reaches us> through 
millions of ways not understood by us. In missionary effort there- 
fore there is lack of real humility that instinctively recognizes 
human limitations and the limidess power of God. I have no 
feeling that from a spiritual standpoint I am necessarily superior 
to the so-called savage. And spiritual superiority is a dangerous 
thing to feel. It is not* like . many other things wWch we can per- 
ceive, analyse and prove through our senses. If it is there, I 
caimot be deprived of it by any power on earth, and it wiU have 
its effect in its own due time. But if in matters of medicine and 
other natural sciences, I feel my superiority over others, a thing 
of which I may be legitimately conscious, and if I have love for 
my fellow beings, I would naturally share my knowledge with 
them. But things of the spirit I leave to God and thus keep the 
bond between fellow beings and myself pure, correct and within 
limits. But I must not carry this argument any further. 

My first feeling was not to publish Mr. Ireland’s letter but to 
send a brief reply to him privately. But my regard for him has 
prompted me to comply with his wish without any ado knowing 
full well that this is not a matter which admits of any conclusive 
argument especially from my side and in view of the position 
herein described by me. 

roung India, 22-3-1928 


1 & * Fi* "Two CJorrectioMi’’. 29-3-1928. 



m. FIJI FOR THE FIJIANS^ 


Though what Deenabandhu says is the truth and nothing but 
the truth, I fear that if the British Imperialist rulers offer the 
Indian emigrants in any part of the world sufficient inducement, 
they will succumb and imagine that they are “equal partners”, 
not knowing that they are but “jackals”. But the hope lies in 
Imperialists never offering enough inducement and the native wit 
of the Indian emigrants seeing through the thin veil of Imperial 
maya. 

Toung India, 22-3-1928 


159. LETTER TO P. K. MATHEW 


The Ashram, 
Sasarmah, 
March 22, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I am sorry that I was unable to reply to your letter till now. 
I would like you to read the back numbers of Toung India to 
understand that spinning-wheels are not good for schools. Taklis 
should be introduced in schools. Experience has shown that they 
give much better results in every way than the spinning-whed 
for the reasons stated in the pages of Toung Indiefl and you need no 
special buildings and no expenditure worth the name. 

Tours sineeref}), 

P. K. Mathew, Esq,., B.A., B.L. 

Ghristava Mafui-alayam 

Alwaye 

(Travanoore) 

From a microfilm: S. N. 13124 


^ G. F. Andrews’s article bearing this title, is not reproduced here. 
* Vids Vol. XXXII, p. 28. 



160. MARMAGE OF THE OLD AND CHILD-MARRIAGE 


A gentleman from Surat writes to say:‘ 

His criticism of child-mariiages is largely correct. If the 
writer goes through the articles in the previous issues of Navajivan, 
he will see that they have often severely criticized child-marriages. 
And I also know that these articles have averted some child- 
marriages. However, there is still room for a great deal of re- 
form. Society is not as much averse to child-marriage as it is to 
marriage with old men. In my opinion both these are equally 
objectionable. Hence, there is no difference of opinion between 
this correspondent and myself with regard to condemnation of 
child-marriage. If I had the authority or if my pen had enough 
power, I would use it to prevent every child-marriage. Parents 
who marry their children at a tender age become their enemies 
and are responsible for making them dependent and weak. 

However, the correspondent’s intention appears to be to up- 
hold marriages of old men while discrediting child-marriages. 
The advantages of marrying an old man as stated by the corres- 
pondent seem to be ludicrous and also to ignore completely the 
poor girl or if there is any consideration for her it is only for 
her financial condition. The writer appears to forget that consent 
of the girls who are married off to old men is never secured; per- 
haps, in his opinion, it is needless to think of it. The corres- 
pondent seems to be wholly oblivious of the fact that marriage is a 
religious rite and, worse stiU, he fails to remember that marriage 
with an old man amounts to a doubly culpable child-marriage, as 
in all such cases not only is frie bride a child but the old man who 
despite age contemplates marriage can only be deemed a child, 
or something worse. Although the husband may be living it is a 
kind of widowhood for the girl. Society is least likely to be 
harmed if old men who cannot control their passions or who for 
some other reason wish to marry, do so with old or mature women 
prepared to enter into such relationship with them. 

CONaRATULATEONS 

The result of the above-mentioned article has been that a poor 
girl has been spared as the elderly gentleman who was going to 
marry her realized his mistake on reading the article and gave up 
the idea of another marriage. I congratulate this gentleman on this 

^ The letter is not translated here. 



140 THE OOLLSaTED WORKS OF ICAHATICA OAltDHI 

welcome result. IjCt us hope that whenever in the future he is 
moved by passion he will restrain himself, thinking of the girl’s good 
and of society, and even the country and also remembering God. 
This case should infuse greater enthusiasm in social workers. We 
find fi:om this as well as other instances that have since occurred 
that social and other injustices can be prevented if timely steps 
— ^restrained yet firm — are taken against them. 

Will Anoiher Cow Be Saved? 

Some young girls have been rescued from being sold off to 
old men. Bearing this in mind a gentleman from Ranpur writes 
to say:* 

On the strength of this letter, I do request this Modh Vanik 
gentleman of Bhavnagar not to go through this marriage. At the 
age of 55, he should shrink fi’om the thought of marrying a girl 
young enough to be his grand-daughter. I hope leaders of the 
Modh community of Bhavnagar will take all steps needed to pre- 
vent this marriage. In fact in such cases wherever people in 
general are alert, not only the leaders of small castes, but the 
entire public and even the State itself, should act as protectors of 
the young girls and it is their dharma to rescue girls who are being 
sold in this manner. Young men are their gfuardians and if they 
don the armour of virtue, humility and courage and do their duty 
they will be able to rescue all the poor young girls and there is 
no doubt they can. 

[From Gujarati] 

Naoajioani 25-3-1928 


161. LETTER TO RICHARD B. GREGG 

\ 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
March 26, 1928 

MY DEAR OOVIND, 

I have your chatty letter. I am glad you were able to walk 
all that distance without any discomfort. I am getting well. I 
note what you say about the enema. The doctors who guided 
me in Bangalore insisted upon permanganate, but the solution is 
very weak. It is just rose colour that is required. 

* The letter is not translated here. 



to is.. S. ACmARtA 141 

How is^^Ganesan gettmg on with your book? When is it likely 
to be ready? 

With love to you all. 

Tours sinserely, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13128 


162. LETTER TO K. S. ACHARTA 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarhati, 
March 26, 1928 

DEAR FREBNDj 

1 have your letter. Simplicity is a matter of heart. But lest 
we deceive ourselves, the ideal is not to possess anything which 
the poorest on earth do not. 

You cannot force your wife to abandon ornaments against her 
will, but you must seek to conquer her through selfless love devoid 
of animal passion and through your own daily-increasing self- 
denial. 

Without denying your father and being always ready to serve 
him, you can Uve separately from him and bring up an untouchable 
boy in the manner you suggest. 

I am afiraid it will not be possible for me to take your sister 
because ^e would not know Hindustani. You should give her 
Ibere all the training that she needs. 

Tours sineerdy, 

SjT. K. S. Aoharva 
Asstt. Master 
Govt. High Soeool 
Devahoerr 


From a microfilm: S.N. 13127 



163. LETTER TO N. RAMA RAO 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 26, 1928 

N. Rama Rao, Esq,. 

Seckrtary to iGovbrnment 
Development Department 
Secretariat, Bangalore 

I thank you for your letter enclosing a copy of Sjt. Fujaii’s 
report on the Badnaval Spinning Centre. This work was noticed 
in the pages of Toung India.^ 

Touts sinctr^, 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13130 


164. LETTER TO H. M. PEREIRA 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 26, 1928 

MY DEAR PEREIRA 

The address is as printed above. There is no code address. 
Gandhi, Sabarmati, finds me. 

Touts sincmly, 

H. M. Pereira, Esq,. 

225 Oak Street 
Bellorb 

From a microfilm: S.N. 14271 


iThis was in CL Rajagopalachari’s article “A State Khadi Centre*', 
Toung India, 8-3-1928. 


165. LETTER TO DR. P. S. KITCHLEW 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 26, 1928 

FRIEND, 

! have your warm invitation. But if only for health reasons 
St not attend the Qinference. It would delight my heart if 
prophecy comes true and there is a heart union established 
:en Hindus and Mussalmans and Sikhs of the Punjab. 1 know 
then Hindu-Muslim unity is assured and my faith in the 
r of that unity is such that I would say swaraj is assured, 
^yway I hope that the Conference will not forget or neglect 
«* 

Tottrs sincmiy, 

P. S. Rttohlew 

E(MAN 

FTiON Committee 

13th Punjab PROviNaiAi. Conferenoe 
rsAR 

om a photostat: S.N. 13129 


166. LETTER TO C, RAJAGOPALACHARJ 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
March 26, 1928 

have your letter. Before I decide anything I await Remain 
nd’s letter. The argument given in your letter to Mahadev I 
nticipated. But this is not a love letter. This is written to send 
be enclosed letter from Dr. M. £. Naidoo. Please deal with it 
elf and at once. I have told him that you would reply to it 

Tours sinesnfy, 

1 

C. Rajagopaiaoeari 
>H i Ashram 

OHENOODU 

am a photostat: SJN. 13131 


167. LETTER TO PRATAP S. PUNDIT 


Satvaosaha Ashbai% 
Sababmah, 
March 26, 1928 

UY DEAR PRATAP, 

I havea’t got you to build me a tannery, but all the same I 
have now got something which passes as a tannery because I have 
got a crank like myself who knows much about the business 
to do the work. I would like you when you come to Ahmedabad 
to look at it. But I would like you to send me some literature on 
tanning which a layman may understand and do something with, 
or tell me where I can get it. 

Tours sinetr^, 

Pratap S. Pdndit 

Fioin a photostat: S.N. 15363 


168. LETTER TO M. PIGGOTT 


The Ashram, 
Saearmati, 
March 27, 1928 


I have your letter. You say Be. 3,000 is so little to me, and 
they sue much to the widow and her boy. You little know Ibat I 
am poorer than the widow. For I do not possess any property 
over which I can go to any court of law much less to Privy Council. 
1 have no money of my own. I am a humble trustee holding some 
funds for well-defined trusts. I may not deviate Ihe funds without 
e:q>osing myself to the charge of breach of trust. You should 
approach a monied man. 

Tours stiwenly, 

M. PioaoTT, Es{2. 

Hyderabad (Sind) 

From a photostat: S.N. 13132 



169. LETTER TO MOTllAL NEHRU 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 27, 1928 

DEAR MOTILAXiJI, ' 

The expected letter being registered was received only to- 
day. It is a long letter. He* would like me to go to Europe, but 
he himself is not likely to be in his place before June. I expect a 
reply to another letter from him. I am in no hurrry to go. 1 
would ‘therefore like to await further news from him. Somehow 
or other I can’t put my heart into this proposed visit. My heart 
is in the boycott. If we cannot negotiate the boycott, I am 
supremely content to go on with the khadi programme. I would 
like you to visualize the marvellous effect that the khadi move- 
ment has produced. If the mill-owners had been honest, we 
should have made enormous strides. 

I have now got the figures for khadi production by the mills. 
Here ,they are for three years. 

The figures are for nine months ending December.^ 

1925 1926 1927 

Lb. 22,887,970 27,236,337 33,977,851 

Yards 65,048,487 , 74,313,280 94,380,368 

You will observe how rapidly the mills have been progressing 
towards khadi. 94.3 million yards in one year! It means aU that 
money taken away from the mouths of the paupers. It shows also 
the potentiality of the khadi movement. 

Tours sinunly. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13133 


iRomain Rolland 

3 Vids also "A Mill-owner on Boycott", 5-4-1928. 
XXXVl-10 



170. SPEECH AT SWEEPERS' MEETING, AHMEDABAD^ 

March 27, 1928 

After having listened to these bhajans I feel that there is no 
difference between you and me. At present my health is such that 
I cajmot attend any function and the doctors too have forbidden 
me to attend meetings. Because I am here today, do not think 
that 1 am fit. Afi;er a long interval and for the first time since 1 
returned to Abmedabad, I am attending a meeting and that too 
because Shri Banker and others insisted that I should give some 
advice to the Bhangis of the city. 

Truly speaking, you are the high-caste Hindus. Your sacri- 
fice is very great. Ihe so-called caste Hindus are more respon- 
sible fpr your blemishes than you are. You come to have ^ese 
because they forsook you. I wish you would get rid of these vices 
now. I can clean latrines better than you do, but you prevent me 
from doing it; this is a grave mistake. Why should you prevent 
others from doing it? 

The caste Hindus reg^d your work as low and of little value 
but my honest opinion is that it is the best. As long as one cannot 
do that work well, one cannot be said to have served well. What is 
the condition of Ihe streets and lanes of Ahmedabad? I say this 
because I clean everything myself. You should feel that by doing 
this work, you render the greatest and the most important service to 
the city. Why do you object if others participate in such service? 

If 1 had my say I would get the lanes and latrines of Ahmeda- 
bad cleaned by EQgh School boys and make the city so beautiful 
that I could proudly invite everyone to visit it. The key to this 
lies in your hands. Regard this as an act of service and perform 
it with diligence because the city’s health depends mainly on it. 
If you realize this you can remove many of the difficulties faced 
by Vallabhbhai% and you virill receive applause from the citi- 
zens and at the same time you will put your betters to shame. 

I have no faith in your claim that the evil of drinking has 
decreased. I think out of every sixteen persona two abstain from 

^The meedng was held at 7.30 p.m. at Maganbhaini Vadi. Among those 
present were Kasturba Gandhi, Vallabhbai Patel and Anasuyabehn Sarabhai. 
Bhajans were sung at the commencement of the proceedings. 

^ Vallabhbhai Patel was at the time President of Ahmedabad Municipality. 



LETTER TO T. K. MADBAVAN 


147 


drmking and fourteen indulge in it. I do not believe that anyone 
runs into debt for food; they do so only for indulging in pleas- 
ures. You must get rid of all these addictions. 

You should teach your children not to eat lefl-overs. You too 
should take a vow to the same effect. You should accept only that 
which can be accepted without humiliation. In this way you will 
be able to train your children well. It does not matter if you are 
not educated, but you must learn how to count so that no one 
can deceive you. You must also cultivate habits of personal cleanli- 
ness. From the leaders of society you have only to learn self- 
pupfication. For that you must give up all your addictions. If, 
in q>ite of the khadi cap that you wear, you have addictions, you 
will disgrace the cap. I will also get you good help from the 
Municipality and from the rich men of Ahmedabad when you do 
something on your own. 

[From Gujarati] 

Prtgabandhu, 1-4-1928 


171. LETTER TO T. K. MADHAVAN 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 28, 1928 

MY DEAR MADHAVAN, 

I have your letter. You have given me a doleful picture of the 
state of things there. My advice just now is for you quietly to 
cultivate public opinion there. From what you write it appears to 
me that the Government is not unsympathetic but it is timid and 
too sensitive to orthodox opinion. You should teU me also whe- 
ther you are ready to offer satyagraha at Suchindram or Thiru- 
varppu. 

Tours siaesrsly, 

SjT. T. K. Madhavan 
S. N. D. P. Yooam 
Vajxom 

(Travancoiue State) 

From a microfilm: S.N. 12893-a 



172. LETTER TO M. DEWANDAS NARAINDAS 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
March 28, 1928 


DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your two letters. I shall need much more information 
than you have given in your letter before 1 can place your name 
before the Managing Board. You must state your age, whether 
your parents are alive, what is your future aim. In no case can 
you be admitted imtil you have tested yourself in Karachi for at 
least 6 months 

(a) by first spinning for at least one hour daily from slivers 
carded by yourself; 

(b) by learning, if you do not know it, Hindi so as to be 
able to speak and write correctly;. 

(c) by wearing khaddar to the exclusion of all other cloth; 

(d) by securing the free permission of your parents. 

Yours sineerely, 

SjT. M. Dbwandas Naraindas 
Stu. Sro. VII 
New Hioh Sghool 
Karachi 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13136 


173, LETTER TO RAMI GANDHI 

Satvaor^ha Ashram, 
March 28, 1928 


OHI. RAMI, 

I have your postcard. You must always write in as beautiful 
a hand as you have written this time. Next time you write, let me 
know your daily time-table of work. Write to me how you find 
the climate there. There is a talk of my going to Europe, but no- 
thing is fixed yet Even if I go, it will take some time. Do you 
get any time ^ere to read? Ghi. Radha has gone to Bihar as a 



149 


LETTER TO Q. RAJAOOPALAQHARI 

tutor to a Bibari girl, and Durga has gone 'with her in order to 
help her. 

Blessings from 

Bapu 

From a photoitat of the Giyarati : S.N< 9709 


174. LETTER TO H. N. VENN 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmait, 
March 28, 1928 

HEAR FRIEND, 

I have your welcome letter. Mr. Andrews has forgotten to 
tell me about your intention to see me at the Ashram. I shall be 
delighted to see you on the 8th April. If it is the same thing to 
you please make it 4 p.m. instead of 5. But I shall be ready for 
you at 5 o’clock also. 

Tours sineenly, 

H. N. Venn, Esft. 

Maiden’s Hotel 
Delhi 

From a photostat: S.N. 11970 


175. LETTER TO C. RAJAGOPALACHARI 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
March 28, 1928 

MV DEAR 0. R., 

I have your letter about the proposed European visit. I have 
myself no heart in it, nor have I any confidence in myself about 
making it successful; but an interview with Rolland still remains 
an attraction. All the reputation I enjoy in the West is borrowed 
from him and I feel that if I meet him face to face, there may be 
disillusionment on many points. It may be that we should come 
closer than we ever were. I do attach considerable importance to 
our knowing each other much better than we do. 

I quite agree 'witb you that there is nothing to gain from the 
health point of 'view. I might possibly ' suffer, and health is no 
CORsiderRtioq whatsoever in the proposed trip, From that point of 



150 THE GOLLEQTBD WORKS OF MAHA.T1CA. GANDHI 

view any bill station in India would be infinitely superior for me. 

I feel also with you that the withdrawal of my presence is 
likely to unsettle things a bit especially in Bardoli. Foreign cloth 
boycott can certainly make no headway during my absence. But 
now that you are aU gathering together at Calcutta, I would like 
you to discuss the proposed visit at the Council meeting. I am most 
anxious that I should not become exclusive and should be humble 
enough to arrive at truth no matter firom what source it comes. 

I am sorry about the de&lcations, but I shall accept your 
warning not to disturb myself or discuss them. 

I understand what you say about Ramachandran. I want 
you to write him a warm letter and go out of your way to draw 
him towards you. He is a kind of ‘Chetty* also, for he did won- 
derfully well in the way of khadi at Jamia. 

I must not forget one thing, though, about your reference to 
the de^cations. If the defiiulter gives you Rs. 500 and tenders 
an apology for publication, you should be entirely satisfied. But 
this is an unconsidered opinion of a layman. 

What do you say to my exploit in conducting an exclusively 
milk experiment? I do not want to be told you swooned at my 
saying it is a literally milk-and-water experiment. 

Tours smcereljff 

From a photostat: S-N. 13123 


m. LETTER TO DR. ARULMANI PICHAMUTHU 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Marek 28, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

Your insured little parcel preceded your letter and I was 
wondering fix>m whom it was. Mahadev guessed it correctly. I 
congratulate you on the manner of your disposal of the precious 
jewels. I hope to take notice of the gift in some shape or form 
without disclosing name in Toung India.^ 

Tows simmly, 

Dr. Arxjuiani Fiohamuthd 
Panthadi No. 1 
Madura 

From a photostat: S.N. 13134 

* Ft* “Notes”, 5-4-1928, sub-title, "Women and Jwels”, 



177. LETTER TO SAM HIGGINBOTTOM 


The Ashbau, 
SABAIU1A.TI, 

March 28, 1928 


DEAR FRIEND, 

When I had the pleasure of being shown over your farm on 
the banks of the Jumna, 1 remember having seen a contrivance 
whereby you heated your water by the sun heat. Will you please 
tell me whether it was merely the tanh put on your building 
'and exposed to the full sun or whether you concentrated by some 
mechanical contrivance the rays of the sun on to the tank? 

Tours sinemly, 

Sam Hjoginbottom, £s{^. 

Aorigultural Institutk 
Aixahabad 

From a photostat: S.N. 13137 


178. 'THE TRIUMPH OF RACE HATRED'^ 

I am sure that the Amsterdam International, if it was placed 
in the same condition as the White Trades Union of Johaimes- 
burg, would not bdxave otherwise than the latter; nor would it 
have acted otherwise than Mr. Ramsay MacDonald or Mr. Lans- 
bury if its members had foimd themsdves in their position. 

Young India, 29-3-1928 


1 Q. F. Andrews’S article, on which Gandh\]'i comments, is not reproduced 
here. He had written that the International Labour Movement in Europe in 
its bulletin entitled “The IViumph-of Race Hatred’’ had condemned the South 
Afiican Trades Union Congress of white workers for its refusal to afiSliate 
the Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union (I.C.W.U.) of coloured workers 
which was already afSliated to the Amsterdam Internationa], that is, Inter- 
national Federation of Trades Unions. Andrews had also regretted the action of 
Ramsay MacDonald and the Labour Parliamentary party in England in acquie- 
scing in the appointment of the Simon Commission on a racial basis. 



t79. THE DOCTRINE OF FRIGHTFULNESS 


In answer to a question put by a member of the late Hunter 
Committee, General Dyer admitted that JaUianwala was designed 
to create frightfulness. In making the admission the late General 
enunciated no new doctrine. Indeed “the ablest Civil Service m the 
world” has laid the foundation of its greatness on frightfulnesses. 

In pursuance of this well-known policy, according to the 
information received at the time of going to press it appears that 
summary steps are now to be taken against the farmers of 
Bardoli in order to compel submission. For eight preliminary 
notices of forfeiture have been served upon certain satyagrahis 
of Bardoli. The names of these seem to have been carefully chosen, 
for all of them happen to be banias of note. The choice has been 
so made presumably because banias who have the reputation of 
being weak and timid are expected to yield under notices of 
forfeiture. What can be more natural, officialdom would argue, 
than that banias weakening, the others must follow suit. Satya- 
grahis need not be surprised at this first show of frightfulness. They 
have been repeatedly told to expect forfeitures and worse. Let 
them now show their strength if they have it in them. 

Toung India, 29-3-1928 

180. THE NATIONAL WEEK 

The national week comes upon us with seasonlike regularity 
and has found us more or less wanting since after 1922. The 6th 
April to 13 th April should be regarded as days of privilege, intros- 
pection, intense national activity and self-purification. These 
precious seven days should be days of stock-taking and heart- 
searching. The morning of 6th April 1919 found an India awak- 
ened to a sense of her di^ty. Hindus, Mussalmans and others 
composing the nation felt themselves united like blood-brothers as 
they are in reality, if they would but recognize themselves as sons 
of the soU. 

6th of April 1919 found an India endowed with a true spirit of 
swadeshi which culminated in khadi and which is now feeding 
according to the latest figures over 90,000 poor spinners. 

The spirit thus awakened continued to advance during 1920 
and 1921 and "WC sccujcd tp b? Yithin an ace of gtfttTjtoiy swaraj, 



THE NATTONAl WEEK 


153 


But that Swaraj did not come and there was a set-back. 
Apparently since then there has been only an ebb. Hindus and 
Mussalmans are flying at each other’s throats. 

Instead of swadeshi we have the cry for boycott of British 
goods pending settlement as if support of Japanese goods includ- 
ing Japan’s cheap calico can ever he a substitute for swadeshi, 
i.e., khadi, exclusive of all foreign cloth. After much research, 
reasoning and experience, we seemed in 1920-21 to have come to 
the conclusion that the only practical, effective and necessary 
swadeshi was khadi, not pending any settlement but for all time 
or such time as we could discover a better and more paying occu- 
pation for the starving millions. I have seen no new argument 
in support of boycott of British goods only as distinguished from 
foreign goods. No new situation has arisen to warrant the belief 
that boycott of British goods is a practical proposition and that 
the use of foreign cloth other than British is not almost equally 
detrimental to the best interest of India. 

Would that those who are supporting the cry of boycott of 
British goods will seriously think over their progranune, and, if 
necessary, revise their plan and join the khadi movement with the 
whole-hearted conviction that it and it alone can bring about com- 
plete boycott, not merely of Britidi cloth but of all foreign cloth. 

But whether they do so or not, I am sure they do not make of 
support of foreign cloth other than British cloth a matter of principle. 
And if I am right in my supposition, let them support the sales 
of khadi during the National Week. If they will but study the 
progress of tlie kliadi movement during the past seven years that 
it has been going on, they will discover that the charkha has more 
potency than tliey have ever dreamt of. It is potent enough, if it 
receives the whole-hearted and active support of politically-minded 
India, to bring about boycott of foreign cloth even without the 
assistance of our mills. With the active and organized support 
of the latter, boycott of foreign cloth becomes a much easier proposi- 
tion. Indeed the mill-owners hold the trump card if only they 
would play it for the sake of the nation. They have at their dispo- 
sal a ready-made extensive organization, which, if they devote 
it to the service of the nation, can simplify the campaign of boy- 
cott and arm the nation with the power it so much needs. 

And why will not Hindus and Mussalmans recall those pre- 
cious seven days and shed all fear, mutual distrust and weakness? 

Let me not forget the so-called imtouchables, the classes that 
yre Hindus have been guilty of suppressing. Shall we not have 



154 THE QOLLZCITED WORKS OF M^UIATUA. GANDHI 

the vision to see that in suppressing a sixth (or whatever the 
number) of ourselves, we have depressed ourselves ? No man takes 
another down a pit without descending into it himself and sin- 
ning in the bargain. It is not the suppressed that sin. It is the 
suppressor who has to answer for his crime against those whom he 
suppresses. 

Toung India, 29-3-1928 


m. NOTES 

Special for National Week 

Sjt. Vithaldas Jerajani (Blhadi Bhandar, Princess Street, 
Bombay) writes:* 

I do hope that there will be an adequate response to Sjt. 
Jerajaid’s legitimate wish and hope, Bombay has always been 
sensitive to national moods. Bombay laid the foundation of the 
national khadi movement by opening ^e first khadi bhandar. 
The figures given in the letter are instructive. The great drop 
in 1925 is to be accounted for by the fact that there was another 
large khadi store opened in Kilbadevi Road. Nevertheless the 
figures for the other years are an eloquent proof of the statement 
that Bombay is the proper barometer for the politically-minded 
India, The figures for 1927 show a decided improvement upon 
1926. Will Bombay rise to those of 1922 ? Not that even such a 
rise will be anything commensurate with what is required for the 
boycott we want and can have if we would but show tlie necessary 
measure of sacrifice and determination. 

Another notice I have is firom the Shuddha Khadi Bhandar, 
Richey Road, Ahmedabad. That Bhandar also proposes during the 
National Week to give discount from one anna to four annaj> in 
the rupee according to the variety required. 

I hope that all khadi organizations whether owned by the 
Association or certified will put forth special efforts to bring 
khadi to the notice of the public and that the public will make a 
liberal response. 

* The letter is not reproduced here. The correspondent had given the 
figures of sale of khadi during the National Weeks from 1922 to 1927. He had 
hoped that in view of greater variety, improvement in the quality of khadi 
and a greater swadeshi spirit there would be greater response in the coining 
National Week. He had also aimounced a discount of one anna per rupee 
on khadi purchased from April 1 to 15. FWs also "The National Week”, 1-4-1928. 



NOTES 


155 


Khasi Tour in Bengal 

It* is perhaps necessary to emphasize in Bengal that the khadi 
tour organized by Sjt. Satis Chandra Das Gupta is also the 
All-India Deshbandhu Memorial tour. Sheth Jamnalalji, Sjt. 
Rajagopalachari, Sjt. Manila! Kothari and Sjt. Shankerlal 
Banker are about to tour in Bengal as &om the 5th of next month 
in the interest of khadi, which an all-India committee decided 
on the death of Deshbandhu should be the centre and the cir- 
cumference of an all-India memorial for the late Ghittaranjan 
Das, the uncrowned king of Bengal. There is a wave of swadeshi 
passing over Bengal at present. But I suspect that the true mean- 
ing of swadeshi is missed in the forest of words that surround that 
simple but life-giving word. Let us adhere to its root-meaning 
and we shall discover nothing but khadi in it. Swadeshi is “of 
one’s own country”. Among things of the villagers’ daily use, cloth 
is the only thing that is “not of one’s own country”. That which 
they can easily make themselves is also cloth. Hence the swadeshi 
that they can realize and without which they must starve is khadi 
and nothing else. Hence is khadi the only real swadeshi for every 
patriot. I hope therefore that Sheth Jamnalalji and his compan- 
ions will be whole-heartedly assisted by Bengal wherever they 
go. Every yard of khadi bought and every donation given to the 
Memorial is so much help to the boycott movement and to the 
poorest in the land. 

Boyoott and Students 
The Principal of a college writes;' 

The promoten of the boycott movement are dragging the students into 
their movement . . . When the students leave their schools and colleges 
and join any demonstration, they mingle with the rowdies of the place 
and have to be responsible for all the outrages of the badmashes and often 
receive the first blows from the policeman’s batons. They, besides, incur 
the disirleasure of the school and college authorities whose punishment they 
have to submit to; they further disobey their guardians who might refuse 
to finance them further, which spells their nun. I can understand youth 
movements which aim at doing such corutructive work as teaching the 
ignorant peasants, qjreading knowledge of sanitation, etc., during holidays; 
but to see them turn agairut their own parents and teadiers and walk 
along streets in questionable company and help the breaking of law and 
order is a sorry spectade. May I request you to advise the politicians not 


' Only extracts are r^roduced here. 



156 TH£ aOLIJBCTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI 

to draw the atudents ih>m their legitiinate work to make their demonstra* 
lion mon effective? ... 

The correspondent has written in the hope of my condemn- 
ing the participation by the student world in active political 
work. But I am sorry to have to disappoint him. He should have 
known that in 1920-21 I had not an inconsiderable share in draw- 
ing students out of their schools and colleges and inducing them 
to undertake political duty carrying with it the risk of imprison- 
ment. I think it is their clear duty to take leading part in the 
political movement of their country. ITiey are doing so all the 
world over. In India where political consciousness has till recent- 
ly been unfortunately confined in a large measure to the English- 
educated class, their duty is, indeed, greater. In China and 
Egypt it was the students who have made the national movement 
possible. They cannot do less in India. 

What the Principal might have urged was the necessity of 
students observing the rules of non-violence and acquiring control 
over the rowdies, instead of being controlled by them. 

Maoaulay’s Dreams 

A fiiend sends me the following quotation from Macaulay’s 
Life and Letters:^ 

On the 7th March 1835 Liord William Bentinck decided that “the- great 
object of the British Government ou^t to be the promotion of European 
literature and science among the natives of India;’’ two of the orien- 
talists retired from the Committee of Public Instruction; . . . and 
Macaulay entered upon the functions of President. . . . 

“Our English schools,*’ said Lord Macaulay, “are flourislung wonder* 
fully. . . . The effect of this education on the Hindoos is prodigious. No 
Hindoo who has received an English education ever remains sincerely 
attached to his religion. . . . It is my firm belief that if our plans of 
education are followed up, there will not be a single idolater among the 
respectable dasKS of Bengal thirty years hence. . . .’’ 

I do not know whether Macaulay’s dream that English- 
educated India would abandon its religious beliefi has been real- 
ized. But we know too that he had another dream, namely, to 
supply through English-educated India clerks and die like for the 
English rulers. The dream has certainly been realized beyond aU 
expectations. 

1 Only extracts arc reproduced here. 



KoTfis 157 

Peaoe amidst Strife 

Before now I have shared with the reader some of the beauti- 
ful things that a fiiend sends me from time to time for my Mon- 
day silence. I am tempted to share with him the following further 
instalment which has been lying with me in my jacket for a long 
time. All but the last two are extracts from Buddhistic writings. 
The last but one is from Emerson and the last of all is a Hindu 
proverb. 

Like a beautiful flower full of colour^ without scent, the fine words 
of him who does not act accordingly are fruitless. , 

A mind unshaken by life’s vicissitudes, unstirred by grief or passion, 
is the greatest of all blessings. 

There never was, there never will be, a man who is always praised, 
or a man who is always blamed. 

As a solid rock is not shaken by the wind, so wise men falter not 
amidst blame or praise. 

Let us live happily, then, not hating those who hate us. 

Let us live fiee from hatred among men who hate. 

Let us live happily, then, free from ailments among the ailing. 

Let us dwell free from afflictions among men who are sick at heart. 

Let us live happily, then, free from care among the busy. 

Let us dwell free from yearning among men who are anxious. 

Let us live happily, then, though we call nothing our own. 

We shall become like the bright Gods, who feed on happiness. 

The greatest prayer is patience. 

Never in this world does hatred cease by hatred. 

Hatred ceases by love : this is always its nature. 

Reverence and lowliness, 

Contentment and gratitude, 

The hearing of the Lord at due season. 

This is the greatest blessing. 

As a mother, even at the risk of her own life, protects her son, her 
only son: so let a man cultivate goodwill without measure among all 
beings. 

Let him cultivate goodwill without measure toward the whole world, 
above, below, unstinted, unmixed with any feeling of differing or oppos- 
ing interests. Let a man remain steadfastly in that state of mind all the 
while he is awake, whether he be standing, waJkizig, sitting or lying down. 
This st^te of heart is the beat in the world. 

By rousing himself by earnestness, by restraint and confrol, the wise 
man may make foF himself $n island which no flood can overwhelm. 



158 


THE GOLLEQTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI 


As the bcc — injuring not 

The flower, its colour, or scent — 

Flies away, taking the nectar : 

So let the wise man dwell 
Upon the truth. 

Ye taught my lips a single speech 
And a thousand silences. 

Even Buddha was once a cart-horse, and carried the loads exf 
others. 

Toung India, 29-3-1928 


m. ON FASTING 

The reader is familiar with the letters of a Polish professor 
from which 1 have published extracts from time to time iu these 
columns. 1 In one of his letters referring to my fasts he writes:® 

1 publish this as being of use to the reader who is interested 
in such researches. The physical and moral value of fasting is being 
more and more recognized day by day. A vast number of dis- 
eaises can be more surely treated by judicious fasting than by all 
sorts of nostrums including the dreadful injections — dreadful not 
because of the pain they cause but because of the injurious by- 
products which often result from their use. More mischief than 
we are aware of is done by the drug treatment. But not many 
cases of harm done by fasting can be cited. Increased vitality is 
almost the universal experience of those that have fasted. For 
real rest for body and mind is possible only during fasting. Sus- 
pension of daily work is hardly rest without the rest that the over- 
taxed and overworked digestive apparatus needs in a multitude of 
cases. The moral effect of fasting, while it is considerable, is not 
so easily demonstrable.® For moral results there has to be perfect co- 
operation from the mind. And there is danger of self-deception. 
I know of many instances in which fasting undertaken for 
moral results has been overdone. To a limited extent it is a most 

» Vol. XXXIII, pp. 245-7 and Vol. XXXIV, pp. 314-6. 

2 Nfot reproduced here. The correspondent had narrated his experiments 
in fasting and said that it not only inorea.sed bodily activity but also spiritual 
enlightenment. 

3 The correspondent had written; “Whenever I have a moral or intelleo. 
tual difficulty, I fast. . . . Once I had a dilficulty with a printer who delayed 
my work in order to print other more profitable things. By fasting I suc- 
ceeded in changing his mind. . . 



L&Tt&S. to tlRlniA bBVl 


159 


valuable agent if the person fasting knows what he is doing. There 
was considerable force in the warning given by the Prophet against 
his disciples copying his fasting over and above the seiai-&sts of 
Ramzan. “My Maker sexxds me food enough when I fast, not so to 
you,” said the Prophet. Of what use is a spiritual fast when the 
spirit hankers more after food the longer the body is starved? 

Young India, 29-3-1928 


183. TWO CORRECTIONS 

Two lamentable errors have crept into the footnote to Mr. 
Ireland’s letter printed at page 93 in Young Ind%d\ of the 22nd 
instant. About the middle of the column one reads: “God 
reaches earth through millions of ways not understood by us.” 
The stenographer heard “earth” when “us” was spoken. The sixth 
line afler this one reads: “It is like many other things which we 
can perceive”, etc. The context would show that “not” is obviously 
omitted from the sentence. It should read: “It is not like many 
other things”, etc. 

Yotmg India, 29-3-1928 


184. LETTER TO URMILA DEVI 

Satvaoraha Aserau, 
Sabarmati, 
March 30, 1928 

DEAR SISTER, 

1 have your letter. You are never without troubles. But they 
^ould be treated as chasteners. Dhiren’s case is difficult to 
advise upon.* Idealistically he should disobey every order of extern- 
ment and internment and submit to any pimishment that may be 
given to him. But that is a matter for himself to judge. Before he 
can disobey the orders I have in mind, he must have the inner 

* Vide “Diflfercnce Stated”, -22-3-1928. 

2 The addressee had written ; “. . . There is trouble about Dbiren also. 
The Government propose to extern him from Bengal. I do not think that cata- 
strophe nan be avoided. He can of course refuse to sign the order, but in that 
case he will be liable to prosecution which mig^t result in 3 years rigorous 
imprisonment. . . ” (S.N. 13126). 



160 


COLLtOlteD yfdntxi OV UAAA . titA . tiANbm 


conviction that disobeying is a duty and imprisonment for disobey- 
ance not a task but a matter of joy. And such joy is possible only 
when one considers such imprisonments as conducive to indi- 
vidual as well as national growth. But what actually should be 
done I cannot really confidently say. You know Dhiren better 
than I do and after all Dhiren will be largely guided by what you 
would have him to do. You must also consider to what extent you 
will be able to bear his imprisoiunent and sufferings, and then 
come to a conclusion. Of course Dhiren if he submits to the ex- 
temment order is due to come to the Ashram and stay as long 
as he likes. There is always work for young men like him. 

Nothing is yet fixed about the proposed visit. 

Tours sincerely, 

Srjuati Urmoa Devi ' 

4A Nafar Kxjndu Road 
Khauohat, Calcutta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13126 


185. LETTER TO SECRETART, ALLntDIA SPIJ/MRS’ 
ASSOCIATION 


Satyaoraha Ashrau, 
Sabakmati, 
March 30, 1928 

TO 

The Secretary 
A. I. S. A. 

Ahhedabad 

DEAR SIR, 

With reference to your letter No. 2169 dated 28th instant 
regarding private agencies, it is difficult to give an opinion 
straightway. 1 do consider it necessary to acquire greater control 
over private agencies. Before I can advise, it be well to obtain 
concrete suggestions fi:om the Tanulnad Agency. 

Tours smeerefy . 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13139 



186. LETTER TO SHANTIKUMAR MORARyi 

SATYAaRAHA AsHRAU, 
Sabarmati, 
March 30, 1928 

icy DEAR SHANiXCUMAR, 

You must continue to send me all new additional &cts and 
figures. I enclose herewith the combined balance-sheet sent by 
you the other day. 

Tows sincerely, 

Froca a photostat: S.N. 13125; also G.W. 4786. Courtesy: Shantikumar 
Moraiji 


187. LETTER TO JV. R. MALKAJfl 

Satvagraha Ashrau, 
Sabarmati, 
March 30, 1928 

MY DEAR MADKANI, 

I have your letter. You must not hesitate to write to me 
about yoTur wants, and any other matter. I shall try to meet you 
as far as possible, but you might be called upon to face priva- 
tions. Bickerings at home too may be a national servant’s lot. 

Thakkar Bapa saw Sir Purushottamdas about yoiur salary and 
Sir Purushottamdas considers your receiving salary from the 
Central Committee as the most natural thing and Rs. 150 as 
quite reasonable. Now I shall have to ask for Rs. 200. I don’t 
anticipate any difficulty. 

I am trying to find out whether Jethalal or Parshatlal can be 
spared. Kalyanji and Naraharibhai it is impossible to spare. Nara- 
hari has his own work chalked out for him and Kalyanji must be 
buried in Bardoli. But I have an able businessman just now 
fiiee for such work. He is Jaisukhlal Gandhi. He was in charge 
of Amreli Khadi Karyalaya. It is now being rearranged and Jai- 
sukhlal is being made free. Your letter under reply comes just 
in time to keep him free. But it is necessary to send him to Amreli 
for winding up the head office and despatch all the stock here. 
This is likely to take a fortnight. I have just had a talk with him 


162 THS COLLECTED WORKS OR MAHATUA OANDHt 

as to whether he is prepared to do the thing. He is agreeable 
provided I let him go to Amreli straightway and wind up the busi- 
ness tliere. I have sent a wire* to you today. If I do not receive 
your reply at once, you will have to give a fortnight to be counted 
after receiving your final reply. 

Tours situmly, 
BaPU 

SjT. N. B.. Malkani 

People’s Flood Relief Gommittbe 

Hyderabad (Sind) 

From a photostat: G.N. 951 


m. LETTER TO MURIEL LESTER 

March 30, 1928 

I have replied to your cablegram. Nothing is yet certain. I 
am not clear in my own mind as to what I should do. I am now 
in correspondence with M. Romain RoUand. His final reply will 
help me to come to some decision. If the visit to Europe is deci- 
ded upon and if I reach in time I would gladly perform the opening 
ceremony^. But so far as I can see I can’t possibly reach in time. 
There seems to be no occasion to leave India before May if at all. 
I may therefore suggest your making other arrangements. 

As for staying with you, of course, I would love to do so if 
you can harbour me and my companions, because if I do come 
I shan’t be alone. 

Tours sineerefy. 

Miss Muriel Lester 
K mosLEY Hall 
Powis Road 
Bow 

London, E. 3 

From a photostat: S.N. 14949 


I This is not available. 

* Of the Handicraft Room on July 7 



m. LETTER TO G. D. BlRlA 


Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Rmuamam [Meereh 30, 1928Y 

BHAI OHANSHYAMDASJI, 

I have your letter. I have not been able to take a decision as 
yet about going to Europe. I am not keen on it. The desire to 
meet Romain Rolland is certainly there. But 1 am awaiting his 
letter in this connection. A letter has come, but it does not in- 
cline me to go. If at all I go, it will be in May and I shall be 
back in October. I shall try to stay with you in Mussoorie even if 
it is for only a few days. I want to remain here up to April 13*. 

Please let me have your opinion on what I wrote inviting the 
co-operation of mills in the boycott of foreign cloth.* 

Write in detail about your health. ' Are you now able to eat 
anything? 

Tom, 

Mohandas 

From the Hindi original: G.W. 6155. Gouitesy: G. D. Birla 

190. SPEECH AT ASHRAM ON RAMANAVAMI DAY 

March 30, 1928 

The Rama of whom we sing is not the Rama of Vahniki, 
nor even the Rama of Tulsi — although his Ramayana is very dear 
to me and I consider it an incomparable work, I never seem to 
have enough of it once I start reading it. Today, however, we 
shall not think of Tulsidas’s Rama or the Rama of Girdhar’s 
Rjomayana, much less the Rama of Kalidasa or Bhavabhuti. There 
is great beauty in Bhavabhuti’s Uttararamachanta. However, here 
is not the Rama whose name we may redte to cross to the other 
shore or whose name we may repeat in moments of despair. If 
someone is suffering unbearable pain I tell him to repeat Rama- 
nama. If someone is unable to sleep I tell him too to repeat 

‘ From the contents it is clear that the letter was written in 1928. 

* Last day of the National Week 

3 ynt “What Can Our Mills Do?”, 15-3-1928. 



164 THE aOLLEOTED WORKS OR MAHATUA OANBHI 

Ramanama. This Rama is not the son of Dasharatha or the 
husband of Sita. In fact he is not the embodied Rama. The Rama 
that dwells in our hearts cannot possibly have a physical form; the 
heart is no larger than a thumb and the Rama who dwells in 
some niche there could not have a body, nor could he have been 
bom on the ninth day of the month of ChaUra in a certain year. 
He is birthless. He is the Creator, the Lord of die universe. 
Hence the Rama whom one wishes to remember, and whom one 
should remember, is the Rama of one’s own imagination, not the 
Rama of someone else’s imagination. 

If we keep this in mind, many doubts that trouble us would 
not arise at aU. Many times we wonder how the Rama who 
slew Vali could be called the Perfect One. I too come across 
many such questions, and I am amused. What great achievement 
is there in having slain someone, by fair means or foul, or to 
have destroyed the ten-headed Ravana, if ever there was one 
such. In this modem age, even if a Ravana is bom, not with 
twenty but countless hands, a child standing behind a cannon can, 
by firing a single ball, send aU his arms and heads flying. We 
would not regard such a child superhuman; we would look upon 
him as a big monster. I believe that we do not wish to acquire the 
strength of a super-monster. We would not attain peace by wor- 
shipping him. We should worship Him, the Inner Ruler, who 
dwells in the hearts of all, yet transcends all and is the Lord of all. 
It is He of whom we sing: Mirbalkt hal The song also men- 

tions Draupadi’s despair. Now, what had Draupadi to do with 
an embodied Rama? Yet, the poet has sung that Rama saved 
Draupadi’s honour. The Rama mentioned here is the One who is 
common to all and yet comprehended by none. It is this Rama 
whom we remember. Between this Rama, the Inner Ruler, and 
’Kriahna there is no difference. 

We celebrate the festival of Rama’s birth so that we may 
practise some self-restraint, and the children may enjoy innocent 
pleasures and learn some lesson by reading the Rmnayam. Man, 
who is himself embodied, cannot easily conceive God in any other 
form. His imagination camiot go farther. Therefore he conceives 
Grod as being incarnated in human form. Hinduism has boundless 
tolerance. Hence God has been described as descending in the 
forms of a fish, a boar and a man-lion. In this way having super- 
imposed a form on God, men conceived Him as having a body and 
then imagined Him as taking birth. And when we speak of His 

i ‘Rama, strength of the weak’, the opening words of a popular song 



SFEEaS AT ASHEIAM ON RAMANAVAMI DAY 165 

avatars to protect dharma whenever dharma declines and adhama 
flourishes, it is true only in the manner and to the extent which 
I have just described; how else could we say that the birthless 
One took birth? There is no reason to believe that any historical 
figure was the incarnation of God or God as a historical figure 
was bom in human or any other form. If a person is endowed 
with all the qualities of God, he may be called an incarnation of 
God. It was because of their divine qualities that all those great 
men of the past were regarded by people as either plenary or 
partial incarnations. And yet, knowing this, different devotees 
have described the same God in the Rama of Vahniki or Tulsidas 
and there is no harm in singing those bhajans. If we bear in mind 
what I said earlier, we would not be deluded. If someone wishes 
to confuse us confronting us with conundrums, we should tell him 
that we do not worship embodied Rama as conceived by any- 
one; we worship our own Rama who is flawless and formless. 
As we cannot reach Him direct, we sing bhajans that describe Him 
as personified, and then try to apprehend Him in His purity. 

So long as we are unable to see through the wall of the body, 
the qualities of trath and non-violence will not become fully manifest 
in us. When we think of pursuing tmth, we must stop mistaking 
the body for ourselves, for we shall have to die in the pursuit of 
truth. , The same is tme of non-violence. The body is the root of 
ego. One who has attachment to the body cannot free himself of 
the ego. I cannot become whoUy free of violence so long as I have 
the feeling that this body is mine. One who desires to have a vision 
of God w^ have to transcend the body, to despise it, to court death. 

It is only when we master these two qualities that we can be 
saved, that we can practise brahmaeharya and so on. How can we 
do without, truth if we wish to practise such vows? The face of 
truth is hidden by a golden lid.‘ Why should we fear to speak the 
truth or to act truthfully? How can we catch a glimpse of truth 
so long as we do not remove the glittering lid of untruth? If 
anyone commits an offence, are we willing to love him instead 
of getting angry with him? Although we sing that this world is 
insubstantial, do we know at all what the word implies? 

“If you wish to know me,” says Rama, “you must flee the 
world.” But the body cannot be wished away. Having trained 
ourselves to look upon the world as unreal, we may go about our 
business as a matter of duty aU the time and still fihd Rama. 
That is the teaching of the Gita. This is why I regard the Gita 


1 Ishopamshadf v. 15 



166 


THE aOLLSaTED WORKS OE MAHATtfA OAHDHI 


as spiritual dictionary. Tulsidas teaches us the same truth through 
beautiful poetry. 

The key, however, is the one that I have given, namely, that 
the Rama in our hearts is the Ferryman who will take us across. 
We cannot all create poetry as Tulsidas did. But we can fill 
our life with poetry by bringing Grod into it. 

[From Gujarati] 

J^avqjivan, 1-4-1928 


191. SPEECH AT GATHERING OF STUDENTS 
AND TEACHERS, AHMEDABAD^ 


March 31, 1928 

Mabatmaji, addressing the students, expressed satisfaction that his suggest- 
ions had been carried out. He however regretted that the boys were not as 
clean as they ought to be. Putting on khaddar, he said, indicated that they 
were dean both bodily and in their hearts. 

The mill-owners, Gandhiji continued, were not extending their helping 
hand by becoming liberal in donating money. He was conferring with the 
mill-owners and requesting them to pay all the money subscribed by them to 
the Tilak Swara/ Fund for the benefit of the children unconditionally without 
interfering in any way in the administration of the schools, which must be 
solely left to the Labour Union. Even if they did not give any money these 
schools would go on. 

God is great and if you have faith in Him you would get money fixmi any 
source, provided you have true ideals. 

To teachers, Gandhiji said that they must not make any use of books 
for imparting education, as books spoiled eyes and blunted the intellect He 
himself had experienced that. He imderstood that in Russia they were conduct- 
ing one thousand schools for peasants and that they were giving education 
without the aid of books by making all possible use of the senses. He asked 
them to dean their own houses and streets themselves and not to depend on 
others for doing the same. 

Gonduding, Mahatmaji asked them to make their schools ideal in every 
way, so that the boys and girls of the miU-owneis might envy them and the mill- 
owners might be tempted to send their children to the labour schools. On truth 
depended the foundation of education, and they must always resort to truth. 

The Hindu, 31-3-1928 

1 A spinning demonstration by the students of the SChools nm by the 
Ahmedabad Labour Union was hdd in the monting. 



192, LETTER TO SUBHAS CHAJ^DRA BOSE 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 31, 1928 


DEAR FRIEND, 

I have for a long time wished to write to you just a line. 
I was told that 1 could look forward to meeting you at Madras. 
But that was not to be. - 

Will you kindly tell me why you have preferred the cry of 
boycott of British goods, principally Britirii cloth, to boycott of 
foreign cloth and why also boycott of British clo& only pending 
settlement? 

I hope you have regained your original health. 

Tours sinctrtly, 

SjT. SuBHAS Chandra Bose 
Galoutta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13143 


193. LETTER TO SHAJfTIKUMAR MORABJI 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
March 31, 1928 

Uty DEAR SHANTlKtrMAR, 

I have your letter. The terms that I think the mill-owners 
should agree to are as follows: 

(1) The prices should be regulated by a special committee 
representing all interests. 

(2) The production both as to kind and quantity should 
also be regulated by the said committee. 

(3) Mills should cease to sell any miU-clotb under the name 
of khadi and should cease within three months at the outside of 
the date of acceptance of terms to manufacture any cloth that is 
likely to compete with khadi and to this end the committee will 
specify from time to time what the mills may not manu&cture. 

(4) Mills wiU organize not only the sales of mill-cloth but 
they wiU seU khadi also through the agmdes thus organized. 



168 THE aOELBOTED WOBXS OE MAHA.TMA OAHSHI 

(5) Mills should use no foreign yam, no foreign silk, no 
foreign wool nor artificial silk. 

(6) Mills should whole-heartedly identify themselves with 
tlxc boycott of foreign cloth movement and to this end should put 
forth all tlieir energy towards gaining control over piece-goods 
merchants, other middle men and cotton market in so far as it 
may be possible. 

(7) If a clear understanding is arrived at with mills, khadi 
depots will naturally become agencies for the sale of miU-doth 
und(T terms laid down by the said committee. 

(8) Mills should hand to the said committee such funds as 
may be required from time to time for propaganda. This, in my 
opinion, may not exceed one lakh of rupees. 

This letter is being hurriedly dictated. • You will therefore please 
supplement tlicse conditions with those stated in the two issuM 
of Toung India} if there is any omission. You will not publish this 
letter in any case, and, you will please remember that these^ are 
only my own personal views, and if anything substantial is to 
come out of these talks, [th]ere will have to be a formal meeti[ng 
of a]ll concerned. 

Tours sineersly, 

M. K. Gandhi 


SjT. Shantikumar 
Bombay 

Prom a photostats G.W. 4787. Gourtesyi Shantikumar Morarji 


194, LETTER TO RAI HAREKDRANATH 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
March 31, 1928 

DEAR SIR, 

I have your kind telegram. I am extremely sorry ^ mat 1 
shall be unable to attend the Conference. I however wish you 


» m “What Can Our Milb Do?”, 15-3-1928, and 'Towign Cloth 
Boycott— Some QpestionB”, 22-3-1928. 



KATYAORABIS, BEWAKEI 169 

all success and hope that the Conference will not forget khaddar 
which represents the dumb millions. ' 

Tours siacertly, 

SjT. Rai Hakzndranath 
Chairman, Rboeption Commttteb 
Bengal PkoviNaiAL Coneebenqe 
Chandri, Caloutta 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13142 


195. SATTAGRAHIS, BEWARE! 

When a member of the Hunter Committee asked General 
Dyer the leading question with reference to the Jallianwala Bagh: 
“Was it your idea to instil fear of the Gk)vemmcnt in the minds 
of the people by acting ruthleMly?” the latter, enthusiastically 
accepted the suggestion and replied in the afiBrmative. However, 
the reign of terror had not begun with General Dyer. It is the 
legacy of tradition and the monopoly of Indian bureaucracy. It 
can, however, be said that General Dyer gained notoriety for this 
repression. Hence we know it also as Dyerism. As bureaucracy 
is dependent for its very existence on a policy of Dyerism, it does 
not hesitate to seek shelter under the latter when occasion arises. 
According to it such an occasion has arisen in Bardoli. Hence it 
may be said to have launched repression on the bania satyagrahis 
who are regarded as cowardly and submissive. Eight of these satya- 
grahis have been served with notices that if they do not pay up 
their land revenue stipulated therein before the 12 th of April, 
their lands will be confiscated. The notice served on one bania 
gentleman shows the amotmt of revenue due as Bs. 160. Pei^ 
haps we could not have fo\md fault with die Government if it had 
confiscated land worth Rs. 160, but to coxifiscate land worth 
thousands of rupees for the sake of Rs. 160 is nothing but repres- 
sion. Under this policy, on certain occasions, the punishment 
for a slap is not another slap but the gaUows. We shall call any- 
one who extorts a thousand rupees for a debt of one rupee a 
tyrant, a ten-headed Ravana. 

vhiat reply will the banias, who are said to have fore- 
thought, give to this? Will they betray cowardice or prove them- 
selves worthy of having joined the army of satyagrahis? 

Vallabhbhai has warned not once but repeatedly that the 
Government has by legislation acquired the right to confiscate 



170 THE aOLLEQTED WORKS OF MAHATMA OANDHI 

land, to imprison people, etc., and that it has time and again 
given proof of the fact that it will not hesitate in the least to 
exercise those rights. Hence neither they nor others should be 
flabbergasted by this notice of confiscation. They should have 
faith that the Government will not be able to derive any bene- 
fit from the land which would be confiscated in this manner and 
that it would not go to a traitor who would come forward to 
purchase it if it is auctioned. Land which has been filched in this 
manner is like unprocessed mercury which is bound to erupt as boils. 

Land is not more precious than one’s pledge or one’s self- 
respect. There are myriads of landless people in this country. 
During the last floods, many people’s lands were eroded and layers 
of sand have now been deposited over them. Just as Gujaratis 
withstood the wrath of the heavens with courage and fortitude, 
may the satyagrahis of Bardoli similarly put up with this wrath 
of the Government and may they stand by their pledge! 

[From Gujarati] 

Jfcmajiveatt 1-4-1928 


196, THE NATIONAL WEEK 

The forthcoming National Week is the ninth of its kind. In 
this Week, we should take stock of the progress made by us. 
However, instead of that we find despondency in many places. 
For us this Week is the time for calculating the national sum total 
of achievement, for introspection and for self-purification, for 
uniting the hearts of Hindus, Muslims, Parsis and others, for 
Hindus to welcome in their midst those men and women who have 
been regarded as untouchables and to serve them, and for Hindus, 
Muslims and others to take exclusively to khadi and boycott 
foreign cloth. 

However, today we seem to have forgotten these 
limbs which sustain the nation. Those who have aith 
in any of these causes are making efforts to promote them. 
But now all this is not being done on an extensive scale. Today 
we do not hear people say, as they used to do in the past, that 
swaraj cannot be secured without these. 

An attempt should be made during the National Week to 
bring about a change in this state of a&irs. Those who have an 
unswerving faith in constructive activity should make great efforts 
in this direction, irrespective of whether some or all national insfi. 



THE NATIONAL WEEK 


171 


tutions make such an effort; it is only from such efforts that an 
all-embracii'.g activity will and must start again. None should 
entertain any doubts that khadi is the one visible activity that 
can be taken up by children, men, women, Hindus, Muslims 
and all others. The talk of boycott is everywhere in the eiir. 
However, there seems to be some confusion regarding boycott at 
the moment. Some persons advocate the boycott of British goods, 
others of British cloth alone and that too until such time as a 
peaceful solution is arrived at, while yet others advocate the 
permanent boycott of foreign cloth. All these things cannot go 
on at the same time. After the first two intentions had been pro- 
claimed for twenty years, the people found on deeper reflection 
in 1920 that the only way of boycotting foreign cloth which 
was possible as well as obligatory was to replace it by khadi. 
Moreover, this idea of boycotting foreign cloth does not depend 
on any conditions but holds good for all time. And that which 
is everlasting is beneficial even in small measure whereas that 
which is dependent on conditions is beneficial only if it materi- 
alizes in an appropriate measure. If the latter brings about 
only partial results, it may even prove harmful. 

Hence we ought to free ourselves from this delusion and 
make constant efforts to carry on propaganda for khadi for the 
sake of boycotting foreign cloth or, in other words, for the sake 
of the poor of India. In order to do that: 

1. those who do not already wear khadi should do so and 
advise others to do likewise; 

2. all should spin as much as possible and inspire others to 
do likewise; 

3. all should contribute as much as possible for this cause 
and collect funds from neighbours. 

In this connection, what Shri Vithaldas Jerajani writes is 
worth noting 

The figures given here are worth pondering over. Bombay is 
the barometer for gauging the feelings of poUtically-conscious 
India. It is not too great a venture for Bombay to reach the 
figures of the first year. That is like a drop in the ocean in the 
matter of making the boycott a success. 

[From Gujarati] 

J^caajioan, 1-4-1928 


*The letter is not translated here; md» ‘'Notes’*, 29-3-1928, sub-title, 
“Special for National Week”. 



m. Mr NOTES 

Orissa’s Flight 

I give below an extract^ from Shxi Ghhaganlal Gandhi’s letter: 

The reader should remember that these starving children 
who wander about aimlessly, who pick up from the sand and eat 
banana skins which have been thrown away, are our own bro- 
thers and sisters. If we proudly call India our mother, we cannot 
but look upon these forlorn children as our brothers and sisters. 
What can swaraj mean to them? What will they say if we ask 
them to define swaraj? Shall we ^ fill their stomachs by throwing 
uncooked rice at them by way of alms? Shall we let them pick 
up banana skins from the sand? Shall we let them eat rotten 
grain? Or shall we make human beings of them by making them 
industrious and providing them with some occupation? In my 
humble opinion, swaraj lies hidden in the search for a remedy for 
the starvation in Orissa. 

Cheap Khadi 

The person in charge of the Shuddha Elhadi Bhandar on 
Richey Road has sent the following note*: 

If we wish to boycott foreign cloth, the stock of khadi lying 
in this shop will be sold out on a single day of the week. 

One such shop i^ould not have much difficulty in meeting its 
expenses. 

[From Gujarati] 

Naoajimttf 1-4-1928 


1 Not translated here. It gave a harrowing picture of Orissa in the grip 
of famine. 

2 Not translated here. It contained the rates of rebate ofiered on dii&jent 
varieties of khadi during the National Week from April 6 to April 13. Vide 
also “Notes”, 29-3-1928, sub-title, "Special for National Week”. 



198. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 


Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 1, 1928 

DEAR SATIS BABU, 

I have your letter. Of course the mill-owners would gladly give 
whatever may be wanted if only we would undertake to advertise 
their wares; but it is not possible for us to do so imless they accept 
our terms. Copy of the latest correspondence will interest you. 
You will please treat the whole thing as strictly confidential. 

I wi^ Hemprabhadevi could be induced to give up her 
moroseness which creeps upon her so often even against her will. 

Yours sinemb), 

Enel. 2 

From a photostat: S.N. 13144 


199. LETTER TO OTTAMA BHIKKHU 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 1, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter for which I thank you. I am sorry in- 
deed that anybody should have mentioned anything to you 
about my proposed visit to Burma. Even if I come to Burma I 
do not expect any contribution fi'om Burmese. If I come I should 
certainly hesitate to express my views on the political situation until 
I had studied it and could speak on it with confidence. 

Tours sincerely^ 

Rev. Ottama Bhikefiu 
Shwezady KvAxmo 
Aeyab 

From a photostat: S.N. 13145 



200. LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU 

Satyaosaha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 1, 1928 

MY DEAR JAWAHAR, 

I have your letter. 

The enclosed copies will teU you what progress is being made 
in the negotiations with the mill-owners. I however agree with 
you that nothing will come out of them at the present moment. 
But the negotiations may fructify on due occasion. There was a 
time when the mUl-owners were absolutely defiant about boy- 
cott propaganda. I shall write to you after these negotiations are 
finished. 

Though Romain Rolland’s first expected letter has arrived 
and [he] warmly looks [forward] to my proposed visit, it does 
not enable me to come to a decision. As the time for arriving 
at a fixed decision is drawing nearer, my diffidence is growing. 
There may be however a cable firom Rolland next week and it 
may decide my fate. 

Meanwhile there is no going to Singapur. I am fixed up here 
for the time being. If I do not go to Europe, 1 am due to go to 
Burma and pass there two months, going to a hill-side and making 
collections during my stay there. 

I am quite of your opinion that some day we shall have to 
start an intensive movement without the rich people and without 
the vocal educated class. But that time is not yet. 

You do not teU me where Kamala is to pass the summer 
months. 

Tours sineerdy. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13147 



201. LETTER TO H. M. AHMAD 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabariiiati, 
April 1, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter. I am passing it on to a fidend* who is 
better able to reply to your questions than I am, and I have 
asked him to write to you directly. 

Touts sincerely, 

H. M. Ahmad, Esq.. 

Sqhuhumannstr. 1 7 
Berlin N.W. 6 

From a microfilm: S.N. 14276 


202. LETTER TO SHUAIB dURESHl 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
April 1, 1928 

MY DEAR SHUAIB, 

You never write and I somehow copy your bad example. An 
opportunity has now offered itself to breaJi through that undesi- 
rable practice. 

I enclose herewith a letter. You are better able to answer 
the two questions than 1 am. I have told Ahmad that I have 
passed the letter on to you. Please therefore answer his two 
questions as briefly as you can. 

What are you doing? How are you feeling? I do expect 
great things from you. 

Tours sincerely f 

From a photostat: S.N. 13148 


1 Vide the following item. 



203. LETTER TO SADASHIVAM 


SaTYAORAHA ASHRAlf, 
Sabariiati, 
April 1, 1928 

UY DEAR SADASHIVAM, 

Sjt. Jeevanlalji of Calcutta requires rest aud change. He has 
been advised to go to Bangalore. Will you please secure a small 
bungalow or a flat on monthly terms ? It should be well lighted, 
well ventilated and roomy. The more isolated it is the better, as 
it is required for recuperation. The sanitary surroundings should 
be perfectly good. If such a bimgalow is available, before closing 
I weint you to telegraph to me giving me the situation and terms, 
I would like you to give this matter early attention. 

Sjt. Jeevanla^i’s Madras agent — ^he has a branch of his busi- 
ness in Madras — ^will see you perhaps in this connection. You will 
then please help him. 

Yours sincerely, 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13149 


204. LETTER TO C. F. ANDREWS 

Satyagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 1, 1928 

MY DEAR CHARLIE, 

I have been regularly receiving your letters. But I never 
get the time to write to you. I had your telegram also. There is 
the expected letter from RoUand. He seems to like the idea of my 
going and has been already prompting associations to send me invi- 
tations. But as the time for deciding is nearing, I am growing 
more and more difiident. I am still waiting before coming to a 
final decision for his expected cable. 

Mr. Mukul Dey is here and began operation immediately 
he came. 

I have not been able yet to talk with Ambalal. I will not fail 
to do so. 1 hope it is not a case of phthisis with Rati’s wife. Can’t 



LETTER TO RAMJI DAS JAIMI 177 

you persuade Gurudev to take a long rest in Europe? There 
is no reason for him to age so quickly. 

Tows svKtrely, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13150 


205. LETTER TO RAMJI DAS JAIKI 

SATVAORApV AshRAK, 
Sabaruati, 
April 1, 1928 

DEAR FRIEIU}, 

I have your letter. I fear that it is distance that lends en- 
chantment to the Ashram. 1 do not know that at your age and 
with your habits already formed you could exchange your compa- 
ratively soft life for the comparatively hard life of the Ashram, 
But if you are seriously desirous of being in the Ashram, you should 
first of all study its constitution and then come and live in it for 
a few days and see for yoiirself its life. 

I am sorry I have no copy of the constitution at the present 
moment. But it is reproduced in Natesan’s publications of my 
writings and speeches. The constitution has undergone alter- 
ations but nothing of a substantial nature. You wiU notice in it that 
it is necessary for the inmate of the Ashram to live the life of a 
celibate. 

Tows sinurdy, 

Rai Saheb ILamji Das Jaini 
P.O. Majttha, Dt. Amritsar 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13136 a 


XXXVI-12 



206. LETTER TO REMINGTON TTPEWRITER CO. 


Satyaoraha Ashrau, 
Sabaruati, 
April U 1928 

Messrs Reionoton Typewriter Go., Ltd. 

Yusup Building 

Corner of Ghurchoate Street and Esplanade 

Bombay 

dear sir, 

I am in receipt of Rem. Portable No. 61625 which I had 
sent you for slight repairs and adjustments. 

I am exceedingly glad to say that the machine is working to 
my entire satisfaction. 

Thanking you, 

Tws faitlifidly. 

From a microfilm; S.N. 13146 

207. LETTER TO SATTANANDA 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Apnl 3, 1928 

DEAR SATYANANDA BABU, 

I have your letter. It gives me joy to think that you do 
remember me occasionally. You will have seen from the pages of 
Your^ India that I am trying my best to induce mill-owners to 
ghoiil der the burden of bringing about a boycott of foreign cloth. 
We may not go beyond the negotiations at the present moment. 
But the ground will have been prepared for future action, if we 
can do nothing just now. 

I am not at all sure in my mind as to the propriety of going to 
Europe. I am therefore still vegetating and still awaiting for the 
rail from within. The next fortnight will perhaps decide the mat- 
ter. If, however, the negotiations take a concrete ^pe, of course 
I do not go because I flatter myself with the belief that a successful 
prosecution of the boycott -will demand my continuous presence 
ia India. 

Tours, 


From a photostat: S.N. 13155 



208. LETTER TO RAMI GAJfDHI 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 3, 1928 

am. rami, 

I have your letter. The handmiting this time cannot be 
considered good. The lines are not straight. You should improve 
your health. Look forward to doing a good bit of khadi work 
during the National Week. 

Blessings fiom 
Bapu 

From a photostat of the Gtyarati; S.N. 9707 


209. LETTER TO N. R. MALKANI 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmait, 
April 4, 1928 

MY DEAR MALKAMI, 

I have your telegram. 1 am sending not Jaisukhlal Gandhi 
but Mathuradas who is bringing this letter. He is perhaps better 
fitted for the work because Ids knowledge of English is better and 
being a Gutchi knows the language and habits of many people 
there. Of course he is a well-tried worker. He has been working 
in connection with khadi for many years now and has a wide know- 
ledge of mercantile business. He was bom and brought up in 
Malabar. He really came with Lakshmidas. He has been just now 
taken up by Kakasaheb for the Vidyapith in order to develop the 
charkha work. Therefore he is loaned to you from the Vidyapith 
and his honorarium will be paid by the Vidyapith. His travelling 
expenses are being paid just now on your accoimt, that is, the 
Committee’s account, but if there is any difSiculty about paying 
his railway expenses, you will please tell me. I take it that you 
won’t want to keep him beyond 15th of May. If you do want any- 
body beyond that time, I will have to send you someone else 
because he will be wanted by Kakasaheb on the first of June and 
before that he would want to go to Gsdicut to bring his family. 



180 THE GOLLEOTED WOIUCS OF MAHATHA. GANDHI 

About your own honorarium, I have now a letter from 
Thakkar Bapa who says you told him also that you would want no 
more than Rs. 150. What is this? 1 do not mind the Rs. 200, 
but I want to know how you came upon Rs. 150 and why after- 
wards you had to increase your demand? 1 am anxious for all 
of us to be deliberate and firm in all we do. The only hope I see 
of our regeneration lies in some at least developing decision, fore- 
thought and the like. You are not to take this aihiss, nor to revert 
to Bi. 150 unless you can clearly do so whilst you are doing 
relief work. But if you find that you made a miscalculation or if 
you fixed Rs. 150 without previous consultation with Mrs. Malkani 
and others concerned, you must humbly make the admission and 
ask for Rs. 200. You understand why I write all this, don’t you? 
I want you to come up to my expectations. 

Tours sineortly, 
Bapu 

SjT. N. R. Malkani 

From a photostat: G.N. 927 - 


210. LETTER TO A. A. PAUL 


The Ashram, 
Sabakuati, 
April 4, 1928 

MY DEAR RAJAN, 

You have put me a very difficult question. But after giving 
very careful consideration to the whole of your argument, I in- 
cline towards your accepting an honorarium for whole-time work 
in connection with the Fellowship. You will not be able to put your 
whole soul into it if your attention is divided between two trusts. 
One or the other or both must suffer, especially when there is like- 
ly often to be a conffict between the two. On the principle that 
the labourer is worthy of his hire, I see no ethical objection against 
your accepting an honorarium for your work for the Fellowship. 

Tours sincmly, 

SjT. A. A. Paul 
7 Miller Road 
Ejlfauk 
Madras 

From a photostat: S.N. 13160 



211, LETTER TO B. SHIVA RAO 


Thb Ashram, 
Sabarmatc, 
Apnl 4, 1928 

DEAR ERIEND, 

1 have yoiir letter. The enclosed is the best I can do for 
you.^ You want an article. You might as well get blood out of 
stone as get an article from me. 

Tears sineen^, 

SjT. B. Shiva Rao 

The Theosophioai. SooiETy 

Adyar 

Madras 3 

From a photostat: S.N. 13158 

212. MESSAGE TO ''NEW INDIA" 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 4, 1928 

I wish New India many years of useful service to the country. 
May its revival hasten the advent of swaraj. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13158 


213. PRATER SPEECH AT ASHRAM 

[Apnl 4, 1928]^ 

The first lesson in emulating Hanuman is to apply all one’s 
senses to the task in hand. In order to do this, one’s vision must 
remain unwavering and pure. The eyes are the lamp of the 
body and, one may add, of the soul also. For inasmuch as the 
soul dwells in the body, it can be looked at through the eyes. A 
man might through his speech present a false show and deceive 

1 yidg the following item. 

2 According to Prigahandhu the speedi was made on April 4 in connection 
with Hanuman Jayanti, 



182 THE QOLI.EQTEI> WORKS OR MAHATMA GANDHI 

Others, but his eyes would reveal him. If he does not have a 
steady unwavering look in his eyes, his real nature will be be- 
trayed. Just as physical ailments are diagnosed by examining the 
tongue, spiritual maladies may be detected by looking at the eyes. 
Hence children should be taught to look straight, right from their 
childhood. 

Hanuman’s eyes had a steadfast gaze and showed that, just as 
Rama’s name was ever on his lips, it filled his heart and perva- 
ded every fibre of his being. 

I like the custom of installing Hanuman in our gymnasiums; 
this however does not mean that we wish to gain physical strength 
alone or that we worship merely Hanuman’s physical strength. 
We should certainly become physically strong; but we should also 
know that Hanuman did not have the physique of a giant, he was 
the son of Vayu*, hence his body was as light as a flower and yet 
wiry. However, Hanuman’s distinctiveness lay not in his physical 
strength but in his devotion. He was an incomparable devotee 
and servant of Rama. He found fulfilment in serving Rama 
like a slave and he performed with tixe speed of wind whatever 
service was asked of him. We tiierefore worship Hanuman 
and instal him in gymnasiums because though we do physical 
exercise we are going to become servants — servants of India, servants 
of the world and, through these means, servants of God. It is 
through this humble service that we shall catch a glimpse of God. 

Hence we should not even say that we worship Hanuman 
only for his brahmacharya. Every servant has to practise brahma- 
chtaya’y how can anyone who has taken the vow of service enjoy 
the pleasures of sense ? It is necessary for one to practise self-control 
even to render the limited service to one’s parents; it cannot 
be rendered if anyone yields to his passions as I did.^ Similarly, 
how can anyone who would serve the Ashram, serve men and 
women, boys and girls, how can he afford to gratify his sensual 
desires? And serving the Ashram is such a small matter; it is like 
a drop in the ocean. Hence anyone who would serve the world 
should flee his desires. 

However, mere fasting and penance are not sufiSicient to keep 
away from pleasures of sense; this can be achieved through a 
Hanuman-like devotion. Hence the key to braknmhaiya and aU 
other virtues is found in single-minded devotion. Every evening 
we recite: 

1 \^^md-god 

^ Vid( An Autobiography, Ft. I, Gh. DC. 



prayer 3PEBQH AT ASHRAM 


183 


d)s«m 'rt 5^5 f?R^ ii‘ 

The senses of him who fasts may well be quietened, but this 
does not help in controlling the desire for gratifying the pas- 
sions; the mind very often becomes more restless when the senses 
become weak; then the mind runs more after the objects of plea- 
sure; that too is calmed by the vision of Rama. This is the message 
of Hanuman, the lesson to be learnt from his life. 

Yesterday I used an adjective which I had never used pre- 
viously to qualify hrahmacharya. I said that Hanuman’s brahmor 
charya was sattoik, and, while praising brahmachatya, I mentioned 
three distinct types of it — sattoik, rajasik and tamasik. Whereas 
Hanuman’s brahmachatya was of a sattoik nature, Meghnad’s was 
rajasik. One who practises the latter type of brahmachatya has anger 
and pride. Total surrender is the mark of the sattoik type. It cannot 
be said that either of these two was inferior to the other in 
physical strength. Hanuman however could defeat Meghnad be- 
cause the latter was full of pride, while Hanuman was full of 
devotion and so possessed additional strength. 

We should, therefore, keep our vision pure, our hands and 
feet pure and our speech pure and, by doing so, develop the 
capacity to imitate Hanuman to some extent. We certainly witii to 
improve our physique by practising brahsnachcaya, but the under- 
lying motive is that we wish to become devotees of Rama even 
through the means of our body and thereby serve the world. 
It is not that if we took care of the outer the inner would auto- 
matically take care of itself. However, if we keep on taking care 
of the physical side and if this is not a mere veneer, the mind too 
will one day become steadfast and oidy then shall we be as good 
as Hanuman. 

[From Gujarati] 

Jfavajioan, 8-4-1928 


^ When a man starves his senses, the objects of those senses disappear 
from him, but not the yearning for themj the yearning too departs when 
he beholds the Supreme. Bhagmad Gita, II. 59 



214, REMEMBER THE UNTOUCHABLES 


Within, two days of the publication of this issue, the National 
Week will be on us. We used at one time, in the process of self- 
purification, to picket liquor dens. 1 am reminded of those days 
as I go through the following paragraph from an address received 
from the members of the Coimbatore Adi-Dravida Association:' 

The old order has not changed even to a small extent, and even our 
souls are despised by the other Hindus so that we are not allowed to 
worship in temples the one Gk>d. . . . The churches and mosques have 
their doors wide open to receive us and the missionaries in charge of them 
extend us a hearty welcome. The Government tempts our young men 
by locating liquor shops in or near our chmes, the living quarters of our 
community. If industrial institutions took the place of such shops and 
if social workers befriended us instead of abkari contractors, we have no 
doubt that our progress would be assured in a very short time. We, there- 
fore, earnestly appeal to you for help to organize industrial schools in 
or near our living quarters to save our community from ruin. 

We need not consider during the National Week what the 
Grovemment has done or not done, but we are bound to 
consider what we have done and what we can do. Whilst there is 
no doubt that public opinion against xintouchability has been 
strengthening day by day, public action still remains weak. We 
have not even been able to induce the keepers of public temples 
to throw their doors open to the suppressed classes nor have we 
been able to replace a single liquor den with an industrial school 
or a refreshment room where, instead of the fiery liquid, they can 
receive health-giving nutritious drinks and other refreshments in 
clean surroundings. 

Toung In£a^ 5-4-1928 


1 Only extracts are reproduced here. 



215. BAGHAT STATE AND SACRED THREAD 


With reference to my note in Toung India! of 22nd March last 
about the treatment of Kolis in Baghat State, president of the 
Arya Samaj, New Delhi, writes:® 

The president is no other than Rai Saheb Lala Ganga Ram, 
the well-known philanthropist and public worker of Delhi. Lala 
Ganga Ram’s letter seems to leave little doubt about the correct- 
ness of the allegations made in the previous letter publi^ed in these 
pages. 1 had hoped that his Mormants had exaggerated the 
Happenings in Baghat State and that it had not treated as a crime 
the wearing of the sacred thread by the so-called untouchables. 
I have before me a copy of the letter written to Lala Ganga 
Ram by the Prime Minister of the State. It runs: 

la reply to your letter dated the 10th January 1928, I regret that 
the State is unable to supply you the copy of the judgment, as Arya 
Sanm’ is not a party to this suit, 

I cannot help remarking that the reply is in extremely bad 
taste. It is a bad copy of some English officials’ laconic and 
stereotyped replies which they ordinarily send to correspondents 
who ask inconvenient questions. But these estimable gentlemen as 
a rule respect raitk and status and do not crudely invent things 
to suit their replies. The Prime Minister of Baghat State has dared 
to ignore Lala Ganga Ram’s status in society (I mean apart from 
his title) and for the sake of insulting him has imagined what Lala 
Ganga Ram has never said in his letter. For he never asked for a 
copy of the judgment in the case nor claimed to be party in the 
case against the unfortunate Kolis. This is essentially a matter 
for the Hindu Mahasabha to take up. I do not know whether 
the Sabha countenances the wearing of the sacred thread by the 
so-called untouchables. Whether it does or not, it cannot possibly 
approve of coercion being used against those who choose to wear 
it. Immediately the thread becomes a monopoly carrying with it 
a punishment for its breach, it will cease to be sacred. It weis 
sacred because and when the wearers were men of learning and 
piety. It will soon become a mark of degradation if the alleged 
example of Baghat State proves infectious. 

Young IndM, 5-4-1928 

* Ft* "Notea”, 22-3-1928, sub-title, “Gan It Be Tree?”. 

® The letter is not reproduced here. 



216. ANNUAL REPORT OF THE A.LS.A. 

The All-India Spinners’ Association has issued its second 
annual report. It is a thoroughly businesslike and instructive 
document. The letterpress occupies 31 octavo pages. The appen- 
dices occupy 24 pages. If I may advise the reader, I would sug- 
gest his reading the appendices first. They will give him a de- 
tailed analysis of the income and the expenditure of the Asso- 
ciation duly audited and certified. He will discover at a glance 
how over 20 lakhs of rupees have been laid out for the promotion 
of the greatest, because the most extensive, national industry. If 
he will study the figures carefiiUy, he will perceive the value of 
investing a portion of his income in this industry, and the return 
he would get for his investment would be the prosperity of the 
poor villagers on whose toil his own income depends. Among 
the appendices he will find also the resolutions of the All-India 
Spinners’ Association defining its general policy, conditions on 
which loans are granted, conditions on which credit sales may be 
conducted by its depots and on which bounties are given to pri- 
vate khadi dealers and commissions to khadi hawkers. He will 
also find in them the constitution of the All-India Spinners’ As- 
sociation, the names and locations of different agencies and other 

information of value. _ _ 

Having glanced through the appendices, let him go through 
the report if he has a half-hour or an hour to spare and he^vnll 
know the way khadi has progressed. He will know the condition 
of the All-India Deshbandhu Memorial Fund. Whereas the total 
production during 1925-26 was Rs. 23,76,670, in 1926-27 it was 
Rs. 24,06,370 and the sales during the same period were Rs. 
28,99,143 and Rs. 33,48,794, respectively. Investors in khadi may 
therefore derive comfort that khadi is not a losing but a substan- 
tially progressive proposition. As against 50,000 spinners accord- 
ing to the previous report, tibiere were 83,339 serving 5,193 weavers 
during the year under report. As against 1,500 villages, now there 
are 2,381 villages where hand-spinning is done through the agency 
of the Association. And just as the figures about spmners 
vfilages were understated in the last report, so are they imder- 
estimated in the report under notice. Tli®re arc 177 khadi pro- 
duction centres of which 62 are departmental, 41 aided ^d 74 
independent. There are 204 centres of which 115 are depart- 
mental, 44 aided and 45 independent, and the total number of 



SASTRI’S SELF-DEmAI. 


187 


workers under the direct control of the Central Office and in 
aided organizations is 748. This does not include those working in 
the independent organizations. Of improvement in the qua'ity 
of yam the report states:' 

It is sati^actory to note that whilst there is improvement in 
the quality, the prices have undergone steady reduction. The fol- 
lowing information about the special khadi service furnished by 
the Technical Department will be read with interest:* 

I must skip over the other instructive paragraphs of the report. 
I hope I have given sufficient information to whet the appetite of 
the reader for possessing the report itself which can be had at the 
office of the All-India Spinners’ Association, Mirzapur, Ahmeda- 
bad, for 4 annas worth of postage stamps. 

Toung India, 5-4-1928 


217. SASTRTS SELF-DENIAL 

The decision of the Right Honourable Srinivasa Sastri to 
remain in South Africa beyond his term will gladden the hearts 
of the Indian settlers as it has pleased and eased the minds of those 
here who are interested in the South African question and who have 
been anxiously following the course of events in that sub-continent. 
Familiarity in Sjt. Sastri’s case instead of making the Europeans 
indifferent or lukewarm has made them look to the Agent Gene- 
ral as their friend and peacemaker. By his punctilious impartial- 
ity combined with firmness wherever necessary Sjt. Sastri has 
inspired them with trust as well as respect. The grateful Indians 
have not been slow to discover and appreciate the worth of this 
distinguished countryman and they were urging him to prolong 
his stay, if it was at all possible. Let them now demonstrate their 
aifectioi] and appreciation by becoming united and by being cor- 
rect in iihe observance of all their part of the agreement. 1 tender 
my congratulations to Sjt. Sastri on his self-denial. For I know 
how anxious he was to return home at die end of his term. 

Yota^ India, 5-4-1928 


' & * The extracts quoted are not rqjtoduoed. here. 



218. A MILI^OWNER ON BOTCOTT 


An Ahmedabad mill-owner writes:* 

The letter is refreshingly candid. I wish that the other miU- 
owners would take the view that this correspondent takes of the 
possibility of standardization of prices and necessarily therefore of 
cloth. It is refreshing too to find that fluctuations of cotton prices 
do not much affect prices of cloth. And I would add in spite of 
the correspondent’s view to the contrary that it is possible to 
control cotton prices if it is possible for us to boycott foreign cloth. 
For prices of our cotton are dominated by America only because 
we export large quantities of cotton and that too to the market 
for which America also caters. If we connder it to be possible, 
as it has proved to be possible, to appeal successfully to the patriot- 
ism of the buyer of cloth it is equally possible to make a suc- 
cessful appeal to that of the grower of cotton. Indeed the import 
tance of foreign cloth boycott is derived from the knowledge that 
for it to succeed aU the component parts of the nation have 
voluntarily to join the movement. It carmot succeed unless there 
is willing and hearty co-operation from the vast mass of the vil- 
lage population. My fai& in the movement persists because I 
know the masses to be sound. Only the classes block the way 
because of their want of faith. If they will only shed their fear 
and their unbelief and lead the movement, the masses will fol- 
low. And this boycott is the only thing in which it is possible for the 
masses actively to join voithout having to make much sacrifice. 

I do not share the view of the correspondent that artificial 
silk may be used with impunity in the manufactime of cloth in 
our mills. His comparison of foreign dyes and foreign size with arti- 
ficial silk is hastily made. Just now we contemplate boycott only 
of foreign cloth, not of dyes and size. All foreign yams therefore, 
whether silk, wool or cotton, natural or artificial, must be taboo; 
or if foreign artificial silk yam may be used with impunity why 
not foreign cotton or wool or natural silk yam? 

But with foreign cotton it is a different thing. We need not 
exclude from use foreign cotton, for it is a raw product. What we 
must boycott for the sake of the starving masses living in enforced 
idleness for at least four months in the year is foreign yam and doth 
which the masses can spin and weave in their cottages. 

* The letter is not rq>ioduced here. 



A MILL-OWNER ON BOYOOTT 


189 


The indigenous miU-cloth too would be intolerable if it dis- 
placed these masses without finding for them an equivalent in- 
dustry. The miUs have a place in the economy of national life only 
to the extent that they supplement the national industry of hand- 
spinning in millions of our cottages. They will be a hindrance 
if they compete with them and supplant them. Their natural 
tendency no doubt is to supplant botbi the village spiimer and the 
village weaver. It is only when the mill-owners, mill-agents and 
their share-holders become truly national and conduct their afiairs 
not to exploit the masses but for their benefit first and their own 
profits after, that they will be able to appreciate and not merely to 
join but to lead the boycott movement. That, if they take a long 
view of the matter, tliey have nothing to lose and much to gain 
has been made clear by the foregoing letter. Indeed it is a self- 
evident proposition. Boycott of foreign cloth, if it is the best as- 
surance of steady work for the masses, is also an equal assurance 
to the mills of steady profits in the long run. 

But the history of the null industry at least during the past 
seven years of the mass movement does not fill one with much hope 
of the ttiiIIh rising to the occasion and realizing their duty to the 
nation. Instead of looking upon khadi with favour and fostering 
it, our mills have entered into an unfair, unpatriotic and illegitimate 
competition with khadi. The following are the figmes of khadi 
manufactured by our mills during the respective yea^: 

1925 1926 1927 

Lb. 2,28,87,970 2,72,36,337 3,39,77,851 

Yards 6,50,48,487 7,43,13,280 9,43,80,368 

They have sold this enormous quantity of coarse cloth as khadi 
and have not hesitated in some cases shamelessly to use the charkha 
label, etc., with the deliberate purpose of exploiting the khadi 
atmosphere created by Ciongress organizations. It gives one pain 
to have to say that the mills that thus manufactured coarse cloth 
and palmed it off as khadi did a distinct disservice to the nation. 

If their eyes are now opened and if only to do belated repa- 
ration for the grave wrong done by them to the nation, they will 
head or at least join the boycott movement on the terms suggested 
by me or others equally effective. 

This painful discovery of the figures has however a bright 
side to it. It is a revelation even to an optimist and khadi expert 
like me of the hold that khadi has acquired over the people. It 
shows that a much larger number than we are aware of has in 
obedience to the nation’s call changed their taste and preferred 
to buy and use coarse cloth instead of the fine cloth they used to 



190 


OSB aoiXBOTBD WORKS OR MAEtATMA OAKDIII 


wear before. They have undoubtedly often paid higher prices 
than they used to. They have bought rnill khadi largely under the 
mistaken belief that it was genuine and that it had the imprimatur 
of the Congress. An ardent lover of the masses has in these figures 
and my legitimate deductions therefrom much food for thought 
and equal cause for hope. As for my feared visit to Europe, I may 
assure the correspondent that I do not propose to visit Europe if 
an effective scheme of boycott materializes in the very near future. 

Toung India, 5-4-1928 


219. J^OTES 

Africans and Indians 

Deenabandhu Andrews, when he was here recently, drew my at- 
tention to what the Poet had written in the Press in connection 
with a movement in the Transvaal said to be going on on be- 
half of Indians to isolate themselves from the Afiicans and wanted 
me to give my opinion on it. I do not think that any importance 
need be attached to the alleged movement. For I feel that it has 
no bottom. Indians have too much in common with the A&icans 
to think of isolating themselves firom them. They cannot exist in 
South Afnca for any length of time without the active sym- 
pathy and friendship of the Africans. I am not aware of the gene- 
ral body of the Indians having ever adopted an air of superiority 
towards their African brethren, and it would be a tragedy if any 
such movement were to gain ground among the Indian settlers of 
South Africa. Needless to say, I entirely associate myself with the 
opinion so forcibly expressed by the Poet condemning the move- 
ment. If, as has been stated on behalf of the leaders of the so- 
called movement, “it is humiliating to the Indian sentiment and 
to the Indian national honour and civilization to think that our 
Agent General is trying to bring us down to such a low level”, it 
wOl ill befit us to repudiate such a sentiment when it is expressed 
by the South African whites in respect of ourselves. And what is 
more, the South African whites are able to translate their con- 
tempt and prejudice against us into action whereas ours towards 
the South Africans can only react against ourselves. 

Women and Jewels 

A lady doctor in Tamil Nadu sends a letter accompanying 
her gift referred to in it As the letter, in my opinion, enhances 



NOtSS 


191 


tbe value of the gift and is likely to serve as an example to 
others, I compress its contents as follows, omitting the names of the 
donor, the Raja and the place: 

Just a few lines to tell you that I sent you yesterday a parcel of 
diamond ring and a pair of ear-rings which were given to me about 12 
years ago in remembrance of service in the palace. . . when the heir was 
bom to the Raja. It grieved me much when I came to know that the 
Raja did not have even the courage to invite you to his palace when you 
passed by and I was told that it was due to fear of the Government. You 
can imagine my feeling when ailer your visit I looked at these jewels 
which before used to travel with me. Now when I looked at them, bitterness 
rose in my breast and then it turned into deep sympathy for the 
starving millions about whom you spoke when you were here. I said 
to myself, ‘Are not these jewels made out of the people's money? And, 
what claim have I to keep them as my own?* 1 then made up my mind 
to send them on to you. You could use them for khadi service and so 
help some of the starving millions. I feel sure that it is a better use to 
make of them than that they should remain in a comer of my box. A 
friend has valued them at Rs.-500. They are therefore insured for that 
amount. 1 only hope that some generous person will give you more than 
the actual price, knowing the circumstances in which these things are being 
sent to you. You may make what use you like of this letter. 

It is remarkable how we imagine fears even when there is no 
cause. There are many Rajas who have openly and willingly 
supported khadi and therethrough the cause of the poor from 
whom, after all, as my correspondent correctly puts it, they derive 
their riches. It is true that khadi has a political significance; but we 
have not yet come to the stage when support of khadi can be safely 
declared by the Government to be criminal. Every philanthropic 
movement can be turned to political use, but it would be a sad 
day when on that account it is boycotted even as to its philan- 
thropic aspect. But it is only fair to state that the Raja to whom 
reference has been made by the lady doctor is not the only one 
who is afi:aid of supporting khadi or showing ordinary courtesy 
to a public servant like me. It is well however tliat the Raja’s boy- 
cott of me has stimulated the gift. But I would like all the sisters 
who may chance to see this note to realize that it is not necessary to 
be able to emulate tlie fair donor to have occasions like the one that 
set her athinking about her duty to the starving millions. Surely 
it is easy enough to realize that so long as there are millions of men 
and women in the country starving for want of food because 
of want of work, the sisters have no warrant for possessing , costly 



192 THE COLIiECrrED WORKS OF HAHATMA OANDHI 

jewels for adorning their bodies or often for the mere satisfaction 
of possessing them. As I have remarked before now in these pageSj 
if only the rich ladies of India will discard their superfluities and 
be satisfied with such decoration as khadi can give them it is* pos- 
sible to finance the whole of the khadi movement, not to take into 
consideration the tremendous moral effect that such a step on the 
part of the rich daughters of India will produce upon the nation 
and particularly the starving masses. 

Karve Jubilee 

It gives me joy to publish the following appeal ’by Sjt. V. M. 
Joshi, President of Karve Jubilee Committee;* 

Professor Karve is not an ordinary man who is satisfied if he 
satisfies an indulgent public which, if it proves itself exacting and 
imperious at times, issues a certificate of merit ninety-nine times 
out of hundred if some little service is rendered to it during 
recreation hours. Prof. Karve has obeyed a master that is never 
generous, never indulgent and ever exacting, though invari- 
ably just. This master is his own conscience. His self-effacement, 
his single-minded devotion to duty, his exhaustless energy, 
his honesty in all circumstances, his faith in the midst of opposi- 
tion, his irrepressible optimiam are a national asset of the first 
magnitude. There may be two opinions about the work to which 
he has devoted his great gifts but there can be only one opinion 
about the gifts themselves. And the latter are any day far 
more valuable and lasting than the work itself. The organizers 
of the Jubilee have set before themselves a very modest to 
collect Rs. 25,000 to be presented to Prof. Karve for his work. It 
is a sum that should readily come forth from the numerous men 
and women who have come under the influence of thin giant 
among silent and selfless workers or who have profited by his 
labours of a lifetime. 

Toung India, 5-4-1928 


*The appeal is not reproduced here. 



220. LETTER TO DR. C. MUTHU 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Apnl 5, 1928 

DEAR DR. B4UTHU, 

I have your kind note. I wish your enterprise every success. 
So far as I have understood your method, it is to treat phthisis 
patients [by] open air and dietetic treatment. As you know I have 
a horror of drugs and the like. I therefore welcome every honest 
effort to replace them with drugless and what might be termed 
natural methods of curing a disease which need never find an 
abode in this sunny soil of ours. 

Yours sineorsly. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13161 


221. LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL J{EHRU 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Apra 5, 1928 

MV DEAR JAWAHAR, 

You will see my article^ on mills in the current issue of Toung 
India. The latest move is on their own to start a Swadeshi League 
without reference to lU. Do not think anything concrete is going 
to come out of my effort. By all means let them prosecute their 
own plans. So far as I can see, we must confine our attention to 
khadi hawking. 

No final decision has yet been arrived at about the European 
visit. I am shirking it and makin g it depend upon some fu^er 
indication from Rolland which I should have next week. 

Tours sineorofy. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13162 


* Vido “A Mill-owner on Boycott* **, 5-4>1928. 


XXXVI-13 



222. LETTER TO SHANTIKUMAR MORARJI 

The Ashram, 
Saeabmati, 
April 5, 1928 

dear, bhanukumar, 

1 have your letter. I shall await further developments. 

Tours smeertly, 
Bapu 


From the original: G.W. 4788. Courtesy: Shantikumar Moraiji 


223. LETTER TO BEHRAMJI KHAMBHATTA 

The Ashram, 
Sababmati, 
April 6, 1928 

MY DEAR KHAMBHATTA, 

I have your radio from Aden. 1 did not know when I replied 
that it was a radio message. I therefore sent a telegram^ to your 
Bombay address. Mr. Kapadia received the telegram and ack- 
nowledged it. I hope that Jal took the voyage comfortably and 
that he and you all profited by it. 

I am sending you herewith a letter* to Austrian friends who 
will guide you in the choice of a doctor should you decide to 
have the operation in Vienna. 

May God bless Jal. With love to you all. 

Tours siumely, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13167 


tThis is not available. 

* Vide the following item. 



224. LETTER TO FREDERIC AND FRANCISCA 
STANDENATH 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 6, 1928 

DEAR FRIENDS, 

The bearer, Mr. Khambhatta, is a dear fiiend and co-worker. 
Under advice from his doctors he has gone to Europe in order to 
have his only son examined and, if necessary, operated upon. I 
know that you will give him all the help and guidance you can 
in the choice of a good surgeon, etc. 

Touts sinurdy. 

Dr. and Mrs. Standenath 
Graz (In Styria) 

TRAXmiANSDORPaASSE I 

(Austria) 

From a photostat: S.N. 14281 


225. LETTER TO MRS. M. M. SINGH 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 6f 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter. It is not usual to receive in the Ashram 
people who are unknown to any of the members. I would there- 
fore like you, if you seriously want to be in the Ashram, to write 
to the Secretary of the Managing Board giving all the particulars 
about yourself. I may also inform you that at the present moment 
the Ashram is overcrowded. 

Tours sinesnly, 

Sardarini M. M. Singh 
Upton House 
New Gantt. Road 
Dehra Dun 


From a microfilm: S.N. 13163 



•> 


226. LETTER TO M. DEWAS NARAJNDAS 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 6, 1928 

DEAR ERJEND, 

I have your letter. If human relations were regulated accord- 
ing to rules of arithmetic, what you propose would be smtable. 
But just as pressing 30 meals into 10 will not be the same as taking 
the 30 meals regularly from day to day, similarly will 6 months’ 
spinning compressed into 15 days not do. The idea is to test 
one’s powers of sustenance and discipline. 

Nor will it be enough for you to offer satyagraha against your 
parents and wrest an unwiUmg consent from them. You must 
get that consent by diligence and force of character. 

Tours situtrsly, 

SjT. M. Dewam Naraindas 
G/o Krishna Gottaoe 
New High Sohool Bdhdinos 
Hassan Au Effiihd Road 
' Karachi 

From a ofiicrofilm: S.N. 13164 


227. LETTER TO T. R. GAITONDE 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 6, 1928 

MV DEAR GATTONDE, 

I thank you for your prompt opinion. I shall await the books 
you promise. 

You say that if a drum is introduced an engine would be 
necessary. But I imderstood from the American friend of whom 
I spoke to you that the drum could be worked with man-power 
or even animal-power without much difi&culty and with little ex- 



UBTTER TO OANOA RAM 197 

pense. And do you think that a drum is necessary for the deve< 
lopment of the little tannery? 

Tours sinetnif, 

Y. R. Gattonde, Esq,. 

G/o B. 12 Ambewadi 
Giroaum, Bombay 

From a photostat: S.N. 11397 


228. LETTER TO GANGA RAM 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
Apnl 6, 1928 

DEAR FRIENO, 

You will notice I have again returned to the subject of the 
Kolis in the Baghat State.’ It is a shocking thing. When I received 
your first commimication, I had no idea that my correspondent 
was my old fidend the Rai Sahcb. When, tliereforc, I made difc 
discovery, it gave me pleasure. 

Who is this Dewan and what is the position of the Baghat 
State? What is its population? Is there any public opinion? 
How is the State reached? Have the Kolis given up the thread 
out of firight? 

Tours sinetrdy, 

Lala Ganoa Ram 
Arya Farm 
Delhi 

From a photostat: S.N. 13165 


’ Vuls “Baghat State aod Sacred Thread'', 5-4-1928. 



229. LETTER TO S. RADHAKRISHXAX 

The Asbrah, 
Sabasmati, 
Apnl 6, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I thank you for your kind letter. Nothing is yet certain about 
the proposed European visit. It is difficult for me to make up 
my mind. 

As to the article you want, I would ask you to take pity on 
me. I am so thoroughly washed out and have, to give so much 
time to Towf^ India and Ncaafioan that I have very little left for 
managing any more writing. 

Touts sincerely. 

Prof. S. Radhakrishnan 
49/I.G. Harish Mueerji Bd. 

Bhawanipur 

Galcidtta 

From a photostat: S.N, 13166 


230. LETTER TO J. B. PENNINGTON 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 6, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your two letters for which I thank you. I have been so 
busy that it has not been possible for me to overtake your book. 

As to Miss Mayo’s performance, there is no argument left 
for me to advance, if you think that there is no distinction between 
my writings in Tota^ India and Miss Mayo’s book. If your expe- 
rience of India coincides with Miss Mayo’s, no argument can pos- 
sibly convince you to the contrary. 

Toms Aneoniy, 

J. B. Pennington, Esq.. 

5 Ewell Park Gardens 
Ewell, Surrey 

From a photostat: S.N. 14280 



231. LETTER TO G. RAMACHAJ^DRAJ^ 


Ths Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
April 6, 1928 

MY DEAR RAMAOEANDRAN, 

In continuation of my letter I send you herewith the enclosed. 
I am anxious now that you should adopt the suggestion as early as 
possible. 

Tours sinetrdy. 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13591 


232. LETTER TO CHARUE U. MORSELOW 

*X'h k kAJH, 

Sabarmatc, 
April 6, 1928 

OSAR FRISNOj 

I have your letter. Ido not perform any miracles nor do I 
believe in miracles. I would advise you to be content with what 
Gk>d gives you bearing in mind that there are many who are m a 
worse plight than you are. And, after aU, physical blindness is 
not half as bad as moral blindness. And, whilst we have no posi- 
tive control over physical infirmities, we have over the moral infir- 
mities. If, therefore, there is any such thing as miracle, it should be 
attempted after one’s moral welfiire. 

Tours sineonfy, 

Gharue U. Morselow, £s(^. 

F.O. Box 123, Wairrxoo 
New York, U.SA. 

From a photostat: S.N. 14282 



233, LETTER TO M. R. MALKAJfl 


April 7, 1928 

MY DEAR MALKANI, 

I have your letter. I did not need your budget. -I must not 
ask you to cancel your policy. I simply passed on to you what 
was burdening my mind. My inquiries must not oppress you. 
We aU must try to look as we are. And if we could do that we 
would not worry over any questions. The Rs. 200' I diall find 
and that without any loss of self-respect. But you must always 
let me have the privilege of e3q)ecting the highest firom you. Why 
^ould you worry about dowries? You are going to pay not a 
farthing. Why ^ould the daughters be married in an Anul 
family necessarily? You must traiu the girls fix>m now to forget 
that they belong to a caste. They belong to India and if you 
believe in my view of vamashrama, the matter becomes simple. 

Of course you do not need to pay him anything beyond his, 
say, fare and food there. 

Love. 

Bapu 

From a photostat: GJ^. 885 


234. LETTER TO I. P. THURAIRATPfAM 

The Ashram, 
Sabasmati, 
AprU 7, 1928 

DEAR FEIEND, 

I have your letter. I wish the Students’ Congress all success. 
I hope that the students wiU not forget the starving millions of the 
parent country and the most effective manner in which they can 
help is to identify themselves with them by adopting khadi. 

Tours sincerAy, 

SjT. I. P. Thurairatnam 
Sboy., Students’ Congress 
Chavae:achgheri, Ceylon 

Froin a inicroQIin: 1317^ 



235. LETTER TO RAIHAJfA TTABJI 

Tbs A3HRAM, 
SABAItMATI, 

April 7, 1928 

UY DBMl RAIHANA, 

Better a dictated letter than none. My congratulations to 
Sohaila and mai^ kisses on both the cheeks, on the lips, on the 
forehead and in ^e centre of the head of the baby. 

I wish I had time to hear more of your songs. 

Tours sincerely^ 

Miss Raihana Tyabji 
Gamp Baroda 

From a photostat: S.N. 13169 


236. LETTER TO DR. M. A. ANSARl 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 7, 1928 

DEAR DR, AMSARI, 

I have your letter. I resign myself to your letter to the Vice- 
roy. Of course I entirely agree with you that if the States will give 
us assistance we shall receive it gladly. But 1 know that they dare 
not give it to an institution that is frankly a creation of non- 
co-operation and nursed in its atmosphere. But if they do with 
the certain knowledge that it is a non-co-operating institution, 
we should gladly accept their assistance. 

The proposed European visit is causing me much trouble 
just now. I can’t make up my mind. I know that I tiiould not 
be so undecided like this. But what is the use of my hiding my 
weakness? I can’t account for it myself. However, 1 should come 
to a decision in the course of the next fortnight at the latest. Im- 
provement in health has no attraction for me. The meeting with 
M. Romain RoUand and a quiet conference with the chief men 
of Europe is what would take me to Europe. Let us see how 
God leads me. 

What is the use of Begum Ansari and 2^hra wanting me to 



202 TBB COLLEaTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI 

stay in their new abode? All the time I am there, they keep 
themselves at a safe distance hiding themselves behind Ibe pwr- 
dah. If they want me to be there, they will have to expose to view 
their supeiiSuous bangles and other jewellery so that I can ease 
them of the superfluities and turn them to good account. 

So far as &e Jamia collections are concerned, I suspect that 
we shall do nothing beyond getting collections from personal 
friends, and, in order that this can be done it is necessary to have 
that constitution and trust-deed. Do please therefore expedite it 
as soon as you can. 

Yours sineersly. 


From a photostat: S.N. 13170 


237. LETTER TO MRS. SAM HIGGimOTTOM 

The Ashram, 
Sasarmati, 
April 7, 1928 

DEAR FRlEKDj 

It was good of you so promptly to reply to the enquiry addres- 
sed to your husband.* Please send my regards when you write to 
him. 

Nothing is yet certain about my proposed visit to Europe. 
But even if I go to Europe I hardly think I shall be able to combine 
both Europe and America during the few months alone which I 
can allow myself. 

Yours sinesrelji, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13171 


* Vide “Letter to Sam Higginbottom", 28-3-1928. 



238. LETTER TO A. A. PAUL 


The AsHEAMp 
SABAHJUA.'np 

April 7, 1928 

MY DEAR RAJAN, 

Here is my message for the May issue of the News Sheet. If I 
agreed to give you a message for every issue, I could only have 
been in a drunJken state and promises made in such a state axe 
valueless. 

I never knew that Joseph had lost a brother-in-law. It was 
good you gave me the information. 

I hope you received in due course my reply* to your previous 
letter. 

Touts sineersfy, 

A. A. Paul, Esq,. 

7 Miller Roab 

Eilfauk 

Madras 

From a photostat: S.N. 13173 


239. MESSAGE FOR *‘JfEWS SHEET’^ 

Satvagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 7, 1928 

True promotion of Fellowship is to be found in silent acts of 
fellowship. One such little act, therefore, is more than tons of 
professions. 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13172 


* Vids "Letter to A. A. Paul”, 4-4*1928. 
2 Of the International Fellowship 



240. LETTER TO JOSEPH 


The Ashrau, 
SXBARliCA.'n, 


April 7, 1928 


MY DEAR JOSEPH, 

Rajan Paul tells me that you have lost a brother-in-law. My 
sympathies are with you and your widowed sister. Tell Mrs. Joseph 
that though I have not said one word since, I have never forgotten 
the last scene when I left your house. I shall ever treasure die 
affection of which that scene was a testimony. 

Tours sinemly. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13168 


241. LETTER TO S. GANESAN 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
AprU 7, 1928 

MY DEAR OANESAN, 

I have your letter with Dr. Marie Stopes’s review. I do not 
propose to publish it in Toung India as it seems to me to be more 
an advertisement of her books and her methods than a serious 
review of the chapters seriously written. 

Tours dneordy, 

End. 1 file 

SjT. S. CrAmESAN 
18 Pygrofts Road 
Trjpdicane, Madras 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13174 



242. LETTER TO AUCE SCHALEK 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 7, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter with your notes of the interview.* The notes 
required considerable revision, I therefore send you a clean copy. 

Tours sineerdy, 

Miss Auoe Sghalek 
Austrian Journalist 
Neron’s Hotel 
Lahore 

From a photostat: S.N. 14284 


243. LETTER TO S. A. WAIZE 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 8t 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter. I would love to take up your sister. But 
I doubt whether she would be able to stand the rigorous life of the 
Ashram. We have very little room at present. If, therefore, she 
comes, she will have to share a room with some sister or sisters. 
Then she will have to take part in the Ashram labours. The 
weather in Ahmedabad is very hot during this time of the year. 
And if ^e does not know Hindustani quite well, she will be at sea. 
If in spite of these drawbacks — drawbacks as they may appear 
to her — she is desirous of coming, please let me know and I shall 
place your letter before the Managing Board. And you will also 
let me know for how long your sister desires to stay here. 

Touts sinetrely, 

S. A. Waize, Esq,. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13176 

‘ Vidt ‘‘laterview to Alice Schalek”, 20-3>1928. 



244. LETTER TO NARAYANA 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 8, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter. I have no doubt that you should resist 
the idea of marriage until you yourself are quite ready. 

Tours sincerely, 

SjT. Narayana 
27 Third Gross Road 
Basavanoudi P.O. 

Bangalore, S.I. 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13178 


245. LETTER TO J. B. KRIPALAJ^I 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 8, 1928 

MY DEAR PROFESSOR, 

You know perhaps that Krishnadas is not here at present. 
He has however sent me your letter of the 25th March. Why do 
you say that the Spinners* Register will mean purchasing yam from 
cottage to cottage? I have not suggested any such thing at all.* 
What 1 have suggested is that we should know the spinners with 
whom the middle men deal. We do not want to do away with the 
middle men altogether. We must not be at their mercy either, 
nor must we be in the dark as to what is actually paid to the 
spinners. The Register, therefore, has to be taken periodically. 
Once we know who the spinners are, where they are, what they 
get and what they do, you need not bother about them again, say 
for six months. As a matter of fact there should be no difficulty 
in your coming in touch with the middle men themselves and with 

1 Gandhiji had called upon all units of the AU-India Spiimeis* Association 
to collect data regarding the spinners supplying yarn to the A.I.S.A. depots. 
Tide “Letter to J. B. Kripalani”, 12-3-1928 and “Notes”, 15-3-1928, sub-title, 
“Instructive Kgures”. 



LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU 


207 


the spinners through them. 1 don’t know whether I am even 
now clear. Not knowing the practical working of these, there 
may be difficulties of which I have no knowledge. You wffi then 
write to me about those difficulties and I might be able to make 
concrete suggestions for overcoming them. 

About the want of capital, 1 am going to confer with Jamna- 
lalji and Shankerlal. You do not say definitely how much you 
require. Is Babu Shivaprasad Gupta ready to advance that sum 
without interest if repayment is guaranteed and if he is, what will 
be the period of such loan? 

The last paragraph of your letter is bad. You can’t afford to 
give way to despair under any circumstances. You have to hold 
on to the Ashram no matter what difficulties face you. You dare 
not take up any other work. Please write regularly. 

Are you now thoroughly restored, or is there still some diffi> 
culty ? If there is, you should now find Dr. Ansari comparatively free. 

Tours sinetrdy. 

Prof. Kripalani 
Gandhi Ashram 
Benares Gantt. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13177 


246. LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 8, 1928 

MY dear JAWAHAR, 

I have your letter. I do not remember Father havmg told me 
that he would be back in Bombay to confer with the miU- 
owners during the last week of this month. But he and I discus- 
sed the question of foreign cloth boycott at length and he had 
a conference with Seth Lalji, Shantikumar, Seths Ambalal, 
Kasturbhai and Mangaldas. It was a good conference, but nothmg 
definite was done. I have now heard that the mill-owners are go- 
ing to start their own Swadeshi League which means of course 
that we are not coming to any terms. 

I had a long discussion with Lalaji today, for he was here for 
two days. He is enthusiastic about boycott of foreign cloth. I have 
supplied him with literature. He even suggested that I should 
invite a few leaders and confer with [them] about boycott I told 



208 THB aOLLEaXED WORKS OF MAHATUA. GANDHI 

him I had not the courage to do so. He is of opinion that if in- 
tense boycott propaganda is to be taken up, I must not go out of 
the country, wherein of course I agree; but I cannot take up 
intense propaganda unless politically-minded India is whole- 
heartedly with me and unless the agitation about temporary boy- 
cott of British doth, prindpally British doth, is given up. We have, 
therefore, come to ^s provisional arrangement that if anything 
concrete takes place by spontaneous action on the part of the known 
leaders, I should give up the idea of going to Europe. On the 
other hand [if] nothing of that kind happens and if otherwise 1 see 
my way clear, I sliould proceed and that Lalaji and others who are 
minded like him should cultivate an atmosphere for intense propa- 
ganda about foreign clotli boycott witli or without the assistance 
of mills. I tliereforc suggest tliat you should confer with Dr. An- 
sari and others. I suppose they will all go to the Punjab and pass 
the resolution about foreign doth boycott through khadi. I would 
warn you against any mention of indigenous miU-cloth. You can 
simply say: ‘Whereas the only effective means of immediately 
demonstrating the united strength of the nation lies through 
boycott of foreign cloth, this Conference urges all concerned com- 
pletely to boycott fordgn doth and adopt hand-spun and hand- 
woven khadi even though such adoption may necessitate revision 
of one’s taste about dress and some pecuniary sacrifice.’ You will 
glan let me know the result of private discussions you may have 
with friends and advise me as to whether I should give up the 
idea of going to Europe. Dr. Ansari should really be able to dedde. 

Tours sincerely f 

Fn)m a photostat: S.N. 13179 

247. LETTER TO SHANKARAN 

Thb Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 8, 1928 


MY DEAR SHANKARAN, 

I was of you only early this morning, that is, just 

after prayer when talking to Pyarelal and here is your letter. 

Suppose that there is a colony of orphans shipwrecked on an 
island, that they are all unmarried males, that they have never 
known that they ever had any parents, suppose further that they 
have a knowledge of letters and that from their reading they under- 



LETTER TO SHARRARAN 


209 


Stood that they had all parents; suppose then that they in the 
course of their readings come upon a philosophical book called 
“Our Spontaneous Origin”, should the orphans feel convinced 
philosophically that they were all spontaneous creation? Just 
as the supposed philosophical book would not unsettle the con- 
viction of the majority of the unsophisticated orphans, so should 
the philosophical book that you have read about the non-existence 
of God not unsettle your belief in God. If you will admit the fact 
of your having parents, how can you escape the fundamental &.ct 
of the First Cause? Having made sure of that, I am indiffer- 
ent whether you call that First Cause God or some other thing. 
And having ^en also convinced of that fact it is wholly unneces- 
sary to inquire how that First Cause disposes of justice or to inquire 
about the injustice that we seem to see around us. There are endless 
theories. I believe in that of cause and effect, that is, of the law of 
karma. It seems to answer all a man’s doubts. But if they do not 
answer yours, you must wait, watch and pray and you will some 
day have the light. But if you do not believe in the First Cause, 
there is no hope. For to whom should you pray then? Therefore 
hold fast to your belief in God, never mind the reasoning. Can 
you reason out the existence of your parents ? . Will you not say, 
‘whether I can reason or not the existence of my parents is an 
absolute fact with me’ ? If you cannot prove it to the satisfoction 
of your inquirers, you will say ‘my reasoning is at fault but not the 
facti. Even so must you say to yourself, ‘Though I may not be 
able to reason out the existence d£ God, I must accept tiie e3q)e- 
rience of and the belief of mankind in the First Cause*. 

If even now you are not satisfied, you must ask me again. 

Tours sinesrt^. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13175 and 13180 


XXXVI-14 



248. LETTER TO MAJfILAL AND SUSHILA GANDHI 


[Before April 10, 1928y 

cm. MANILAl. AND STTSHOA, 

1 got yoxiT letters. 1 do not think that I have missed any 
mail recently. It is good that Suslula is progressing in her studies, 
but I am worried about her health. I should like her to make 
every effort to acquire good health. 

Nimu is here at present. Ramdas is on a tour hawking khadi. 
Afterwards he will go to Jamnadas’s school. Both of them will 
work there. Devdas has gone to Delhi. 

A proposal is being discussed about my going to Europe. I 
cannot make op my mind. The matter will be decided within a 
week. 

BUssings from 

Bapu 

Tell Fragji that I got his letter. I have no time to write to 
him a separate letter. It appears that the cases of both have been 
decided now. 

From a photostat of the Gvyarati: G.N. 4722 


249. LETTER TO MANUAL AND SUSHILA GANDHI 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 10, 1928 

OHI. MAHILAI. AMD SUSHILA, 

I have no time today to write myself. This is the National 
Week, and so I give as much time as I can spare and the body 
can endure, to spinning. Hence I am dictating this letter. You 
must have settled in Phoenix by now. I like your staying there. 
It would be enough if Sushila went to the town twice or thrice to 
take her lessons. As a matter of £ict, knowledge of a language 


^ Vide the ibllowing item. 



LETTER TO ALBERT GODAMUNNE 


211 


as well as other knowledge can be acquired by one’s own effort. 
1 hope that Sushila is now completely all right. Yesterday Mr. 
Wayne met me. We talked about his meeting ManUal. I did not 
engage in any particular discussion, but I got the impression 
that he went away from here with some usefrd ideas. 

Pa rndaa is hawking khadi in Kathiawar. Nimu is here. 
Devdas is teaching spinning, etc., at Jamia Millia in Delhi. These 
days the spinning-wheels are working non-stop in the Ashram. 
TTiaVinrfflal was ill, but is now reported to be recovering with com- 
mon remedies. You must be getting letters from there, so I do not 
write about anything there. 

Do you spend any time in studying the Gita? 

BUssings from 
Bapu 

From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.N. 4735 


250. LETTER TO ALBERT GODAMUffNE 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 11, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter about your brother. I meet him every 
day because nowadays I sit with the diners in the common kit- 
chen where he also takes his meals. 1 am glad you have written 
to me about him. I shall keep my eyes on him, but I must also 
tell you that I have not nowadays got die time to come in close 
contact with so many inmates in the Ashram. Therefore my obser- 
vation of your brother will be limited. 

The money order has not yet been received, but it will be 
in due course. 

Yours smeerdy, 

Albert Godamunne, Esq,. 

Frootor and Notary 
10 PAvmoN Street, Kandy 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13157a 



251, LETTER TO C. RAJAGOPALACHARI 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 11, 1928 

MY DEAR a.R., 

I send you the enclosed with copy of my reply. You wiU do 
whatever may be necessary. Perhaps you know these parties. 

SjT. G. Rajaoopaiachari 
G/o Ehadi Fratisbthah 

SODBPTTR 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13183 


252. LETTER TO R. R, AITHEN 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 11, 1928 

I have your letter. I fear that I am unable to give you any 
useful guidance. I have not even been able to visualize your 
organization. But if you are desirous of coming to Ahmedabad, 
I aliall be able to see you any day next week except Monday at 
4 p.m. 

Tours aaeerely, 

R. R. Atthen, Esa* 

Gemerai. Seoretary, 

International Peace Gampaion 

150 Watson Hotel 

Bombay 

From a photostat: S.N. 13185 



253. LETTER TO SADASHIVA RAO 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
AprU 11, 1928 

MV DEAR SADASHIVA RAO, 

I have your three letters. My capacity for help in matters 
such as you relate is much less than my willingness. Though I know 
so many monied friends, I may not use my influence in the man- 
ner you suggest. You have therefore to paddle your own canoe 
and face the difiSculties bravely. What does it matter if you are 
lefl: without shelter? Do not millions live like that? And your 
daughters have received a training which should enable them to 
give a good account of themselves without your having made any 
provision for them. I want you therefore to discharge yoursetf 
like a man in the crisis that has overtaken you. 

Touts sbumlii. 


From a microfilm: S.N. 13184 


254. LETTER TO C. F. ANDREWS 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmait, 
April 11, 1928 

MV DEAR OHARUB, 

I have your letter. What a pity Gurudev is so ill and has 
developed blood-pressure. This phthisis in India is a horrible 
business. If there is any truth in the theory of ultra-violet rays — 
so do I think there is — ^no one in India should suffer from that 
wretched disease. 

You will remember that you have to firdsh the Shraddhanand 
series. 

I have not yet met Ambalal, but I have not forgotten our 
conversation. 

G. F. Andrews 

SANTINmETAN 

From a photostat: S.N. 13152 



255. A SEASONABLE PRODUCTION 


Readers of Young India are familiar with the name of Richard 
B. Gre^, an American lawyer who was attracted to India over 
two years ago by the message of khadi and who has been study* 
ing the movement in a most minute manner ever since his 
arrival in India. After a year’s labour, he has written a book on 
the movement which treats khadi in an almost original manner. 
Every statement he has made is supported by facts and figures 
and footnotes give the authorities upon which Mr. Gregg has 
drawn. The book is published by S. Ganesan, 18 Pycrofts Road, 
Triplicane, Madras, and is priced at Rs. l>8-0. From cover to 
cover it occupies 225 pages of which 165*225 contain seven 
appendices. The book contains 12 chapters. Let the reader also 
understand that Mr. Gregg, when he writes of villages, writes of 
things he has somewhat seen. The three opening paragraphs of 
his introduction show the reader the way in which ^egg has 
worked 

It was in order to remove this poverty that Mr. Gregg was 
driven to an escamination of the various schemes proposed to that 
end and he was forced to the conclusion that the spinning-wheel 
was the only real solution. The author says:* 

This little book is a statement of how the project looks to one who 
had seven years of practical work and study in industrial and labour 
problems in America (much of it in cotton mOls), together with two and 
a half yean’ study in India of the khaddar movement The latter period 
included observation both in the villages and at the headquarters of the 
movement The investigation was undertaken primarily to clarify my own 
thinldng. . . . 

The originality of Mr. Gregg’s examination of the problem 
^nsists in his approach to it firom the engineering aspect which 
is the tide of the first chapter, and he has no difiSculty in showing 

„T I paragraplu quoted are not reproduced here. Gregg had written: 

In former days India was regarded as a very rich country, and prior to the 
Moha mmed a n conquest at least, the wealth was widely distributed among 
her people. • • * But now, although India is still considered a source of much 
wealth, the In d ian pe(^Ie are ranked among the povertynitricken of the world, 
. . . as Professor Gilbort Slater .of Madras University says: ‘The poverty of 
India is a grim fact’ " 

* Only an extract is reproduced here. 



A SEASONABUE FROPUaTION 


215 


that the material prosperity of a country is increased not merely 
by accumulation of power or machinery but by the right use 
of it. This is how he opens his argument: 

Following Mr. Ford’s idea that the right use of power is more 
important than any particular kind of machinery, let us briefly examine 
the fundamentals of physical power and its utilization and then apply 
that as a test for the validity of the khaddar proposal. We will first 
state the whole engineering argument in brief, and then consider it in a 
more detailed fashion. 

All physical power is derived ultimately from the sun* Goal and 
petroleum are, in effect, reservoirs from the stream of solar energy of past 
ages converted and stored up by vegetation. Water-power comes firom the 
action of sunshine evaporating water from the oceans and transporting 
it to the land and rivers in the form of clouds and rain. Even the mecha- 
nical energy of horses and cattle and man himself comes from food obtained 
from plants activated by sunshine. All thp power xised in modem 
industry and in the economic activities of man in past ages came firom 
his using some part of the never-ending stream of solar energy. The 
Q]ABig09di6 hymns sang rightly of iS'oritor the Sun god: **SaviUir . . . Lord 
of every blessing;” and ”God Sapitar^ the good-eyed, hath come hither 
giving choice treasures unto him who worships” (/L-F., x, 149; i. 35). 

Any sdieme which utilizes and efficiently transforms splar energy 
to a greater degree than was being done before is sound, firam an engineer- 
ing standpoint, and also from an economic point of view. 

We do not usually think of the charkha as a machine, but it really 
is so. It uses the available mechanical energy of a man, woman or child 
for producing material goods. The handloom does likewise. The mechanical 
energy is derived from the food eaten by the person. Though in a differ- 
ent degree, manner and mode, the process is the same as that occurring 
in a steam engine or hydraulic power plant, namely, the transformation 
of solar energy into mechanical motion. 

There are today great numbers of imemployed Indians. They are, 
in effect, engines kept running by fuel (food), but not attached to any 
machines or devices for producing goods. Mr. Gandhi proposes to hitdi 
them to charkhas and thus save a vast existing waste of solar energy. 

If we want to increase the use of mechanical power in India, this 
is the quickest and cheapest way. The ^engines’ are all present; a man is 
as efficient a transformer of fiiel energy into mechanical motion as a 
steam engine is; the ^pinning and weaving machinery to be used is nearly 
all ready at hand in sufficient quantity to supply all needs. Any additional 
needs can be quickly and cheaply produced in India by artisans who 
need no further training in technical skill for this purpose; the speed and 



216 


TBE aOLLEQTED WOKXS OF MAHATMA GANDHI 


quantity of output possible with charkha and handloom are more closely 
adapted to the needs of the Indian market and Indian producers than any 
other type or machinery; no foreign capital is needed to purchase the 
machinery, and therefore there will be no expensive interest payments 
or difficulties arising from absentee control; the maintenance of such a 
factory is inexpensive and can be done entirely by available workers 
without further traiiung ; the amotmt of training needed for operatives is 
a minimum and of a sort more easily acquired than for any other type 
of machinery; the ‘fuel* or power cost for the man-charkha system 
will be nothing above the present food bill of the nation; the material 
to be used is available in practically every Indian province at a mini m um 
of transportation cost; and the market is everywhere. 

I must resist the temptation to quote jfrom the other chap- 
ters. But if the foregoing excerpts have at all proved tempting for 
the reader, let me assure him that he will find that the chapters 
that follow are fully interesting and deeply instructive. Let me 
close this hasty review with giving the names of the remaining 
11 chapters. It will be admitted that they are suggestive enough. 

Chapters 

II Engineering details 

III Competition between mill-doth and khaddar 

IV Factors tending to decrease competition 

V Increased purchasing power 

VI Decentralized production and distribution 

VII Unemployment 

VIII Some cotton technology 

IX Does it work? 

X Various objections 

XI Comparison of khaddar programme with other reform schemes 

XII Money price criteria 
Conclusion 

Toung Ifidia, 12-4-1928 


256. PLACE OF KHADI 

Lovers of khadi have been writing to me energetically warn- 
ing me against coquetting with mill-owncra in the vain hope, as 
they call it, of securing their active co-operation on terms bene- 
ficial to the nation in the prosecution of the campaign of boycott 
of foreign cloth. I appreciate their warning. Some of them are 
tried and experienced workers in the khadi movement. But I 



PLAOB or KHADI 


217 


do not give up hope of the mill-owners some day or other coming 
round to the national view. After all as an out-and-out believer 
in the method of non-violence, I may not let a single opportu- 
nity to slip of converting the mill-owners to the nationalistic view, 
even as I may not pass by a single occasion of converting English- 
men to the Indian view of India’s good. After aU, if we are to win 
our freedom by non-violent means, we shall have to knock at the 
doors of those who put obstacles in its way and plead with them 
to remove them. And even as in a bloody revolution those who 
are supposed to stand in the way are made to pay the last penalty 
whether they are countrymen or otherwise, so in a non-violent 
revolution are they, whether countrymen or foreigners, required 
to face satyagraha, if they will not listen to reason and will obsti- 
nately stand in the way. 

I therefore see no harm in having stated the conditions on 
which mill-owners can co-operate with the nation. It would have 
been wrong not to have done so. And if they accept the terms, I 
know that khadi, i.e., the masses have nothing to lose. For if 
the mills work not for exploiting the masses as they now do, but for 
serving them, they will supplement the products of the cottage 
spinning-wheel and the handloom and not supersede them as they 
now do. There is no doubt that if they hesitate to accept the terms 
stated by me, they will do so because the logical consequence re- 
pels them even as the logical consequence of Englishmen really 
becoming servants of the nation repels them. I would therefore 
ask khadi lovers not to be afraid of my so-called ‘coquetting*. If 
we are strong in our faith, if khadi has the inherent vitality we 
claim for it, if it is the need of the masses, and if we persist in 
our effort with them, they will not fail to realize it. Khadi will fail 
only when khadi lovers falter in their faith or if their faith is 
based on a mere shadow, i.e., if there is no grinding poverty among 
the masses, if they have no leisure hours during the year, or if, 
though they have spare hours, the spinning-wheel is not the most 
suitable and practicable occupation conceivable for many millions. 

It is because of the implicit faith I have in khadi in terms of 
the propositions just .stated and of the strength bom of that faith that 
I am ‘coquetting* with -the mill-owners. It is quite likely, it is perhaps 
now practically certain, that no immediate good will come out of 
these negotiations. But they will serve for further action or guidance 
if we have not meanwhile already achieved boycott of foreign cloth. 

It is therefore profitable to inquire, even at the risk of repeti- 
tion, what place khadi has in any scheme of boycott. In my opin- 
ion, boycott of foreign cloth is both necessary and feasible only 



218 THE aOIXEOTED WORKS OF llAHATItA. GANDHI 

becaiMff it afiects and benefits the masses and can be achieved 
only if they co-operate. Boycott of foreign cloth would have but 
a temporary value if it could be obtained solely by the indigenous 
mills. And I hold it to be impossible in the near future to en- 
force the boycott through the single agency of mills. In my opin- 
ion, it is khadi alone that has made suc^ boycott a practical 
proposition. Indeed it is so practical that if the politically- 
minded India were to take up the sales of khadi, it is possible to 
manufacture in a year all the khadi that may be required by the 
nation even though there may be not a single yard of mill-calico — 
foreign or indigenous — ^available. I affirm this on the basis of the 
assumption that the villages will mostly manufacture their own 
khadi and the organized centres will manufacture for those who 
are not self-spinners. Experience of past seven years shows that if 
there is a sudden famine of cloth in the country and if the masses 
are encouraged they have sufficient skill and the indigenous machi- 
nery for manufacturing their own khadi. No doubt a revolution- 
ary change m the mental oudook and sartorial tastes of politically- 
minded India is necessary. I have no doubt that if the bulk 
of them do not respond now, they will have to do so when they 
realize that khadi has become irresistible. And to make it ir- 
resistible khadi workers have to work away with steadfastness, 
honesty, scientific skill and precision. I have ‘coquetted’ with 
mill-owners and discussed the possibility of immediate boycott of 
foreign cloth in association with them, in order to show that if 
they mean it they can give themselves the privilege of serving the 
nation at the same time that they serve themselves. Meanwhile, 
let none doubt that khadi is silently and imperceptibly revolu- 
tionizing the national taste and will bring about the boycott in its 
own good time, if it is not anticipated by some such combination 
as I have ventured to suggest. 

Tottng India, 12-4-1928 



257. NOTES 
Breach of Promise? 

When 1 was in Berhampur, Ganjam District, last year, I was 
taken to a temple which I was told was open to all including 
the so-called untouchables. I was accompanied by some \m- 
touchable fiiends. A few weeks after I received a letter that the 
trustees had declared prohibition against the entry of untouch- 
ables. I was loath to believe the statement. I, ther^ore, inquired 
and here is the reply to my inquiry:^ 

If the information is correct, it is clear breach of promise 
by the trustees — a promise that was publicly made not merely to 
me but to the public of Berhampur through me. I wonder whe- 
ther the trustees have any defence or explanation to offer. The 
untouchables have undoubtedly a clear case for offering satya- 
graha in this case. I do hope however that the public of Berham- 
pur will redeem their self-respect by insisting on removal of the 
bar, if the bar does as a matter of fact exist. 

“Human Spider of Majorca” 

I am indebted to Sjt. G. Balajirao of Coimbatore for the fol- 
lowing interesting press dipping*: 

Tom^ India, 12-4-1928 

258. SOUTH AFRICA INDIANS 

The following letter, dated 24th February, 1928, addressed 
on behalf of the Minister of the Interior to the Secretary, South 
African Indian Congress, records the concession granted by the 
Union Government regarding the alleged fraudulent entries:* 

iGandhiji’s letter, dated March 22, 1928, ii not available. The correa* 
pondent, whose letter is not reproduced here, had written that the trustees 
of the temple were putting even greater restrictions than before on untouchables 
and that the latter had started losing faith in the imtouchabiiity movement of 
the Congress. 

* Not rq>roduced here. It was about a “human sfpideri* q>inning hund- 
reds of yards of thread in a minute with an instinctive skill handed down 
through fifteen generations. 

* The letter is not reproduced here. The concession was that subject to 
certain conditions the Union Government would “refrain from the frill en- 
forcement of section 10 of Act 22 of 1913 as amended by section 5 of Act 



220 


TBB aOLLEOTED WORKS OF 11AHA.TMA GANDHI 


If the condition regarding wives and children in clause (c) of 
the letter is not overstrictly enforced the concession should work 
well.i 

Tlmng India, 12-4-1928 

m LETTER TO MQTILAL NEHRU 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Apnl 12, 1928 

My DEAR MOTILALJI, 

I have your letter. I did not write without full knowledge 
of what was being done on behalf of mill-owners. They are start- 
ing a separate organization which will have nothing to do with 
us. However T am quite at one with you that we should leave no 
stone unturned to secure their full co-operation. I am doing aU 
I can at this end and you will let me know what success you have 
with Sir Furushottamdas. But I would like you to study the possi- 
bilities of the charkha movement It is not so hopeless as you 
seem to think. Let me put the position in a nutshell. hliUs by 
themselves cannot achieve the boycott within the time that will 
satisfy the politician but mills if they play the game together with 
charkha can do so within a time that will satisfy the most sanguine 
expectations of any patriot. The charkha by itself can achieve the 
boycott within a reasonable period, the pace being dependent upon 
intensity of the work put in by the politicians. And as a khadi 
manufacturer, I am open to negotiate with anyone for supplying 
almost an illimitable quantity provided he does not bind me to the 
quality beyond a certain limit and does not mind the cost. 

I send you a copy of the report of the Spinners’ Association* 
and a little pamphlet which latter you can read in 5 minutes but 
which gives you some very telling figures. The only thing that 
hampers the progress of khadi is the want of demand and want of 
capital. 


37 of 1927 in the case of an Indian who proves . . . that he entered a 
province of the Union, other than the Orange Free State, prior to the 5th 
July, 1924”. 

^ The condition was that those wives and chUdren, who were not already 
brought to the Union of South Africa before July 5, 1927, would not be ad- 
mitted. 

* Vidi “Anniial Report of the A.LSAi”> 5-4*1928. 



SPBEQE TO TRAIKEBS AT KQADI VIDYALATA 221 

I am yet awaiting the expected reply from Romain Rolland. 
If he does not cable, I may get a letter from him next week. 

Tours sinemly, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13182 


260, LETTER TO DEVCHAJfD PAREKH 

Thursdcff \April 12, 192Sy 

BHAISHRI DEVCHANDBHAI, 

I have decided to hand over to the All-India Spinners’ Asso- 
ciation, the Kathiawar khadi work and all the equipment and debts 
relating to it. Taking responsibility for this work upon ourselves 
means my worrying about the money problems. I feel that there 
should be a regular resolution about this. You should therefore 
get such a resolution passed in the Committee or get the consent 
of members through a circular. 

It seems that Revashanker Anupchand wishes to take pos- 
session of Manasukhlal’s house in lieu of the debt which the latter 
owes him. If you know anything about this matter, please let me 
know. Valji says that you are of the opinion that Revashanker 
cannot take possession of the house. 

What happened about the Morvi Antyaja School? 

Vandtmataram from 
Bapu 

From a copy of the Oiyarati: GJM. 5729 

261. SPEECH TO TRAINEES AT KHALI VILTALATA, 
AHMELABALP' 


[Before April 13, 1928\^ 

The idea of the Khadi Seva Sangh was mine. I felt that 
just as the Government has an organization, its lumkarshahB, it 
would be good for us also to have an organization of workers. The 
Government’s naukarshdii is called because its members, 

‘ From the postmark 

^The Khadi Vidyalaya was run at the Ashram for candidates selected 
for admission to the Khadi Seva Sanjdt. 

^ According to the source the speech was delivered diuing the National 
Week, Le., between April 6 and 13. 

4 Bureaucracy 

s “Royal” 



222 THE aOlXECTTED WORKS OF MAHAThlA. OAHDHI 

although they are servaats, functioii as rulers. But we are not 
*shahV because we have to do real service. For admission to this 
organization a course of fixed period was prescribed because in 
order to be a khadi worker training and proficiency are required. 
The science of khadi is a serious affair; its scope is extremely 
vast, because through this science we want to serve the 33 crore 
people of TnHia and through them the whole world. It is an empi- 
rical science; astronomy, on the contrary, is not an empirical 
science. The science of khadi is empirical because its experiments 
and conclusions are accessible to experience. Thirty-three crores 
of people can have direct experience of it. Hence its scope extends 
to where name of God reaches. 

The vastness of this science can be realized from the fact that 
all the things that are done in textile mills we have to do in our 
hoTTi ^^ s - Those who run these mills have had to read a number of 
ti»rhnir.a1 books the Study of which is essential for acquiring profi- 
ciency in the worL Take only one process. Just as in the mills 
they have to test cotton, we too have to do it. The knowledge 
which they require as to the strength of cotton, cotton-gathering, 
etc., is a.1gft required by us. Our very first lesson is about cotton 
and it is a very important one. There are indeed many things 
which we have to do but which the nulls are not required to do. 
For «^va-m p1e, the rnilU do not have to bother whether in guming 
the cotton-seeds remain intact or are broken, but we cannot afford 
to be careless in the matter. We want that the seeds should retain 
their properties. We want to feed these to the cattle and extract 
oil from them. Mills have nothing at all to do with all these things. 

However rich we may be in resources, and however persistent 
in our efforts, it is all usdess without a purpose. That purpose is 
narinnal service. And it is so vast that one can go as deep into 
it as one chooses. There is no end to the labours of the mills 
because they have a selfish motive, they have to earn money. In 
their set-up there is scope for punishment as well as for reward 
and, after aU, what is the principle of reward if it is not one of 
punishment? In our case there is no selfidmess and no punishment 
But it is not proper that since there is' no selfishness we should not 
work as mudi as they do in mills. Our work is as deserving of 
effort as it is selfless. The . more love and labour we pour into it, 
the quicker will be our victory. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose takes 
a leaf firom a plant and very carefully and minutely examines it 
to see how many sections it has, whether it has organs of sense and 
whether it can feel as human beings do. He then places the results 
of his experiments before the world. Does he do this for money? 



8I»EBQH to TELAJMBES at KJSAPI VipYALAYA 223 

No. Tben does he do so for fame ? No. He does it without any selfish 
motive. But his objective is gaining knowledge, whereas our experi- 
ments are not purely for the sake of knowledge. Ours is an empirical 
science and we want to see its actual results. We have to observe 
carefuUy how much cotton is obtained firom a given quantity of 
raw cotton, how much yam is prepared out of that cotton and how 
much cloth is woven out of ^t yam. And in this way we can 
calculate how many people have to put in how much labour in 
order to meet the cloth requirements of the whole country. 

Acquire as much knowledge as you can in order to gain mas- 
tery of this science and carry out as many experiments as necessary. 
For this, you should have enthusiasm, interest and dedication. The 
person who cultivates this science with devotion will be granted 
the inner light by God. 

But it is not enough for us merely to acquire knowledge of 
this science. Mere knowledge would be useful in mills only. We 
need character in addition to this knowledge. You have come 
here not for earning your livelihood but with a desire to serve, 
to dedicate your life to the cause of khadi, and for this character 
will be very essential. How will you go among the people without 
character? Who will accept your service? Nobody bothers about 
the character of people working in mills but everybody will en- 
quire about your character. You have to go to the people as ser- 
vants, not as tyrants. If possible, you have to be labourers living 
in their midst. For doing this a disciplined life is needed. 

And cleanliness will be the first sign by which you can show 
your character. The impression which you will be able to create 
in the people by strict observance of the mles of cleanliness, you will 
not be able to do in any other way. And what is desirable is that 
you should not follow these rules for the sake of following them 
but it should become impossible for you not to follow them. You 
should so mould your nature that deanliness becomes a part of 
it; if you find uncleanliness anywhere you shoiild be unable to 
bear it. Uncleanliness anywhere, whoever may be responsible for 
it, should become an eyesore to us and unless it is removed we 
should find no joy in living. 

We wish to offer ourselves as oblation in the national 
In order to do so we have to become pure and clean. Does it do 
any good burning a dirty thing? But if you bum something frag- 
rant, the atmosphere is purified and the perfume spreads. There- 
fore let us become pure like sandalwood and offer ourselves up in 
this sacrifice. This is the purpose for which this Ashram has been 
established. Let the Ashram become the incense in the national 



224 THE OOIXECITED WORSS 07 ICABAT&IA OAiniBI 

sacrifice aad remove the foul smell wherever it may be fouud. This 
is our ideal. Indeed, this is not the Ashram’s ideal only, but that 
of every khadi worket. 

And are you aware what a high place your work occupies? 
If someone asked me what the place of khadi in relation to service 
of the cow or taiming was, I should surely say that it had the first 
place. According to the grand simile of Tulsidas, this is the most 
benevolent activity, even though it seems dull: 

farfir gfw I 

fror II 

How monotonous spinning appears! The Punjabis tell me 
that it is a woman’s work and that they cannot do it Then there 
is neither honour nor profit in khadi work. If one becomes expert 
in dairying or tanning, one can get big emoluments. But in khadi 
there is no such attraction because it is the work of millions of 
people. We require seven lakh workers in order to organize khadi 
work throughout the country. How can we afford to give them 
high salaries? Perhaps seven lakh cow workers or tanning experts 
may not be required by the country, but it would not do to have 
less than this number for khadi work. This work is so important 
and it is required on such a big scale. Despite its seeming mono- 
tony, there is hardly any other work more interesting than this. 
If you start taking lots of interest in it, you would adorn yourself, 
the Ashram and the country as well. 

[From Hindi] 

Hindi Nmajaant 19-4-1928 

262. LETTER TO SATIS CHAJIDRA DAS GUPTA 

The Ashram, 
Saearmati, 
April 13, 1928 

DEAR SATD 33ABU, 

You will see how I have used your letter to sustain the case 
for khadi.^ I am anxious to receive your account of the tour that 
is now going on and more so to hear firom you how it is affecting 
your health. 

Tours sinsmly, 

M. IL Gaedhi 

From a pliotostai; O.N. 1588 

1 The leference presumably is to “Place of Blhadi”, 12-4-1928. 



263. LETTER TO A. ELLINGS 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
April 13, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your cordial letter. I have not had the courage to de- 
cide whether I should respond to the European invitations or not. 
I am therefore waiting for an expected letter from Europe before 
I make up my mind. And such being the case, I do not know 
whether you want any statement from me. But I may say that 
I will devote all the time I can spare to the development of the 
message of spinning-wheel. 

lours sineenly, 

A. Elunos, Es(^. 

News Editor, 

“The Englishman” 

9 Hare Street 
Oaloutta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13187 


264. LETTER TO MRS. BLAIR 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 

. April 13, 1928 

I was delighted to hear from you afler such a long time. It 
was good of you to think of the starving millions during the 
National Week. I can quite understand your inability at your 
time of life and in that uncongenial atmosphere around you to 
be able to spin steadily and well. But it does my heart good to 
Rnd you ever thinking of the poor countrymen. Did you sell any 
khadi during the National Week? 

Tours smcmly, 

Mrs. Blair 
\^aXiI. 'Villa 3 
Darjeeung 

From a photostat: S.N. 13189 
XXXVI-15 



265. LETTER TO MURIEL LESTER 


The Ashrau, 
Sabasiuti, 
April 13, 1928 

1 have your second cable. I see that after all you belong to 
a rich country. I, belonging to a pauper country, think fifty times 
before sending cablegrams and each time say to mys^ one 
rupee means 64 hungry mouths fed per day after an hour’s work 
each. For one-sizty-fourth of a rupee buys sufficient flour to give 
one meal to one of the starving millions. When therefore we meet, 
if vre do, 1 am going to ask you to account for all the cables 
that you have been spending money on although you represent 
the poor people of Poplar. 

I can’t summon up sufficient courage to make up my mind 
whether to go to Europe or not to go. I am therefore waiting 
for an expected letter firom Romain RoUand. The expected letter 
will compel me to make up my mind finally. I don’t know why 
I have difficulty in making up my mind about the European visit 
in spite of your glowing letter. 

Tours simertfy, 

Mjas Muriel Lester 

From a photostat: S.N. 14955 


266. LETTER TO T. NAGESHA RAO 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
April 13, 1928 

D EAR 

I have your letter. I am sorry I was unable to overtake it 
earlier. The only thing I can advise you to do is to live abso- 
lutely apart firom your wife, take clean unstimulating diet, live in 
the firesh air the whole of the 24 hours, and fill up your waking 
hours with healthy activities and, when the body is tired, with, 
healthy reading and tidnking. You will produce little impression 



L&ITBR TO S. RAMANATBAK 


227 


Upon your pupils until you have gained mastery over yourself. 

Totm sinemly, 
M. K. Gandhi 

SjT. T. Naoesha Rao 
Tbaoher 

Board High School 
P uTTOR, S. Ganaba 

From the original: Q.W. 9205. Courtesy: T. Nagesha Rao 


267. LETTER TO S. RAMANATHAJi 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 13, 1928 

MY DEAR RAMANATHAN, 

Here is a long letter I am obliged to send you. From the 
correspondence copies enclosed by . . .^ with his letter, I presume 
that you have got conclusive proof of his dishonesty.^ ■ Before I 
can send him a final answer, I want to know whether there is 
any written or printed contract which . . signed and, if he did, 
whether it has any clause regarding automatic forfeiture of security. 
If there is no such written agreement about forfeiture, are you 
justified without the intervention of court in declaring forfeiture. 

Tours sismrtly. 

End. 1 file 

From a microfilm; S.N. 13593 


* & ^Name omitted 
3 Vidt the foUowing item. 



268. A LETTERS 

Tbs Ashram, 
SABARMAn, 
April 13, 1928 


FRIEiNX)} 

I have your letter. You should know that I am now no 
longer in charge of the administration of the Association^. Seth 
Jamnalal Bajaj is die administrative head, but 1 am interesting 
myself in your case and have written to Sjt. Ramanathan. As 
soon as I hear from him, I hope to write to you again. Meanwhile 
let me say that from the perusal of the papers sent by you, there 
seems to me to be a very strong case against you. If Sjt Rama- 
nathan has positive , proof of bribery and corruption, I should 
wonder what defence you could have. 

Tours sinemlf, 


From a microfilm: SJf. 13592 


269. LETTER TO DR. M. A. AJ^SARI 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
April 14, 1928 

DEAR DR. ANSARI, 

I have your letter. If the meeting of the representatives 
of null-owners comes off and if you give me due notice, I shall 
be present. But up to now there is no intimation from Motilaiji. 

I am in constant touch with the representatives of mill- 
owners and so far as I am aware nothing is going to come out of 
these negotiations. The mill-owners have decided upon a separate 
organization of their own from which they wish to eschew poli- 
tics altogether. Sir Furushottamdas has declined to be presi- 
dent even of this association. And I understand that he has 
come to the conclusion that the mill-owners will do nothing sub- 
stantial at the present moment. Mr. Birla writes to me almost 

1 Addressee’s name is omitted; vido the preceding item. 

^ The All-India Spinners’ Association 



229 


LETTER TO VITHALDAS JERAJAiqi 

in the same strain, though he wants the boycott campaign with- 
out the mill-owners. After having had so many chats and so much 
correspondence with the latter, I incline to the same view. But 
that does not mean that we should not have the conference 
Motilalji has in view. 

You will keep me informed of what is going on. I would 
like you to read all I have written about the mills in the pages 
of Toung India. If you have not the articles I can send them 
to you. 

I wish you will settle the Jamia constitution without delay. 

Tours siiumly. 

Dr. M. a. Ansari 
Ahmedabad Palaoe 
Bhopal 

From a photostat: S.N. 13191 


270. LETTER TO VITHALDAS JERAJANI 

Satyaoraba Ashrah, 
Sabarmatt, 
April 14, 1928 

BHAISHRJ VTTHALBHAI, 

This letter is in reply to yours. If the boycott becomes univer- 
sal, we do not have enough chhe^al^ and dhotis. We can meet the 
demands of those who will go about, if need be, in a langoti\ but wear 
nothing except khadi. To those, however, who are not ready to 
go to this extent but will take part in the boycott of foreign cloth 
if they can get some other cloth in its place, we may supply mill- 
made dhotis and saris. This means that the mills cannot manufac- 
ture any other cloth except what we decide and that, even in their 
shops, liadi will be sold as a substitute for the kinds of cloth which 
they do not manufacture. I can realize that the mills will not agree 
to this, but we cannot come to any understanding with, them as long 
as they do not agree. My demand means that the mills should 
accept the permanent place of khadi. If you do not underst^d 
this point, please ask me. I do not want you to come here, leaving 
your work imattended there. You mny discuss the matter when 


1 Women’s upper garmen.^ 

2 Codpiece 



230 IHB aOLLEOTED WORKS OF MAHATMA, GANDHI 

you have occasion to come here and get the necessary opport 
nity. 

Bkssbigsfi 

Bapu 

From a photostat of the Gujarati: S.N. 9764 


27J. LETTER TO DEVCHAND PAJREKH 

Satyaoraha ASHRAj 
Sabarmai 
April 14, 191 

bhaisHri devoeandbhai, 

I have your letter. I understand about Manasukhlal although 
am very much confused. I am of the opinion that if a person hi 
incurred debts he himself or his wife or children have no rig] 
to keep anything &om the wealth amassed by him. But I do m 
know the &cts of this case. And that reminds me: may I know 
something has been done about the memorial to him? It 
necessary to pass the following resolution about khadi: 

“As the Kathiawar Political Conference has many occupation 
it does not have enough men and money to bear the responsibilil 
of the khadi activity. Gandhiji who hitherto used to shoulder tit 
economic responsibility does not have the physical means to do si 
The All-India Spinners’ Association is willing to shoulder tt 
responsibility. Therefore the Committee of this Conference han< 
oyer the entire administration, all its money and the entire respons 
bihty of the Kathiawar khadi activity to the All-India Spinner 
Association.” 

Did Mulchandbhai get money for the Antyaja movement 
Bhai Fulchand is not with you, so who helps you now? Whr 
other work of the Conference is going on at present ? 

Vaidematarm fie 
Bapu 
PS. 

One can see that you sold quite a good amount of khadi. 

From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.N. 5729 


272. SERVICE OF THE SUPPRESSED^ 


The servant of the suppressed serves both himself and the 
society, as the oppressor ultimately oppresses himself, and the 
engineer is always hoist with his own petard. 

We were on the point of being pariahs- of the world, having 
treated the bulk of our brethren as untouchables. We are however 
likely to escape that catastrophe, as the Hindu society is trying to 
remove this blot in various ways and in many provinces. By far 
the biggest and most successhil of these efforts is perhaps the one 
conducted by Anasuyabehn in Ahmedabad. 

I addressed two meetings last month, one \mder the auspices 
of the Sweepers* Mabajan and the other a gathering of the chil- 
dren of the Labour Union schools.^ Most of these children belonged 
to the suppressed classes. I take the following^ from the report that 
was read at the meeting: 

1 do not know of workmen’s children elsewhere receiving edu- 
cation under such orderly and careful organization and in such 
numbers. 

The mill-owners ought to welcome the enterprise. On the 
contrary they are reported to have threatened to stop the monetary 
help they are at present giving. I do hope not only that it is a false 
alarm, but that they will yearly add to their contributions. In 
doing so I should humbly think ^ey will be doing nothing beyond 
what they owe to their workmen. 

A noteworthy feature of the enterprise is the large contribu- 
tion of the workmen themselves towards the expenses, the ultimate 
aim being to conduct these schools wholly at their own expense. This 
of course presupposes their economic betterment, a st^ulation in 
them of the desire for sacrifice and for the education of their chil- 
dren. In the mean while, the mill-owners and other philanthrop- 
ists should keep the enterprise going. 

The sweepers’ meeting* was remarkable for the things 
it brought to light. I heard them sing their songs with flawless 
pronunciation. They were comparativdy unlettered, but no one 

* The Giyarati original* of wbidx this is a translation by Mahadev Desai, 
appeared in Naotgkm, 15-4-1928. 

2 Vide “Speech at gathering of Students and Teachers, Ahmedabad", 
31-3-1928. 

3 Not reproduced here 

*.Vide “Speedi at Sweepers' Abmedsbsd", 27-3-1928, 


232 THE aOLLBGTED WORKS OF MAHAmA. OAKDHI 

who listened to their songs could say that they belonged to the 
suppressed classes. But they are indebted, underpaid, and addicted 
to drink. Most of them beg and live on leavings from plates given 
to them by Hindus of higher castes. Their condition makes the 
conclusion irresistible that we the so-called high caste Hindus are 
responsible for their failings, and only the inherent strength of 
Hinduism is responsible for their good points. Ehnduism has helped 
them to retain some of their culture in spite of tlie oppression they 
have laboured under. They would never have been reduced to 
their present state if we had regarded them as our own kith and kin. 

Anasuyabehn may carry on welfare work among them, but 
who will look to their housing? I have seen the hovels they live in. 
It is the duty of the mill-owners and the municipality to provide 
them with better houses, and even if the former fail in their duty 
the latter may not do so, for better housing is essential as much for 
the health of the city as for that of the workmen. 

llNTOuaHABLES AMONG UnTOUOHABLES 

I addressed a third meeting* which was full of painful expe- 
rience. There is a suppressed class night-school under the Giyarat 
Vidyapith conducted by the students of the Vidyalaya. They take 
considerable pains over the school, which until a short time ago 
had a very large attendance of Dhed children. The teachers 
thought of the sweepers’ children and induced the sweepers to 
send their children to the school but as soon as these came, most of 
the Dheds withdrew their children from the school! The teachers 
therefore turned to me to find a way out of the situation. So I went 
there. Very few Dhed parents attended the meeting. One of tliem 
whom I tried to tackle said frankly, taking his stand on the tradi- 
tional religion: “How may a Dhed touch a sweeper?” “But if the 
touch of the sweeper pollutes the Dhed, why should tlie higher 
castes touch the Dheds?,” I asked. “We never ask them to do 
so,” he quickly rejoined, and floored me. 

This is how we are hoist with our own petard. If untouchabi- 
lity had been allowed to go on unchecked, each one of us should 
have considered the other xmtouchable and we should have been 
doomed. But thank God, in spite of the orthodox Dheds and 
Banias and Brahmins, the snake of untouchability is breathing 
its last. 

The teachers of course ought to adhere to their resolve. They 
should not be angry with the Dheds, but neither should they let 


* No report of diis meeting is avaSable. 



LETTER TO UANIBEHN PATEL 


233 


go a single sweeper boy for the sake of the Dhed boys. Let them 
shower all their love and attention on the sweeper boys, and there 
their duty ends. Their determination and faith will melt the hearts 
of the Dheds, who, as soon as they find the sweepers’ children 
growing in cleanliness and character, will not help sending their 
own children too. The anti-untouchability worker has to begin at 
the lowermost rung of the ladder. There are, I know, some ‘re- 
formers’ who are apt to think: ‘Better reform and serve our own 
castes before we reform and serve the Dheds.’ This way of thinking 
betrays impatience and ignorance, impatience because we 
fight shy of obstacles, and ignorance because we forget that all 
other rrforra of Hinduism is nothing worth until the main reform, 
viz., the removal of untouchability, is achieved. This blot poisons 
the whole system, even as a drop of arsenic would poison a tankful 
of milk. Remove this and you open the door for other reforms, 
retain this and you render other reforms nugatory. The disease of 
a consumptive unless the root cause is tackled remains just the 
same whether you remove or do not remove a few abscesses on 
his body. 

Toung India, 19-4-1928 


273. LETTER TO MANIBEHN PATEL 


Sabarhait, 
Sunday [AprU 15, 1928Y 


OBI. MANI, 

I haven’t heard from you since you went there*; this is not 
good. Let me know your daily programme of work there. Write 
your experiences. 

Read the enclosed letter and let me know if you wish to go 
to Geylon*. How did you celebrate the pMational] Week? 

Blessings from 
Bapu 

[From Gujarati] 

Bapuna Patro — Mambehn Pateltif, p. 65 


^ From the source 
2 Bardoli 

* For khadi propaganda 



274. LETTER TO SAROJINI NAIDV 


April 16, 1928 

ICY DEAR MISABAI, 

I was thinking to hear from you about Padmaja. Tell her 
she has to be well quickly or she will cease to be regarded as a 
brave girl. Hdw long does she expect to be there? What about 
your visit to America? 

I have become a coward. I can’t decide whether to go to 
Europe or not. 

Wilh love. 

The Spinner 

'Mbs. S. NAmn 

From a photostat: S.N. 19192 


275. LETTER TO ANTflE BESANT 


Sabarhati, 
April 16, 1928 

DEAR DR. BESANT, 

I thank you for your note. I may not join the movement of 
which you write. I feel we are having too many institutions and 
organizations without increasing men and women to work them. 

Tours sineerdy, 

M. K, Ganphi 


From a photostat: S.N. 13193 



276. LETTER TO U. RAJAGOPALA KRISHNATYA 

April 16, 1928 

BHAI RAJAGOPALA, 

God being Almighty can biing about anything. 

Violence should not be answered with violence. 

One cannot gain knowledge of dharma from a historical inter- 
pretation of the Makabharata. And the Mahabharaia is certainly 
not history. 

Toms, 

Mohandas Gandhi 

From the Hindi original: G.W. 9238. Courtesy: U. Rajagopala Krishnayya 


277. CABLE TO RAJENDRA PRASAD^ 

[On or after April 16, 19281 

Rajendrafrasad 

Jayawau 

London 

BUaOESS aONFERENOB. 

Gandhi 

From a microfilm: SJ^. 14381 


1 It was sent in reply to a cable, received on April 16, seeking a message 
ibr the Youth Gonferencc. 



278. CABLE TO V. S. SRINIVASA SASTRP 


ApHl 17, 1928 

Rt. Hon. Sastri 
Pretoria 

THINIC GERTTFIOATES AT SETTLEMENT 1914 SHOULD 
REKAIN UNAEFEQTED.2 

Gandhi 


From a photostat; S.N. 11974 


279. LETTER TO K. MADHAVAJf NAIR 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 17, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter. There is a confusion of thought about 
your action. If it was good for your friend to have the Law 
Membership, it was good both from a public point of view as 
well as a private point of view; and if it was legitimate for you 
to congratulate him in your private capacity, it was equally legiti- 
mate for you to congratulate him publicly and in your public 


^ This was sent in response to the following cable dated April 13, 1928, from 
SAIG (South African Indian Gongress), Johannesburg: “Developments regarding 
new immigration law very serious. Clause 5 if fully put into operation will 
undermine rights secured by struggle to even registration certificate holders 
whose claims go back to the beginning. If any flaw may be found suggestive 
of illicit entry condonation is oflered conditional upon surrender certificates 
presently held in exchange for letters conferring rights of holder temporary 
permits and excluding rights wives and children must be applied for before 
first November, Thereafter inquisition deportations and demoralization of 
community inevitable. We have urged that line be drawn 1914 at least to 
narrow field and preserve something of spirit of Gandhi-Smuts Settlement. 
Implore you cable Sastri to press for at least this concession. Reply urgent^ 
(S.N. 11974). 

2 In reply Sastri sent a cable on April 18, 1928, reading; ‘Tfour cable. 
Last night Minister already announced condonation conditions without special 
treatment for certificated before 1914” (S,N. 11974), 



tkTTte TO jAwAjaARLAxFimmit; 

capacity. You will not congratulate privately or publicly a friend 
upon being appointed a hangman, the post might carry a large 
salary and distinction on the part of those who might appoint 
him. Did we not think at one time that members of the present 
Government were very much like hangmen? It was really a 
matter for condoixation* that a friend was ofi'ered and accepted 
Law Membership. But you may not share my view about 
the judgment of the present Government and those working it. 
If that is so, you may publicly defend your private conduct and 
take the risk of any odium that may be temporarily attached 
to it. After all, the approbation of your own conscience must be 
all-sufficing. 

You are quite correct in saying that if our private judgment 
and feelings were to be suppressed, we should become hypocrites. 
It would be a bad day for us if servants of the public were to 
become hypocrites. 

Tom tincmly, 

SjT. K. Madhavan Nair, M.L.G. 

Gaugut 

From a photostat: S.N. 13186 


280. LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL JfEHRU 

The Ashbah, 
Sababbcati, 
April 1.7, 1928 

UY DEAR JAWAHAR, 

I have yoTir letter. Do you know that even when you wrote 
to me that you were going to the Punjab, I did not know that you 
were going as the president of the Conference? When Dr. Kitch- 
lew wrote to me, he said nothing about who the president was to 
be. However I was glad when I learnt that you presided. 

Of course I notice everywhere what you noticed at the Con- 
ference. I wonder if you have noticed what I sense everywhere, 
utter absence of seriousness and disinclination to do any con- 
crete work demanding sustained energy. 

Do you find any hope in the Punjab for Hindu-Muslim unity? 
About the European visit, I can give you no definite news 

yet. 


1 Slip for *condemnatioit*7 



TSB COLUtatED V/ORES OF QAMOai 




The fiasco about mills you know everything [of] by this time 
firom Father. 


From a photostat: S.N. 13194 


281. LETTER TO SIR. DANIEL M. HAMILTON 

Tbs Ashram, 
Saharmati, 
April 17, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I thank you for your cordial letter and invitation. If I go 
to Europe, I would certainly love to be under your roof and dis- 
cuss with you things of mutual interest. 

I do indeed like your paper on modem finance. If there is any 
other literature beating on it that you would like me to study, 
please guide me, and if you could find time to write for me a popular 
article or a series making banking easy for people to understand 
I would gladly publish the article or the series in the pages of 
Toung India. 

Tours sineerdy, 

Sir Daniel Hamilton 
Balmaoara, Kyle 
Ross-shire 

SOOTLAND 

From a photostat: SJC^. 14293 


282. LETTER TO HANS KOHW 


April 17, 1928 

I have your letter. This proposed European visit is a matter 
of great concern for me. I am awaiting M. Romain RoUand’s 
letter before I can finally decide. 

From a photostat: SJf. 14951 


* He was connected with the Peace Association, Jerusalem. 



283. MESSAGE TO STUDENTS* CONGRESS, CETLON 

AprU 18, 1928 

A message was received from Gandbiji wishing the Congress success and 
expressing the hope that the students would not forget die starving millions 
of the mother country, the most effective manner of helping whom was by 
wearing khadi. 

Th» Hindu, 19-4-1928 

284. OFF THE TRAIL 

Remarkable are the attempts made by and on behalf of the 
Government to befog people’s minds and take them away from 
the main point by raising side issues and discovering or profes- 
sing to discover flaws in evidence produced in support of the main 
point. It does not suit the Government to admit that its history 
is a history of the ruin of India’s industries and India’s man- 
hood. One of such recent attempts is to discredit the oft-told story 
in the Press and on the platform about the cutting off by the wea- 
vers of their own thumbs in order to escape the East India Com- 
pany’s myrmidons who sought to compel them to wind sillf- If 
the weaver has no thumb he cannot do the work expected of him. 
And the way the history has been discredited is by digging out 
the credentisJs of William Bolts on the streng^ of whose evidence 
the late Rome^ Chandra Dutt first made the statement regarding 
the cutting off of thumbs. The writer of the refutation is not able 
to say that William Bolts gave false evidence, but he says that 
William Bolts had no character to keep and that therefore his evi- 
dence is not worthy of credence. And he further says that he was 
a dismissed servant of the Company under its resolution which 
described him as “a very unworthy and unprofitable servant of the 
Company, his conduct has been distinguished by a tenacious ad- 
herence to those pernicious principles relative to the rights of in- 
land trade, in which he appears to have been so conspicuously op- 
pressive”. Who does not know the tricks of pettifogging lawyers 
to discredit witnesses by proving their bad character as if a man 
with a bad character was ever incapable of making a true state- 
ment? I make bold to say that whatever the character of William 
Bolts, his testimony about the cutting off of thumbs need not be 
discredited unless it can be otherwise disproved, and there has 



240 TEtB dOLUidtjaD WdRkS Ot iCAbAXlCA. OAMbffi 

been nothing brought forward to show that that testimony is un- 
worthy to be believed. On the contrary, what is more likdy than 
that weavers in order to escape harrowing and continuous oppres- 
sion would once for all render themselves physically unfit to do 
the work imposed upon them under unbearable punishment? 
After all, the evidence of William Bolts is only part of the story 
of the ruin of India’s industries told by Romesh Chandra Dutt 
with such deadly efiect and supported by the evidence of a variety 
of witnesses, the cumulative effect of whose evidence becomes ir- 
resistible. The main point is whether the industry was or was not 
ruined with the greatest deliberation. If it was, it makes little 
difference if the evidence of one witness is rejected and it will lie 
iU in the mouth of the criminal to say that out of a hundred 
witnesses one has told an untruth. But as I have said in this 
instance, there is nothing relevant brought forward to show that 
William Bolts’s testimony is not to be believed. Let me however 
put before the reader a few relevant extracts firom Dutt’s first volume 
of the Economic Histoiy of India. He says: 

It will appear from the facts stated in the last two chapters that 
large portions of the Indian population were engaged in various indus- 
tries down to the first decade of the nioeteenth century. Weaving was 
still the national industry of the people; millions of women eked out the 
family income by their earnings from spinning; and dyeing, tanning and 
working in metals also gave employment to millions. It was not, how- 
ever, the policy of the East India Company to foster Indian industries. 
It has been stated in a previous chapter that, as early as -1769, the 
Directors wished the manufacture of raw silk to be encouraged in Bengal, 
and that of silk fabrics discouraged. And they also directed that silk- 
winders should be made to work in the Company’s factories, and pro- 
hibited from working outside "under severe penalties by the authority of 
the Government". This mandate had its desired effect. Ibe manufacture 
of silk and cotton goods declined in India, and the people who had 
exported these goods to the markets of Europe and Asia in previous 
centuries began to import them in increasing quantities. 

So much waa the importation of silk and cotton goods £:om 
England stimulated by these methods that whereas in 1 794 it was 
3^156, in 1813 it rose to ;^108,824. In 1813 the Company’s charter 
was renewed and important evidence was taken at the enquiry 
prior to renewal. “In respect of Indian manufactures,” says the 
author, “they — the Commons — sought to discover how they could 
be replaced by British manufactures, and how British industries 
could be promoted at the expense of Indian industries.” 



ofep xMk 'tkAii 24i 

lixe commercial policy of Englaad is thus described by 
Henry St. (Jeorge Tucker: 

What is the commercial policy whidi we have adopted in this 
country with relation to India? The silk manufactures and its piece^ 
goods made of silk and cotton intermixed have long since been ex- 
cluded altogether from our markets; and of late partly in consequence 
of the operation of a duty of 67 per cent, but chiefly from the effect of 
superior machinery, the cotton fabrics, which hitherto constituted the staple 
of India, have not only been displaced in this country, but we actually 
export our cotton manufactures to supply a part of the consumption of 
our Asiatic possessions. India is thus reduced from the state of a manu- 
facturing to that of an agricultural country. 

Here is another testimony of the same character by H. H. 
Wilson: 

It is also a melancholy instance of the wrong done to India by 
the country on which she has become dependent. It was stated in evidence 
(in 1813) that the cotton and silk goods of India up to the period could 
be sold for a profit in the British market at a price from 50 to 60 per 
cent lower than those fabricated in England. It consequently became 
necessary to protect the latter by duties of 70 and 80 per cent, on their 
value, or by positive prohibition. Had this not been the case, had not 
such prohibitive duties and decrees existed, the mills of Paisley and 
Manchester would have been stopped in their outset, and could scarcely 
have been again set in motion, even by the power of steam. They were 
created by the sacriflee of the Indian manufacture. Had India been 
independent, she would have retaliated, would have imposed prohibitive 
duties upon British goods, and would thus have preserved her own productive 
industry from annihilation. This act of self-defence was not permitted 
to her; she was at the mercy of the stranger. British goods were forced 
upon her without paying any duty, and the foreign manufacturer employed 
the arm of political injustice to keep down and ultimately strangle a 
competitor with whom he could not have contended on equal terms. 

According to Thomas Munro ‘‘the Company’s servants as- 
sembled the principal weavers and placed a guard over them until 
they entered into engagements to supply the Company only.” 
The author then proceeds: 

When once a weaver accqpted an advance he seldom got out of his 
liability, A peon was placed over him to quicken his deliveries if he delayed, 
and he was liable to be prosecuted in the courts of justice. The sending 
of a peon meant a flne of one anna (about d.) a day on the weaver, 
and the peon was anned with a rattan, which was not unofren used to 


wvrrr-ifi 



242 XriE ddLLEOTED WORiS OF liA^TUA. GANDEtl 

good purpose. Fine was sometimes imposed on the weavers, and theit 
brass utensils were seized for its recovery. The whole weaving popula- 
tion of villages were thus held in subjection to the Company’s factories. 

. . . The control under which the weaver population was hdld was not 
merely a mn tter of practice, but was legalized by Regulations. It was 
provided that a weaver who had received advances from the Company 
“shall on no account give to any other persons whatever, European or 
Native, either the labour or the produce engaged to the Company”; that 
on his failing to deliver the stipulated cloths, “the Commercial Resident 
shall be at liberty to place peons upon him in order to quicken his 
deUveries”; that on his selling his cloths to others, the weaver “shaU 
be liable to be prosecuted in the Dewani Adalat”; that “weavers, 
possessed of more than one loom, and entertaining one or more work- 
men, shall be subject to a penalty of 35 per cent on the stipulated 
price of every piece of doth that they may fail to deliver according to 
the written agreement”; that landlords and tenants “are eqjoined not 
to binder the Commercial Residents or their ofScers from access to 
weavers”; and that they “are strictly prohibited from behaving with 
disrespect to the Commerdal Residents” of the Company. 

Is it to be wondered at if weavers living under such, intolerable 
restraint broke loose from it by cutting off their own thumbs? 
To revive an industry that was thus deliberately destroyed and 
which supplemented the resources of millions of people is the 
sacred duty of every Indian who loves his country and should be 
considered a privilege by every Englishman who would repent of 
the grave wrong done to a great country by his ancestors. But in- 
stead of repentance, we see a painful persistence in the policy ini- 
tiated 150 years ago and an equally painful effort made by every 
means possible to bolster up the wrong. 

Toung India, 19-4-1928 


285. LETTER TO SATIS CHAJfDRA DAS GUPTA 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 19, 1928 

DEAR SATES BABU, 

I have your letter. You teU me nothing about your own 
health. I hope you are keeping well. Does this tour mean more 
khadi sales? Is there a great response from the people addressed, 



LBTTMR T& MdT[LA.t. NBERii 


243 


dr, are the collections from individuals? 


From a photostat: G.N. 1589 


Tours sinarriy, 

Bapu 


286, LETTER TO MOTILAL NEHRU 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Aprtt 20, 1928 

DEAR MOTlLAijI, 

> 1 have your letter. 1 am daily making &esh discoveries which 

go to show Aat we may eapect nothing from the mill-owners at the 
present stage. They will yield only to pressure and the pressmre 
of the Government is more felt than that of the Congress. But we 
may not be impatient. We need not put boycott of Indian mill- 
made cloth in ^e same category as that of foreign cloth. A nega- 
tive attitude about mill-cloth will be quite enough to keep the miHa 
under wholesome check. A positive boycott will only stir up 
bad blood without bringing us any nearer boycott of foreign 
cloth. We shall never, unless a sudden manifestation of mass energy 
comes into being, succeed in reaching the millions. In spite of aU 
we may do, for the time being the latter will therefore be bu ying 
Indian miU-cloth and, further, there will be keen competition be- 
tween Lancashire miib and Japanese on the one hand and Indian 
mills on the other. We have therefore to concentrate our effort 
on changing the mentality of the townspeople and those few vil- 
lagers whom we are controlling and bringing them round to the 
adoption of khadi. If we set about doing this, the message of khadi 
will percolate the masses. Then both our and foreign Tnilb will 
feel the bnmt. That will be the time for our mills to come in 
Hnft with us. The moment they do so we can complete boycott of 
foreign cloth inside of six months. The programme definitely 
therefore has to be this: 

We leave Indian mills severely alone. We carry on a whirl- 
wind campaign for boycott of foreign cloth through khadi, asking 
people to count no sacrifice too great in adopting khadi. We must 
have faith in ourselves and in our people and believe that they 
can make this which appears to me to be small sacrifice. But I 
confess that at the present moment 1 do not visualize the organi- 
zation that is needed to carry on. the boycott. The politicals who 



^44 THE OOtLEdriUD WOBkS OF MAMaIUA. GANbkt 

are in possession, of the platform do not mean to do any serious 
business. They will not concentrate on any constructive work. 
Jawahar in a letter truly describes the atmosphere when he says: 
“There is violence in the air.” We read and hear so much about 
the boycott of British cloth in Bengal, but the letters I receive 
almost every week show that there is no real boycott. There is 
no organization behind it, there is no will working behind it. 
All things considered, what will you advise me to do? 

The expected letter from Romain Rolland is due next Tues- 
day at the latest. 1 must after that come to a decision quickly. 
Supposing that Romain Rolland predisposes me in favour of the 
European visit, what would you have me to do in view of the 
talk of the boycott? Would you want me for the sake of the boy- 
cott not to go to Europe? I shall accept your decision whatever 
it may be. I am not personally keen on the European visit, but 
if all is plain sailing in India and if Romain RoUand wants me to 
visit Europe, I should feel bound to accept the European invita- 
tions. Will you please wire your decision? Jawahar will be with 
you and probably you will loiow Doctor Ausari’s mind. 

Toots sittesrAy, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13197 


287. LETTER TO DEVCHAND PAREKH 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
April 20, 1928 

BHAISHRl DEVQHANDBHAI, 

I have your letter. After having read Revashankerbhai’s 
letter, how can 1 press him to accept the proposal? Or do you 
wish only to use his name and do not expect him to do any work? 
If that is what you wish, then we should find out a temporary 
vice-president who is a good worker. It is certainly desirable 
that you should go to Bombay for all this work. Maybe Reva- 
shankerbhai could suggest to you in the course of discussion the name 
of such a vice-president or of somebody else as president. Tell 
me now what you want, so that I may act accordingly. 

Vtmdsmataftttn from 
Bafu 


From a photostat of the Gujarati: G.N. 5691 



288, LETTER TO JOHN HATNES HOLMES 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
AprU 20, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter.* 1 caouot resist you, but I take you at 
your word. I send you a single sentence as follows: 

Tolstoy’s greatest contributioD to life lies, in my opinion, in 
his ever attempting to reduce to practice his professions without 
counting the cost. 

Thanks for your inquiry about my health. 1 appear to be 
keeping well at Ihe present moment. 

Tours svaetrdy. 


From a photostat: S.N. 14287 


289, LETTER TO PETE MATOFF 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Apra 20, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter for which I thank you. I suppose I shall 
receive your book* in due course. 

I shall feel deeply interested in whatever you may write to me 
about the condition of the Doukhobors in their new home.® 

I am sorry I do not keep any photographs of myself. I am 
editing a weekly newspaper csDled Tma^ India of which I send you 
the latest issue. 


^ The addressee had written: **The special issue of Utdty in coxnxnemoranon 
of Tolstoy Qentenary would be incomplete if it did not contain a tribute from 
your pen.” 

2 Massage qf the Doukhobors 

3 The addressee had written that Doukhobors * Vere persecuted in Russia 

[in] 1895-96 for burning fire-arms and other destructive eleincnts” and “in 1899 
were to to Gan^a”, 



246 


the ooixegted works or mahatua oandhi 


I Hhall be interested also to know more about the new leader^ 
who has just come to you from Russia. 

Tours sineerdj, 

Pete Matoep, Esq. 

Thrums, B.G. 

Free Canada 

From a photostat: S.N. 14288 


290. LETTER TO S. GANESAN 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Apnl 21, 1928 

MY DEAR OANESAN, 

I have not understood the last paragraph of your letter which 
I take first, though 1 understand that you will be unable for 
some time to bring out Mr. Gregg’s book. It will be terrible if 
that happens after the long notices that have been taken in . 
Totmg India of that book. Please wire on receipt of this when if 
at all you are likely to bring the book out. 

You need not apologize for having sent the book on Self- 
Restraint V. Self-Indulgence to Dr. Stopes. Indeed having reviewed 
her books and even advertised them, you were bound to send my 
book to her. There was nothing wrong in it, but you are certainly 
under no obligation to publish her review of my book, unless of 
course you independently think that it is a good and well-argued 
review. And if you do not publish her review, you will be render- 
ing her a service by telling her straightway why you decline to 
publish it. 

Now about yourself. The only thing I can suggest to you is to 
become absolutely firm about your resolution and you will find that 
all your difficulties will vanish. Our difficulties really arise when 
we are tossed to and fro by our weakness and indecisive action. A 
decisive, firm, clear action is like the glistening sun which not only 
dispels aU darkness but destroys all disease germs. The vast major- 
ity of our ills and our difficulties arose from our doubting state. 

I shall have decided about the European visit next week and if 
I decide to go, it will be soinewhere in the puddle of May or it 


tPeto P. Verighi 



LEITEB. TO SHAMEARAN 247 

may be the first week. Do come when you like. But before you 
come try to finish all your announced commitments. 

I am glad you have ceased to advertise birth-control publi- 
cations. 

Tours, 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13199 


291. LETTER TO SHAKKARAJf 


The Ashram, 

SABATtMATI, 

April 21, 1928 

MV DEAR SHAMKARAN, 

I have your letter. So you are now president of a Congress 
Committee. This u very good. And I am glad that Girdharilal 
is taking such keen interest in khadi. 

I am forwarding your letter to Sjt. Vithaldas Jerajani for 
attention. 

I quite agree with you that in khadi organizations there should 
be no indifference, certainly never any cheating. I am asking 
Vi thalda s what terms can be offered. 

If you believe in the First Cause, you must regard the ‘why’ 
of the First Cause as a futile question. Whilst it is laudable and 
legitimate to bring everything under the dominion of reason we 
must be humble enough to recognize that there must be things 
beyond reason, seeing that man is an imperfect being. 

I am glad you are making yourself serviceable all round. I 
entertain no fear about your being lax in the duty entrusted to 
you. 

I have not been able to decide anything about the European 
visit. 

Tours siaesrsly. 


From a microfilm: S.N. 13200 



292. LETTER TO HEMPRABHA DAS GUPTA 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 2h 1928 

DEAR SISTER, 

I have your letter. You should start working gradually; 
there is no need to over-exert yourself. Do not be at all nervous if 
Nikhil’s condition deteriorates. And whenever you do feel agitated, 
recall this verse that we always chant: “Wtose mind is im- 
troubled in sorrows and longeth not for joys, who is free from 
passion, fear and wrath — he is called the ascetic of secure under- 
standing.”* 

Blessings Jmn 
Baru 


Shrimati Hemrrabhadevi 
Ruby Lodge 
P.O. Burganda 
Giridih 

East Indian Railway 

From a photostat of the Hindi: G.N. 1656 


293. CABLE TO DOUBLEDAT DORAJ^ CO. 

[After April 21, 1928]^ 

CONSULT REVEREND HOLMES “uNTIY” AND MACMILLAN 
PUBLISHER WHO HOLDS RIGHTS FUBUOATION ENTOtE 
BOOK. 

From a microfilm: S.N. 14745 


^Bhagmai Gita, II. 56 

3 The addressees, in a cable, dated April 21, 1928, had sought permission 
to publish an American edition of 4" 4utobiogrt^>}^. 



m. LETTER TO JUUA ISBRUCKER> 


LBefore April 22, 

I have your letter of the 7th ultimo. If I go to Europe at 
all and if I find the time and have the health for it, 1 shall gladly 
attend the Conference. 

From a photostat: S.N. 14944 


295. CLERKS v. WORKING MEJP 

Sheth Ranchhodlal Amritlal has sent me the following scheme^ 
of Industrial Insurance for clerks: 

I understand little of insurance, but I take it that in this age 
of insurance any scheme of industrial insurance devised for the bene- 
fit of the clerical workers would be to their good. Only an insu- 
rance expert can ofier helpful criticism of the scheme, and I take 
it that Sjt. Ranchhodlal has firamed the scheme in consultation 
with some large-hearted expert. 

There cannot be two opinions as to the fact that mill-owners, 
no less than other business and commercial firms, ought to take a 
paternal interest in the welfare of their employees. The relations 
between the employer and the employee have been up to now 
merely those of the master and servant, they should be of father 
and children. I therefore welcome the scheme. 

Medical relief should not, in my opinion, be fi:«e. It should 
be genuine, prompt and cheap. Free aid is likely to undermine 
their independent spirit. Sometimes firee aid is rendered perfunc- 
torily and sometimes it is abused, firom both of which evils die 
clerks should be saved. 

The main grievance of the clerk and the working man is low 
pay and indiflference to his welfare. The measures suggested in the 
scheme will be a direct and simple redress of the grievance, and I 
welcome them. 

* Secretary, Inter-religions Qonierence for Peace, The Hague 

*This letter was evidently written before April 22, on whicli date 
Gandhiji decided not to go to Europe. Fid) “Letter to Q. F. Andrews", 22-4 h1928. 

^ The Gujarati original, of which this iS a translation by Mahadev Desai, 
appeared in Jfaoqjivan, 22-4-1928, 

*Not reproduced hero 



250 THE aOLLEOTED WORKS OF ICAHATUA OAM}HI 

The condition of clerks is, in certain respects, undoubtedly 
much more pitiable. I have a vivid picture of their condition before 
my mind. It was given to me in 1915 in Calcutta by the Marwari 
Clerks’ Association. It was a tragic tale of their helplessness. The 
number of clerks is small, their power of endurance and their 
capacity for union is feeble. Whereas the clerk is the only earning 
member of his family, practically aU the members of the working* 
man’s family are wage-earners. The clerks must bestir themselves 
to improve their own condition. They must unite, and must edu- 
cate their dependants, especially their wives, to engage in some 
gainful occupation. They have lost all self-confidence and are help- 
less. Those who are honest, competent in their work, conscientious 
and hard working need not despair of finding a suitable situation. 

True social economics will teach us that the workingman, the 
clerk and the employer are parts of the same indivisible organism. 
None is smaller or greater &an the other. Their interests should 
be not conflicting but identical and interdependent. 

Young India, 3-5-1928 

29(J. LETTER TO EUSABETH KNUDSEN 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Apnl 22, 1928 

DEAR MISS KlfUDSEN, 

I was wondering why I have not heard firom you for such a 
long time. I am glad you have been having such success in 
Karachi. Owing to the National Week I suspended both the oil 
massage and your massage, and owing to pressure of work since, I 
have not been able to resume them. But in spite of the suspension 
I increased nearly two lb. in weight. As soon as the pressure de- 
creases I hope to recommence massage. 

Gangabehn is neither better nor worse. For the last two days 
she has been having some fever. The Calcutta patient left about 
ten days ago. Mr. Kothari is in DaijeeUng at the present moment. 

Tom smtmly, 

Miss Eusabbth Knudsen 
G/o Dr. Thtranandani 
“New Times” Bldos. 

Karaohi 

From a photostat: SJ7. 13201 



297. LETTER TO C. F. AJ^DREWS 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 22, 1928 

You will be perhaps sorry to hear that I have decided not to 
go to Europe this year. There was no call for me to go in answer 
to the various invitations, but I felt that, if Rolland considered it 
worth while my going to meet him in furtherance of the common 
cause, I would go and incidentally respond to invitations from 
Europe. Now there is the expected letter from him. I send you a 
copy so that you can better understand my decision. RoUand’s 
hesitation to let me go to Europe principally for the sake of meet- 
ing him shows that as an artist and as the interpreter of my mes- 
sage he does not regard it as necessary that I should leave all 
my important work here and go to Europe to meet him. And as 
there is no call in him to ask me to go or to accept my offer to 
go, 1 feel that if my letter to him was truthful, that is to say, if 
the deciding motive was to see him, I should consider his letter to 
be God’s guidance in answer to my prayer. As days went by I was 
hardening my heart feeling more and more reluctant to go to 
Europe at the present moment and was feeling also that I had 
nothing to give to Europe, whereas my hands were absolutely 
full here. The call of the Ashram is incessant. It is becoming clearer 
day by day that if I am to do justice to the Ashram, which I 
claim to be my best creation, and if I cannot give it the whole 
of my time, 1 must at least give to it the major part of my time. 

I had Burma in my mind if I did not go to Europe. But now 
I feel that I don’t want to go to Burma either and 1 shall pass 
the summer in the Ashram, if Burma does not want me. 

The heat does not trouble me. I am getting on quite well. 
And, of course, there are many other things which I can attend to 
if 1 am here. On the whole, therefore, I think that I must not go. , 
But I can make this provisional decision that ff everything goes 
well, I would go next year giving myself ample time from now to 
make all my preparations and dispositions so that 1 can go with- 
out difficulty, and then, perhaps, if I could do so and if the way is 
dear, taking America also to save time. 

I had a long chat with Ambalal. He said that he had sent his 
own subscription but that he could not move further unless there 



252 


THB aOLLEOTED WOBKS OF ICAHATklA. GANDHI 


was a proper balance-sheet published. He was dissatisfied with 
the account-keeping and he seemed to be keen on a Gujarati com- 
mittee because he said that the bulk of the money was found by 
the Gujaratis. So far as I could see I could not move him in bis 
decision. But he said that in giving his opinion he was more 
guided by other donors than by his own instinct. 

Marichi described to me the condition of your teeth or rather 
your toothlessness. To be toothless is by no means a great depri- 
vation and it is decidedly a gain when one’s teeth are a source of 
disease rather than of health. 

Remember that you have to finish the Shraddhanand series. 
You should write something on Gregg’s book. 

I hope Gurudev is much better now. 

From a photostat; S.N. 14958 

298. LETTER TO SECRETART, ALL-INDIA SPINNERS' 

ASSOCIATION 


The Ashram, 
Sabasmati, 
A^l 22, 1928 

The SEcatETARY 
A-I.S.A. 

Ahmedabad 

DEAR SIR, 

I have your letter about the loan guaranteed by Mr. Praka- 
sam. I have written to him.’ 

Tours sincere^. 

From a imcrofilm: S.N. 13594 


299. TELEGRAM TO MATHURA PRASAD 

[Before April 23, 192Sf}^ 

YOUR LETTER. RAJKISHORI RAMNANDAN MAY 

AOGOMPANY RADHA WHEN SHE IS READY RETURN. 
PLEASE aONTINUE WIRE MAOANLAL’S OONDITION DAILY. 
WHAT IS CAUSE DELIRIUM? 

Gandhi 

From a photostat: SJN". 14651 

’This letter is not available. 

* Ma ga n lal Gandhi passed away on April 23. 



300. LETTER TO MANUAL AND SUSHILA GANDHI 

April 23, 1928 

QHI. MAMILAI. AND SUSHILA, 

As I write this letter, I have before me a telegram from Pataa 
mformiag me that Maganlal is on his death-bed. Radha is there 
by chance. The friends at Patna arc doing their best for him. 
Any moment there may be a telegram about his passing away. 
What mystery of God’s will is this, that he whom I regard as my 
heir is preparing to go away, leaving bis inheritance? If only all 
of you who remain behind could follow in Maganlal’s footsteps 1 
I get the letters of both of you. Wayne must have given you 
my message. I think I have already informed you that he met me. 

Ramdas is still in Kathiawar hawking khadi. He should 
return in four or five days. Chhaganlal feU ill and has, therefore, left 
Orissa and gone to Almora. Frabhudas is already diere on grounds 
of health. But now he is doing khadi work all the time. 

I want a sample of Sushila’s English handwriting and language. 
What is her weight now? What painting is she engaged on at 
present? 

If Sorabji spends beyond his means, do not forget your duty, 
as a friend, of restraining him. Never take advantage of his spend- 
thrift nature. Always remain within the bounds of propriety. 1 
have dropped for the present the idea of going to Europe. 

Bltssings Jrom 
Bapu 

[PS.] 

I have just received a telegram saying that God has taken 
away Maganlal. 

Bapu 


From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.N. 4736 



3bl. ttLEGRAhi TO BiUjKlSltORE PRASAJO 

{April 23, 1928Y 

REQEIVED KCNAL WILL OF OOD. SEND RADHABBHN 
WITH ESCORT. RAJKISHORI MAY ACOOMPANY. FUNERAL 
SHOULD BE SIMPLEST TYPE. 

Gandhi 


From a photostat: S.N. 14651 


302. TELEGRAM TO DEVDAS GANDHI 

{April 23, 1928} 

MAOANLAL PASSED EARLY MORNING. DO NOT 00. 
WIRED FOR RADHA BEINO SENT UNDER ESCORT. 

Bapd 

From a photostat: S.N. 14651 


303. TELEGRAM TO RADHA GANDHI 

{April 23, 1928} 

Radha 

Care Shambhusharan 

EXPECT YOU TO BE BRAVE. SUBMIT GOD’S WILL 

AND Smo RAMANAMA. YOU ARB COMING WITH 

SUITABLE COMPANION. LOVE. 

Bapu 


From a photostat: S.N. 14651 


1 This and the telegranu which follow were evidently sent on receipt of 
the news of Maganlal Gandhi’s death on April 23. 



304. TELEGRAM TO KttUSHALCHAND GAJfDHi 


[Apnl 23, 192S\ 

Khubhalshai Gandhi 
Rajkot 

MAOANIAL DIED MOKNINO AT PATNA. YOU KNOW 
HE WAS MORE TO ME THAN TO YOU. YOU 
MUST NOT GIVE WAY TO GRIEP. HIS IS A 

NOBLE DEATH. NARANDAS LEAVINO TONIGHT. INFORM 
SHIVLALBHAJ’S PEOPLE. 

Mohandas 

From a photostat: S.N. 14651 


305. TELEGRAM TO CHHAGANLAL GAJfDHI 

[Apnl 23, 1928] 

MAGANLAL DIED MORNING PATNA. RADHA WILL 
RETURN IMMEDIATELY. NO GRIEF PERMISSIBLE. 

MUST KNOW HOW TO ENFOROE OUR OWN 
TEACHING. YOU SHOULD CONTINUE REST. 

Bapu 


From a photostat: S.N. 14661 


306. TELEGRAM TO JAMNADAS GAJFDHI 

April 23, 1928 

Jamnadas Gandhi 
Care Jivanlal Go. 

Kansara Ghawl 

Kalbadevi 

Bombay 

MAGANLAL DIED MORNING. NO GRIEF ALLOWED, NO 

mTEREUPnON allotted programme. 

Bapu 

Froo^ the original: G.W. 8697. Courtesy: Narandas Gandhi 



307. LETTER TO SHRINATH SlNGlt 


Vmsakha Shukla 4 [April 23, 1928\^ 

SHIUNATH sraOHJI, 

I have your letter. I am acquainted with the Birla boys; 
hence I sent a message to them. It would take up all my time 
if I started sending messages to every newspaper and every editor 
that asked for them even tlxough they may not be known to me. 

Tours, 

Mohandas 

Shrinath SmoHji 
Editor, “Bal Sakha” 

Indian Press Ltd. 

Allahabad 

From Hindi: O.W. 2973. Qourtesy: Shrinath Singh 


308. LETTER TO KUNVERJI KHETSHI PABEKH 

SiUnce Day [April 23, 192S]'^ 

CHI. KUNVERJI, 

I have your letter. Consider with Jaisukhlal what should be 
done if the work at Balara stops. I did not understand your 
intention in the last paragraph. If however you have an offer 
of a better-paid job and you feel inclined to accept it, I will not 
force you to remain in the khadi work. If you remain in khadi 
work, you should do so merely in a spirit of service and without 
any bought of money, as Ramdas does, No one should feel that 
he is acting under coercion from anyone. I certainly like your 
work. Personally, I should like to keep you in the Ashram. But 
a proposal is under discussion just now that only those who observe 
brahmachcaya should be allowed to live in the Ashram. Nothing has 
been dedded finally. But I believe that there would be no diffi- 
culty in fixing you up at some other place if not in the Ashram. 


^The letter bears the postmark 24-4-1928. 
2 From the postmark 



L&tTftR to tULSt ICABER 
Maganlal expired in Patna. 


From a photostat of the Gqjarati: SJ^. 9710 


257 


, BUisittgs from 
Bapu 


309. LETTER TO SJLMTOK GAJfDHI 

[After April 23, 1928^ 

CHI. SANTOK, 

Seth Ghanshyatndas Birla is 'willing to employ Keshu, so you 
need not worry now about liim. God 'will certainly ensure that he 
prospers. All of you should get absorbed in work. Take care of 
your health. 

Write to me from time to time. 

BUsdngs from 
Bapu 

From a copy of the Gujarati: G.W. 8672. Courtesy: Radhabehn Ghaudhri 


310. LETTER TO Tt/LSJ MAHER 

Sabasmati Ashrah, 
[After AprU 23, 1928]» 

BHAI TUUI ICAHER, 

What you write about Maganlal is true. Let us be more 
-vigilant than ever. Do not be elated or depressed by the ebb and 
flow in your work but do as much as you can without attach- 
ment. 

From a photostat of the Hindi: G.N. 6534 


iRadhabehn Ghaudhri states that this letter was written shortly after 
Maganlal Gandhi’s death on April 29, 1928. 

3 It is likely that this letter was written after ftie death of Maganlal 
Gandhi. 


XXXV1.17 



311. CABLE TO SOUTH AFRICAN INDIAN 
COMMUNITT^ 


April 24, me 

HEALTH GOOD. KEQEIVED BATTKl’S aATISFAGTORY RBPLY«^ 
MAaA MfLAI. DIED YBSTEBDAY« 

Bafc 

From a photostat: S.N> 11977 


312. LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 24, me 

MY DEAR JAWAHAR, 

I have your letter. Of course you know already the calamity 
that has befallen me on the death of Maganlal. It is well-nigh un- 
bearable. However I am putting on a brave front. 

1 had not read the resolution asking the Congress to drop 
*‘peacefhl and legitimate means” and ch^ge the expression into 
“by all possible means”. Independence I can swallow, “by all 
means” is unswallowable. But I suppose we shall have to develop 
stomadi strong enough to swallow any poison. I hope however 
g^that you will not allow yourself to be exploited beyond your wish 
and capacity. 

The mill-owneis, it has now become obviously clear, wanted to 
do a deal with the Congress. But I am not sorry for these abortive 
negotiations. They have cleared the atmosphere. 

The expected letter from Romain RoUand was received on 
Sunday. He will not bear the burden I wanted him to do. So I 


* This cable was sent in reply to the South African Indian Conununity’s 
cable which read: “Inform health.” 

s In his long cable, Sastri had stated that the understanding arrived at the 
Settlement of 1914 wovild not be challenged and that the South African Minis- 
ters would not knowingly go back on previous promise!. For the text of 
Sastri’s cable vidt Appendix II. 



LA-mit TO KASMAD SASA8HIVA RAO 


259 


am not going this year. But you will read about this in the pages 
of Young Indian 

Tours smeerdy. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13203 


313. LETTER TO KARNAD SADASHIVA RAO 

The Ashram* 
Sabarmah, 
April 24, 1928 

MY DEAR SADASHIVA RAO, 

I have your letter which I like very much. Let your daughters 
put themselves in touch with me. They have got to be brave, 
if they will not become worse than purdanasheenfi. For those who 
will have the butterfly existence are, in my opinion, worse than 
purdanusheens. And those who will become resd servants of the nation 
have to accept voluntarily poverty as a blessing and not a mere 
tolerable position. 

Tours sincmly, 

SjT. SADASHIVA RaO KaRNAD 
Kodaibah. 

Mangalore 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13202 


1 Vids “To European Friends’’, 26-4-1928. 

2 Those who observe purdah 



314. TELEGRAM TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 

Sabai(ha.ti, 

Apnl 25, 1928 

Satis Chandra Das Gupta 
Khadi Pratishthan 

SODRPUR 

YOUR TBLBORAM^ WORTHY OF YOU. BEST SERVIOS 
YOU GAN RENDER TODAY IS BUILD UP YOUR 
BODY SO AS TO SPARE ME ANOTHER SHOCK. 

Bapu 

From a photostat: G.N. 1590 

315. TELEGRAM TO DEVD^ GANDHI 

iAprU 25, 192S\^ 

RETURN HERE WITH RADHA. 

From a photostat: SJM. 14649 


316, TELEGRAM TO C. RAJAGOPALACHARl* 

April 25, 1928 

ABANDONED EUROPEAN VISIT BEFORE MAOANLAL’S 

DEPARTURE* JAMNALALJI MUST OO PILORIMAaE. LET 
ME DESERVE INHERtTAKQE LEFT BY MAOANLAL. 

Bapu 

From a microfilm: S.N. 14683 


oa loo?^ was Tmtteii on the back of the addressee’s telegram dated April 
24, 1928, to which it was sent in r^ly. 

2 It re^: “Maganbhai’s place caimot be filled but if wanted am ready 
aerve you there,” ^ 

WM written below the telegram to Satis Ohandra Das Gupta: mdt 
the Item. It ap;^ both the telegrams were sent on the same day. 

«< T following telegram from G. Rajagopalachari; 

tomorrow. You may resent wggestion 
^t p aye^y prem your gomg Europe now leaving scene of desolation in 



317 . Mr BEST COMRADE GONE 


He whom I had singled out as heir to my all is no more. 
Maganlal K. Gandhi, a grandson of an uncle of mine had been 
with me in my work since 1904. Maganlal’s father has given all 
his boys to the cause. The deceased went early this month to Ben- 
gal with Seth Jamnalalji and others, contracted a high fever whilst 
he was on duty in Bihar and died under the protecting care of 
Brijkishore Prasad in Patna after an illness of nine days and after 
receiving all the devoted nursing that love and akill could give. 

Maganlal Gandhi went with me to South AMca in 1903 in 
the hope of making a bit of fortune. But hardly had he been 
store-keeping for one year, when he responded to my sudden call 
to self-imposed poverty, joined the Phoenix settlement and never 
once faltered or failed after so joining me. If he had not dedi- 
cated himself to the country’s service, his undoubted abilities and 
indefatigable indiistry would have made him a merchant prince. 
Put in a printing press he easily and quickly naastered the secrets 
of the art of printing. Though he had never before handled a tool 
or a machine, he found himself at home in the engine room, the 
machine room and at the compositor’s desk. He was equally at 
ease with the Gujarati editing of the Indxm Optnion. Since the Phoe- 
nix scheme included domestic far ming , he became a good farmer. 
His was I think the best garden at the settlement. It may be of 
interest to note that the very first issue of Toung India published 
in Ahmedabad bears the marb of his labours when they were much 
needed. 

He had a sturdy constitution which he wore away in advanc- 
ing the cause to which he had dedicated himself. He closely studied 
and followed my spiritual career and when I presented to my co- 
workers brahmachaiya as a rule of life even for married men in seardh 
of Truth, he was the first to perceive the beauty and the necessity 
of the practice and, though it cost him to my knowlec^ a terri- 
fic struggle, he carried it through to success, taking his wife along 
with him by patient argument instead of imposing his views on her. 

When satyagraha was bom, he was in the forefiront. He gave 
me the expression which I was striving to find to give its full 
meaning to what the South Afirican struggle stood for, and which 
for want of a better term I allowed to be recognized by the very 
insufi^ent and even misleading term “passive resistance”. 1 wish 



262 THE COLLEOTBD WORKS OF lilABATMA GANDHI 

I had the very beautiful letter he then wrote to me giving his 
reasons for suggesting the name which I changed to 
He argued out the whole philosophy of the struggle step by step 
and brought the reader irresistibly to his chosen name. The 
letter 1 remember was incredibly short and to the point as all 
his communications always were. 

During the struggle he was never weary of work, shirked no 
task and by his intrepidity he infected everyone around him with 
courage and hope. When everyone went to jail, when at Phoenix 
courting imprisonment was like a prize to be won at my instance, 
he stayed back in order to shoulder a much heavier task. He 
sent his wife to join the women’s party. 

On our return to India, it was he again who made it possible 
to found the Ashram in the austere manner in which it was found- 
ed. Here he was called to a newer and more difficult task. He 
proved equal to it. Untouchability was a very severe trial for him. 
Just for one brief moment his heart seemed to give way. But it 
was only for a second. He saw that love had no bounds and that 
it was necessary to live down the ways of ‘untouchables’, if only 
because the so-called higher castes were responsible for them. 

The mechanical department of the Ashram was not a con- 
tinuation of the Phoenix activity. Here we had to learn weaving, 
spinning, carding, and ginning. Again I turned to Maganlal. 
Though the conception was mine, his were the hands to reduce it 
to execution. He learnt weaving and all the other processes that 
cotton had to go through before it became khadi. He wras a bom 
mechanic. 

When dairying was introduced in the Ashram he threw himself 
with zeal m the work, studied dairy literature, named every cow 
and became friends with every animal^ on the settlement. 

And when tannery was added, he was undaunted and had 
proposed to learn the principles of tannmg as soon as he got a 
little breathing time. Apart from his scholastic training in the 
High School at Rajkot, he learnt the many things he knew so well 
in the school of hard experience. He gathered knowledge from 
village caipenters, village weavers, farmers, shepherds and such 
ordinary folk. 

He Was the Director of the Technical Department of the Spin- 
ners’ Association, and during the recent floods in Gujarat, Vallabh- 
bhai put him in charge of building the new township Vithalpur. 

* Vide Vol. XXIX, pp. 92-3. 

* The lource has “cattle”. 



MY BEST aOMRADE GONE 


263 


He was an exemplary father. He trained his children — one 
boy and two girls, all unmarried stiU — so as to make them fit for 
dedication to the coimtry. His son Keshu is showing very great 
ability in mechanical engineering, all of which he has picked up 
like liis father from seeing ordinary carpenters and smiths at work. 
His eldest daughter Radha, eighteen years old, recently shouldered 
a difficult and delicate mission to Bihar in the interest of women’s 
fi'eedom. Indeed he had a good grasp of what national education 
should be and often engaged the teachers in earnest and critical 
discussion over it. 

Let not the reader imagine that he knew nothing of politics. 
He did, but he chose the path of silent, selfless constructive semce. 

He was my hands, my feet and my eyes. The world knows so 
little of how much my so-called greatness depends upon the in- 
cessant toil and drudgery of silent, devoted, able and pure workers, 
men as well as women. And among them all Maganlal was to me 
the greatest, the best and the purest. 

As I am penning these lines, I hear the sobs of the widow be- 
wailing the death of her dear husband. Little does she realize that 
I am more widowed than she. And but for a living faith in God, I 
^ould become a raving maniac for the loss of one who was dearer 
to me than my own sons, who never once deceived me or failed me, 
who was a personification of industry, who was the watchdog of the 
Ashram in aU its aspects — material, moral and spiritual. His life is 
an inspiration for me, a standing demonstration of the efficacy and 
the supremacy of the moral law. In his own life he proved visibly 
for me not for a few days, not for a few months, but for twenty- 
four long years — ^now alas all too short — ^that service of the coun- 
try, service of humanity and self-realization or knowledge of God 
are synonymous terms. 

Maganlal is dead, but he lives in his works whose imprints he 
who runs may read on every particle of dust in the Ashrsun. 

Tomg IndiOf 26-4-1928 



318. A MORAL STRUGGLE 

I am a husband aged 30. My mfe is about the same age. 
We have five children, of which two are fortunately dead. I 
know the responsibility for the rest of our children. But I 
find it difficult, if not impossible, to discharge that responsi- 
bility. You have advised self-restraint. Well, I have prac- 
tised it for the last three years, but that is very much against 
my partner’s wish. She insists on what poor mortals call 
the joys of life. You firom your superior height may call it a 
sin. But my partner does not see it in that light. Nor is she 
a&aid of bearing more duldren to me. She has not the sense 
of responsibility that 1 fiatter myself with the belief I have. 
My parents side more with my wife than with me and there 
are daily quarrels. The denial of satisfaction to my wife ha^ 
made her so peevish and so irritable that she flares up on the 
slightest pretext. My problem now is how to solve the diffi- 
culty. The children I have are too many for me, I am too 
poor to support them. The wife seems utterly irreconcilable. 
If she does not have the satisfaction she demands, she may even 
go astray or go mad or commit suicide. I tell you, sometimes 
I feel that if the law of the land permitted it, I would shoot 
down all unwanted children as you would stray dogs. For the 
last three months 1 have gone without the second meal, with- 
out tiffin. I have business obligations which prevent me fix>m 
fasting for days. I get no compassion from tire wife because 
die considers I am a humbug. I know the literature on birth- 
control. It is temptingly written. And I have read your book 
on self-restraint I find myself between the devil and the deep 
blue sea. 

The foregoing is a faithful paraphrase of a heart-rending 
letter firom a young man who has given me his full name and address 
, and whom I have known for some years. Being afiraid to give 
his name, he tells me he wrote twice before anonymously hoping 
that I would deal with his communications in the pages of Toung 
In£a. I receive so many anonymous letters of this type that I 
hesitate to deal with them, even as I have considerable hesitation in 
dealing with this letter, although I know it to be perfectly genuiue 
and know it to be a letter firom a striving soul. The subject- 
matter is so delicate. But I see that I may not shirk an obvious 



A MORAL STRUOOLE 


265 

duty claiming as I do claim a fair amount of experience of such 
cases and more especially because my method has given relief in 
several similar cases. 

The condition 'in India, so far as English-educated Indians 
are concerned, is doubly difficult. The gulf between husband and 
wife from the point of view of social attainments is almost too wide 
to be bridgeable. Some young men seem to thinlc that they have 
solved it satisfactorily by simply throwing their wives overboard, 
although they know that in their caste there is no divorce possible 
and therefore no remarriage on the part of their wives possible. 
Yet others — and this is the far more numerous class — ^use their 
wives merely as vehicles of enjoyment without sharing their intel- 
lectual life with them. A very small number — ^but daily growing — 
has a quickened conscience and are faced with the moral difficulty 
such as my correspondent is faced with. 

In my opinion, sexual union to be legitimate is permissible 
only when both the parties desire it. I do not recognize the right 
of either partner to compel satisfaction. And if my position is cor- 
rect in the case in point, there is no more obligation on the part 
of the husband to yield to the wife’s importunities. But this refusal 
at once throws a much greater and more exalted responsibility on 
the husband’s shoulders. He will not look down upon his wife 
from his insolent height but will humbly recognize ^at what to 
him is not a necessity is to her a fundamental necessity. He will 
therefore treat her with the utmost gentleness and love and will 
have confidence in his own purity to transmute his partner’s pas- 
sion into energy of the highest type. He will therefore have to 
become her real fidend, guide and physician. He will have to give 
her bis fullest confidence and with inexhaustible patience explain 
to her the moral basis of his action, the true nature of the relation- 
ship that should subsist between husband and^wife and the true 
meaning of marriage. He will find in the process that many things 
that were not clear to him before will be dear and he will draw 
his partner closer to him if his own restraint is truthful. 

In the case in point I cannot help saying that the desire not 
to have more children is not enough reason for refusing satisfac- 
tion. It appears almost cowardly to reject one’s wife’s advances 
merely for fear of having to support children. A check upon an 
unlimited increase in the family is a good ground for both the 
parties jointly and individually putting a restraint upon sexual 
desires, but it is not sufficient warrant for one to refuse the privi- 
leges of a common bed to the other. 

And why this impatience of children ? Surely there is enough 



266 THE aOIXEQTED WORKS OF HAHATUA OANDHI 

scope for honest, hard-working and intelligent men to earn enough 
for a reasonable number of children. I admit that for one like my 
correspondent who is honestly trying to devote his whole time to 
the service of the country it is difficult to support a large and grow- 
ing family and at the same time to serve a country, millions of 
whose children are semi-starved. I have often expressed the opinion 
in these pages that it is wrong to bring forth progeny in India 
so long as she is in bondage. But that is a very good reason for 
young men and young women to abstain from marriage, not a 
conclusive reason for one partner refusing sexual co-operation to 
the other. That co-operation can be lawfully refused, it is a duty 
to refuse, when the call for brdhmaeharya on the highest ground of 
pure religion is imperative. And when such a call has clearly come, 
it will have its healthy reaction upon the partner. Assuming, how- 
ever, that it does not produce such reaction in time, it will still 
be a duty to adhere to restraint even at the risk of losing the life 
or the sanity of one’s partner. The cause of brahnacluaya demands 
sacrifices no less heroic than, say, the cause of Truth, or of one’s 
country. In view of what I have said above, it is hardly necessary 
to state that artificial control of births is an immoral practice having 
no place in the conception of life that underlies my argument. 

roung Mia, 26-4-1928 


319. TO EUROPEAN FRIENDS 

It is not without deep sorrow that I am now able to an- 
nounce that the much-talked-of visit of mine to Europe is not to 
come off this year at any rate. To those in Austria, Holland, Eng- 
land, Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and Russia who had 
sent me kind invitations I can only say that their disappointment 
win be no greater than mine. 

Somehow or other I dread a visit to Europe and America. 
Not that I distrust the peoples of these great Continents any more 
than I distrust my own, but I distrust myself. I have no desire 
to go to the West in search of health or for sightseeing. I have no 
desire to deliver public speeches. I detest being lionized. I won- 
der if I shall ever again have the health to stand the awful strain 
of public speaking and public demonstrations. If God ever sent me 
to the West, I should go there to penetrate the hearts of the mas- 
ses, to have quiet talks with the'^outh of the West and have the 
privilege of meeting kindred spirits — Clovers of peace at any price 
save that of Truth. 



TO EtmOFBAN FRIENDS 


267 


But I feel that I have as yet no message to deliver personally 
to the West. I believe my message to be universal but as yet I 
feel that I can best deliver it through my work in my own coun- 
try. If I can show visible success in India, the delivery of the mes- 
sage becomes complete. If I came to the conclusion that India 
had no use for my message, I should not care to go elsewhere in 
search of listeners even though I still retained faith in it. If, there- 
fore, I ventured out of India, I should do so because I have 
faith, though I cannot demonstrate it to the satisfaction of aU, that 
the message is being surely received by India be it ever so slowly. 

Thus whilst I was hesitatingly carrying oh the correspondence 
with friends who had invited me, I saw that there was need for 
me to go to Europe, if only to see M. Romain Rolland. Owing to 
my distrust of myself over a general visit, I wanted to make my 
visit to that wise man of the West the primary cause of my journey 
to Europe. 1 therefore referred my difiEiculty to him and asked 
him in the firankest maimer possible whether he would let me 
make my desire to meet him the primary cause of my visit to 
Europe, In reply I have a noble letter from him through Mira- 
bai (Miss Slade) wherein he says that m the name of truth itself, 
he wiU not think of letting me go to Europe if a visit to him is 
to be the primary cause. He wiU not let me interrupt my labours 
here for the sake of our meeting. I read in his letter no false humi- 
lity, I read in it a most genuine expression of truth. He knew when 
he wrote his reply that my desire to go to Europe to meet him 
was not for a mere courteous discussion but in the interest of the 
cause as dear to him as to me. But evidently he was too humble 
to bear the burden of calling me merely so that in furtherance of 
the common interest we might by mutual talks understand each 
other better. And I wanted him to shoulder that very burden, if he 
felt that truth required us to meet each other face to face. His 
reply therefore I have taken as a clear answer to my prayer. Apart 
from this visit, I felt within me no imperative caU. 

I have taken the public into my confidence as, against my wish, 
the fact that a visit to Europe during this season was under serious 
contemplation was published in the papers. I regret my decision 
but it seems to be the correct one. For whilst there is no urge 
within to go to Europe, there is an incessant call within for so much 
to do here. And now the death of my best comrade seems to keep 
me rooted to the Ashram. 

But I may say to the many friends in Europe, that next year, 
if all is well and if they still will have me I shsdl try to under- 
take the postponed tour, under the strict limitations mentioned 



268 THE aOLLEOTED WORKS 07 MAHATMA OAHOHI 

by me and this I diall do whether I am ready to deliver my mes- 
sage or not. To see my numerous friends face to face will be 
no small privilege. But let me conclude this personal explanation 
by saying that if ever I am privileged to visit the West, I shall go 
there without changing my dress or habits, save in so far as the 
climate may require a change and self-imposed restrictions may 
permit. My outward form is I hope an expression of the in- 
ward. 

Xm^ India, 26-4-1928 


320, FOUR MONTHS^ WORK 

The Vaishya Vidyashram, Sasavane, which started the con- 
structive programme in right earnest last year has sent the follow- 
ing report* of work during four months ending ChaUra'. 

The foregoing resume of four months’ increasing work is 
proof, if proof be still necessary, of what earnest effort can do. 
Where the wheel is reported to have failed, it was not the wheel 
that failed, but the wheel masters that failed because they had no 
faith. Schoolboys all the world over wUl respond to honest endea- 
vour as the boys of the Sasavane Ashram have done. And from the 
figures that are published from time to time in these columns, 
miyone who cares can work out an arithmetical calculation show- 
ing how many children worldng, say, at least one hour per day at 
the wheel or the takli can spin enough yam to clothe the whole 
nation. Oh for an imagination that will visualize the simple 
beauty of the wheel as a sure solvent of the economic distress 
of the country! 

Xota^ India, 26-4-1928 


*Not reproduced here 



321. CABLE TO V. S. SJtmiVASA SASTRB 


Sababmati, 

April 26, 1928 

Rt. Hon. Sastri 

MARTTZBimo 

I LEFT SOUTH AFMOA JULY 1914. ALL UNDER- 

STANDINO BETWEEN UNION GOVERNMENT AND MB QOULD 
ONLY BE PRIOR MY DEPARTURE. PERSONALLY I QOULD 
ASK FOR NO PROTEQTION FRAUDULENT ENTRANTS BUT 

I SOUGHT AND RECEIVED PROTEQTION FOR THOSE 

WHO HAD RECEIVED FRAUDULENT PAPERS BECAUSE AS I 

PROVED QONQLUSrVBLY TO GOVERNMENT THAT THEIR 
OFFICERS WERE PARTY TO FRAUD AND THAT IT 

HAD BECOME DEPFICULT FOR EVEN HONEST MEN TO 

ENTER EXCEPT THROUGH BAOEDOOR. YOU WILL SEE 
THEREFORE THERE IS DISTINCTnON BETWEEN NATAL AND 
TRANSVAAL. FRAUD WAS NO DOUBT EVERYWHERE 

BUT NEVER IN SUCH WHOLESALE AUlOST OPEN 
MANNER AS IN TRANSVAAL AND INTITATED BY CORRUPT 

AND CORRUPTIBLB OFFICIALS. CLAIM NO FIRST-HAND 

ENOWIEDOE OF EVENTS AFTER MY DEPARTURE BUT 

ON GENERAL GROUlH)S SINCE HABIBULLAH DEPUTATION 

OPENED NEW CHAPTER AND NEW VISION AND YOUR 

INSTALLATION EMPHASIZED AND SECURED ^ STABILITY FOR 
NEW VISION IHINOS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED ON MERITS 

APART FROM PREVIOUS ASSURANCE DIRECT OR IMPLIED 

AND I FEEL ALL THOSE WHO ENTERED BEFORE 

SMUTS-OANDHI SETTTEMENT SHOULD HAVE FULL UN- 

CONDmONAL PROTEQTION. AFTER ALL NUMBER CAN 

OIW-Y BE BISALL. HAVING GIVEN MY OPINION, I KNOW 

WHATEVER YOU DO WILL BE BEST AND HONOURABLE 

UNDER CIROUMSTANQES. I SHALL THEREFORE CONTINUE 
TENDER YOU ALL SUPPORT IN MY POWER ESPECIALLY 

IN YOUR DEALING WITH TRANSVAAL INDIANS. POSTING 

COPIES SIR MAHOMED TREATING QONFIDBNTTALLY. 

Gandhi 

From a photostat: S.N. 11974 

iThis was sent in reply to Sastri’s cable dated April 24, 1928, for the 
text of which vide Appendix II. 



322. LETTER TO MAHOMED HABIBULLAH 


Thb Ashkam, 
SABASHA.'n, 
April 26, 1928 

DEAR ERIEND, 

At the instance of our common friend Mr. Sastri) I send you 
herewith copy of cables that have passed between us. If there be> 
anything that is obscure in the position that I have taken up in 
my cabled, please do not hesitate to ask for my explanation. 

Though I am treating the whole of this telegraphic corres- 
pondence as strictly confidential, I am taking the libe^ of send- 
ing copies to Mr. Andrews who knows everything about the mat- 
ters concerning the position of our countrymen in South Africa. 

Tours smetrdj, 

Enel. 

Hon. Sir Mahomed Habibuliah 
Member, Viobroy^s CoDNaiL 
Simla 

From a photostat: S.N. 11977 


323. LETTER TO C. F. ANDREWS 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 26, 1928 

1 have your wire as also Ourudev’s regarding Maganlal. It is 
perhaps the greatest trial of my life. But so far it appears that He 
who has subjected me to the ordeal is giving me the strength to go 
through it. 

Now therefore to the business. Here are copies of cables ex- 
changed between Sastri and myself. Please tell me if I have 
erred anywhere in my reply. And if you have got the papers refer- 
red to by Sastri in his cable of date after my departure from South 

^The source has “are”. 

2 Vid» the preceding item. 



t£ttBR to S. OAMSaAN 271 

Africa after July 1914, please send them to me by registered post, 
especially the arrangements of 1915 and die recent bill. 

G. F. Andrews 
SA imNIEETAN 

From a photostat: S.N. 11978 


324. LETTER TO S. GAJfESAJ^ 


The Ashrau, 
Sabarhati, 
April 26, 1928 

IIY DEAR OANESAN, 

Here is the preface^ to the IRstoty ofSatyagraha in South Africa. 

Sjt. Desai is anxious that you should send a proof copy of the 
whole book, cover and all, as it is to be issued, and that this you 
should do before finishing the binding of all copies. He tells me 
that whoever looks after the printing in your office, is extremely 
careless and tells me sometimes important corrections made by 
him have not been carried out. He is anxious that such mistakes 
should be avoided for this book. 

I have already telegraphed^ to you that you may dedicate it 
to Maganlal Gandhi. 

1 have your letter about the advertisement. Much as 1 would 
like to advertise the publications, I am afraid I must not do so. 
But if 1 can do it in some other way, I would gladly adopt it. 
There is a way, perhaps, of taking Mr. Gregg’s book off your 
hands. What is its cost price? Have you to pay anything to him? 

Tours smesnlj). 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13205 


iThia appears to be a slip for ‘'foreword”, for the text of which vids 
Vol. XXIX. , 

2 The telegram is not available. 



325. LETTER TO LORD IRWIN 


Sabarmati, 
April 26, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

At the interview in Delhi,* I promised to send you literature 
on khadi. I delayed sending the other pamphlets pending the 
publication of Mr. Gregg’s volume. The odxer pamphlets represent 
the conclusions of two very well-known lawyers of Madras and 
Bihar. 

You were good enough to say that when you had more lei- 
sure you would like to discuss the potency of l^adi with me. If 
you have the leisure and stiU the inclination 1 am at your ser- 
vice. 

I am, 

Tour ExedUn^'s FrUnd, 
M. K. Gandhi 


H. E. THE VlOEROY 
Simla 

From a photostat: S.N. 13596 


326. LETTER TO J. B. PETIT 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 26, 1928 

DEAR MR. PETIT, 

Whilst I was thinlring of applying to you for a contribution 
for the expenses I am incurring in connection with the position of 
emigrants abroad, I received a long contidential cablegram from 
the Rt. Hon. Sastri to which I have been obliged to send a reply 
which has cost me Rs. 92-4-0. 1 do not know how prolonged this 
cable correspondence will be. 

Whilst I have not Mr. Banarsidas with me, I have Pandit 
Totaram Sanadhya of Fiji, whom I dare say you know at least 
by repute. He is staying at the Ashram with his wife. He is draw- 

> Yidt Vol. XXXV, pp. 66 & 67-8 and Appendix V. 



273 


tSTTKS. JtJOAXKlS&OItfi 

ing regularly Rs. 50, and he is allowed to incur extra expenses 
in connection with Fiji. All the expenses are kept and even accounts 
are pubUahed. I send you a copy herewith. Totaramji gives 
his spare time to teaching Hindi to the children in the Aibram. I 
would like the Association* to take this burden off my shoulders. 
If the Association would not care to bear the whole of the hono- 
rarium paid to Totaramji, it may halve with me. I send you also 
the account published by Totaramji of his work and issued for 
private circulation. 

I am managing all the expenses connected with Ashram 
activities through the generosity of private friends, but I think 
that the expenses on account of activity in connection with the 
emigrants should be borne by the Association. I would therefore 
like you to consider this letter as if it was divided into two parts, 
the &st with reference to die general expenses which in my books 
amount to roughly Rs. 5,000 to date. I could send you an extract 
from the Ashram ledger to show how the account is made up, — 
secondly, the expenses that 1 am now incmrring regarding cables. 

1 ^all be thankful for whatever the Committee of the Asso- 
ciation considers a legitimate charge upon its funds. 

Tours stneertfy, 

From a microfilm: S.N. 12859 


327. LETTER TO JUGALKISHORE 


The Asheam, 
Sabarmati, 
April 27, 1928 

mr DEAR JUGALKISHORE, 

I was glad to receive your letter after such a long absence. 
I was wondering how you were faring at the F. M. V.* 

My plan about the spinners’ register is not half as ambitious 
as you think, though we cannot be too accurate, nor too indstent 
on every worker coming in the closest touch with the spinners and 
yet, strange as it may appear though, we represent spinners above 
everybody else, our workers are least in touch with theml But 
even if we do not come in such close contact with them and 
understand their lives as we understand our blood-sisters, we 

* Imperial Gitizeiuhip Association 
2Piem Mahavidyalayft 


VTrwT.m 



274 IBB QOLLBOnBD WOltBS OF UABATBA OANbai 

should at least know who and where they are, who arc sup- 
plying us with their yam. I have therefore said that we should 
trace the residence and names of every spmner whose yam is re- 
ceived in the bazaar. Let us at least have that very mdi- 
mentary contact with them. This does not require the elaborate 
register mentioned by Satis Babu in his Manual. Even he is not 
able to enforce that register when he buys yam at the Feni 
Bazaar. His register was and is in complete operation at his 
Atrai Dept, where he brought into being the spmners for the 
first time and kept touch with them. The largest quantity of yarn 
however received by him is at the Feni Bazaar. My register there- 
fore is really a census register to be taken once for all or periodi- 
cally. You see therefore you do not require the staff suggested by 
you for my simple measure. 

Nobody has complained that the Gandhi Ashram will not 
give this list. 1 think I saw the argument advanced by Dhiren 
about the difficulty of tracing every spmner and I wrote combating 
that argument and showing a way out of the difficulty. The 
diffic ulty raised by Dhiren was not raised by him alone. It is a 
difficulty common to almost all and all are gradually getting over 
the difficulty. 

1 quite agree with you that in order to establish a living con- 
tact with the spinners, we must have women workers. TeU Shanti 
Devi I would like her to make a start. 

Now about your scheme. I like the general idea. How far 
you can give effect to it there, 1 do not know. Because after all you 
want honest and able teachers who know their work. We have not 
too many as yet. But make out your scheme and send it to Jamna- 
lalji unofficially in the first instance and see how it appeals to him. 

Tell me how Bharat is doing there and how spinning is going 
on among the students. 

By this time you know about Maganlal’s death. 

Tours suimsfy. 

From a photostat: SJ^. 13204 



328. LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA 


April 27, 1928 

BHAI aHANSHYAMDASJI, 

I got both your letters. But even today there is not time 
enough for a full reply. 

About Maganlal, what shall 1 write? I find it harder to bear 
this loss th^n to drink the cup of poison, but God has been most 
compassionate to me for I am calm. 

What can we do about the boycott tmtil the educated class 
is ready for it? One sees clearly enough now that it is useless to 
expect anything firom the mills. 

I am happy to hear that your health is improving; the happi- 
ness is of course tinged with self-interest. How could I help it? 

Tours^ 

Mohandas 


From Hindi: G.W. 6156. Courtesy; G. D. Birla 


329. LETTER TO FREDERIC AMD FRAMCISCA STAMDENATH 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 27, 1928 

I have received all your letters including the last dated March 
28th. I do not tTiinV I replied to the previous letter because in it 
you led me to expect another to tell me definitely what the pas- 
sage would be and whether there would be any difficulty about 
your passports. In your recent letter whilst I understand all about 
the passports, there is no reference to the fare required. If you 
give me a ddfinite idea, I would be able to approach fiiends and 
ask them to give me the amount. 

So far as the assurance* from me is required, please produce 

^The British Passport Gontrol 0£Gk:er for Austria had written to the 
addressees: however^ you are travelling to India at the express invitation 

of Mahatma Gandhi, it will only be necessary for you to submit his letters 
of invitation containing the statement that he is prepared to guarantee your 
expenses** (S.N. 14301). 



276 


TBB COtXEOTSD WOttKS OV ItASATUA OAllbEtl 


this letter which gives you the assurance that throughout your 
stay with me, there will be no difficulty about your support, and 
that you would be coming to India at my invitation. 

Now of course I do not want you to come before November 
or December, for the simple reason that this is the hot season and 
the heat continues more or less to the end of October. 

You will see that I have abandoned the contemplated Euro- 
pean visit for reasons fully given in Young Indian If I keep good 
health next year my coming to Europe ought to be a certainty. 
This may mean some change in your programme. But I do not 
want you to cancel your visit to India; for my desire is that you 
should see India with your own eyes and compare it with the 
India of your imagination. So, if you can at all come, I would 
like you to come irrespective of my proposed visit to Europe. 

Tours siaetnlj, 

From a photostat; S.N. 14302 


330. MESSAGE WITH AJf AUTOGRAPH^ 

Sabakua.ti, 
April 27, 1928 

C3od is Truth. The way to reach Truth is through the loving 
service of all that lives. 

M. K. Gakdhi 

From a photostat: SJf. 14263 


331. LETTER TO KALYAEJI MEHTA 

April 28, 1928 

BHAISHBI KALYAMJC, 

You know I cannot attend the Gonference. I am sorry I 
cannot, but just now I am helpless. The contribution of the Rani- 
paraj men and women to the present movement is as much a 
matter of satis&ctioh to us as it is worthy of them. I regard this 
movement as one for devebping fearlessness and for self-purification. 

1 yyt “To European Friends”, 26-4-1928. 

^Thia was sent to Byron N. Clark of the University of Vermont 
Biirliagton, who was also the Secretary of the State Committee of the Y.M.C.A. 



THE MEANINO OF VOLUNTARY POVERTY 277 

How can they who call themselves Raniparaj live in fear? In 
the sacrificial effort of self-purification, how could they afford 
to have vices like drinking, gambling and wearing foreign cloth? 
1 trust, therefore, that the Raniparaj men and women will give 
increasing importance to the spmning-wheel, use more and more 
khadi and abstain ffom drinking and give up other vices. 

Vandmataram from 
Mohandas 


From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.N. 2683 


332. THE MEANING OF VOLUNTARY POVERTY^ 

Sjt. Ghhaganlal Joshi is the Secreteiry to the Managing Com- 
mittee of the Satyagraha Ashram, Sabarmati. He had a univer- 
sity scholarship for post-graduate study in economics and ever since 
he gave up that scholarship to take part in the non-co-operation 
movement he has been in the Ariuram. About a fortnight ago 
he had a summons from a first class magistrate to appear as witness 
in a criminal case. The policeman who came to serve the sum- 
mons behaved most carelessly. He came shouting for Ghhaganlal 
Joshi. This I heard and directed him to Sjt. Ghhaganlal Joshi. 
He gave him the summons. Sjt. Ghhaganlal asked him to wait 
until he had read it, but "take it if you care” he said and 
went away. 

Sjt. C^aganlal read out the summons to me. He seemed to 
be knowing nothing about the case, and he did not know what to 
do. He had no time of his own, nor had he any money for 
railway fare. For all his time and money belonged to the Asluam, 
as every member is supposed to have given his all to the Ashram. 
The money in possession of the Ashram is aU public money ear- 
marked by the donors for the purpose for which it exists, and 
could certainly not be utilized for railway fare to respond to a 
summons. And so Sjt. Ghhaganlal Joshi was m the predicament 
of the pauper of Orissa, the only difference being that whilst the 
latter could receive and use for himself whatever others gave him 
the former could not use a donation except for the purpose of the 
Ashram. Hereia lies the beauty as well as the restraint of volim- 
tary poverty. 

1 The Gujarati original of which this is a translation by Mahadev Desai 
appeared in Ntae^van, 29-4’l928. 



278 


THE aOLLEQTED WORKS OF MAHATHA GANDHI 

What then would an Orissa pauper do if he was served with 
a summons as in this case? The policeman had not cared to ex- 
plain to him the meaning of the summons, nor to pay him the 
railway fare to enable him to go to the court. In the present case 
the magistrate’s court was some miles away from Ahmedabad 
near a station on the Prantij line. The Orissa pauper would be 
absolutely helpless and would not know what to do. 

So Sjt nhTiftganlal decided to sit still and suffer the conse- 
quences. Otherwise his voluntary poverty would have no meaning, 
nor could he serve the poor if he did not behave like them. 

This inevitable inability to respond to the summons was 
interpreted by the magistrate as contempt of court and he issued 
a warrant of arrest against Sjt. Joshi. The man serving the war- 
rant said: “We will not arrest you, if you promise to attend on 
the due date.” 

“I would wUlingly promise,” said Sjt. Joshi, “provided I got 
the railway fare and allowance.” 

The man had no authority to make the payment and so he 
produced Sjt. Joshi before a fimt class magistrate in Ahmedabad. 
The latter had no time to go into the case. Sjt. Joshi explained 
how he failed to obey the summons, but the magistrate trained in 
the traditions of the bureaucracy said: 

“I am afraid I can do nothing. 1 am prepared to release you 
on bail, and you may if you like agitate later on.” 

If he was prepared to give bail, without getting the fare and 
the allowance, why should he not have obeyed the original sum- 
mons? 

The sun was blazing overhead when Sjt. Joshi was ordered 
to proceed to the police station. He refused any longer to walk 
and the policemen in charge were compelled to hire a carriage. 
Ultimately Sjt. Joshi was taken to Talod under a full police escort 
and produced before the magistrate. The moment the magistrate 
saw Sjt. Johi he realized his mistake, paid him the fare and al- 
lowance and released him on parole. 

It is reported that this simple act of courage had a very good 
effect on the people of Talod who were greatly deUghted. 

Those who have accepted voluntary poverty can by acting in 
the m a nn er of Ghhaganlal Jodii easily hasten the end of the in- 
justice and tyranny that seems today to be the lot of the poor. 

The thoughtless discourtesy of ^e magistrate in the cxise was 
remarkable. He issued the summons without the least inquiry and 
having done so did nothing to provide the man summoned wi^ the 
wherewithal to obey the summons. I am told that it is not the 



SOUL OF THB ABHSAU 


279 

practice to pay the witnesses railway fare and allowance in ad- 
vance. If that is the case, it means terrible hardship for the poor. 
The issue of warrant in the case betrayed the magistrate’s crimi- 
nal negligence. He had no evidence of the proper service of the 
summons. 

He did not care to inquire whether Sjt. Joshi had at aU re- 
ceived the summons. One can only imagine what terrible injustice 
lies hidden in this GSovernment’s department of ‘justice’. 

It is difficult to say what would have happened in Talod had 
Sjt. Ghhaganlal been the dumb pauper of Orissa. What a shower 
of abuse he might have received and how fiercely the magistrate 
might have bullied himl The man who had been so much sin- 
ned against might have been branded as a sinner. 

ITiough the Government is responsible for this reckless and 
insolent behaviour towards the poor, one cannot help observing 
that the Indian officials who behave in this fashion have abso- 
lutely no excuse to do so. It is possible that this high-handedness 
was there even in pre-British days. But a wrong does not become 
right if it can be proved to be pre-British. And if even Indian offi- 
cials do not mend their ways, those who have accepted voluntary 
poverty ought to correct them through satyagraha. 

Toung India, 3-5-1928 


333. SOUL OF THE ASHRAM 

When Shri Vallabhbhai received the news of Maganlal Gan- 
dhi’s death, he wired: “The soul of the Ashram has departed.” 
There was no exaggeration in this. I cannot imagine the existence 
of Satyagraha Ashram without Maganlal. Many of my activities 
were started because I knew that he was there. If ever there was 
a person with whom I identified myself, it was Maganlal. We 
often have to consider whether certain matters wiU hurt another 
person, even if that person be one’s own son or wife. I never had 
to entertain such fear with regard to Maganlal. I never hesitated 
to set him the most difficult tasks. I very often put him in embar- 
rassing situations and he silently bore with them. He regarded 
no work as too mean. 

If I were fit to be anyone’s guru, I would have proclaimed 
him my first disciple. 

In aU my life I gave only one person the fi:eedom to regard 
me as his guru and I had my fill of it. The fault was not his, 
as 1 could see; only 1 had imperfections. Anyone who becomes a 



280 THX QOLLEOTBD WORKS OF MAH/LtHA OANSHI 

gfuru should possess the power of conferring on Ihe pupil the capa- 
city to cany out whatever task is assigned to him. I had not that 
power and still do not have it. 

But if Maganlal was not a disciple, he was certainly a servant. 
I am convinced that no master could possibly find a servant better 
or more loyal than Maganlal. This may be a conjecture, but I 
can assert firom my experience that 1 have not found another 
servant like him. It has been my good fortune always to have found 
co-workers, or servants if you like, who were faithful, virtuous, 
intelligent and iudustrious. Still, Maganlal was the best of aU 
these co'Workers and servants. 

The three streams of knowledge, devotion and action continu- 
ously flowed within Maganlal and, by ofiering his knowledge and 
his devotion in ih&yajm of action, he demonstrated before everyone 
their true form. And because in this way each action of his was 
full of awareness, knowledge and faith, his life attained the very 
summit of sannyasa. Maganlal had renounced his all. I never 
saw an iota of self-interest in any of his actions. He showed — ^not 
once, not for a Aort time but time after time for twenty-four 
years incessantly — ^that true sannyasa lay in selfless action or action 
without desire for reward. 

Maganlal’s father entrusted all his four sons to me one after 
another for serving the country. Maganlal was entrusted to me 
in 1903. He accompanied me to South Afirica to earn a living. 
In 1904, 1 invited him along with other friends to embrace poverty 
in order to serve the country. He heard me calmly and embraced 
poverty. From that time on until his death, his life was an un- 
interrupted flow. 

With each day I realize more and more that my mahatmaship, 
which is a mere adornment, depoids on others. I have shone 
with the glory borrowed from my innumerable co-workers. How- 
ever, no one has done more to add to this glory than Maganlal. 
He co-operated with me fully and with intelligence in all my 
activities — ^physical or spiritual. I see no better instance than 
Maganlal of one who made a tremendous effort to act as he believ- 
ed. Maganlal was awake all the twenty-four hours establishing 
unity of thought and action. He used up all his energy in this. 

If I have not exaggerated, consciously or unconsciously, in 
this sketch, one can say that a country in which dharma can 
be so embodied must triumph and so must its dharma. Hence I 
wish that every servant of the country should study Maganlal’s 
life and if it commends itself to him imitate it with determi- 
nation. What was possible for Maganlal is possible for every 



LBTTBR TO BATTS GHAKDRA DAS OUPTA 


281 


man who makes the effort. Maganlal could become a true leader 
because he was a true soldier and 1 find those who could put 
up with his fire weeping around me now. 

This country, as also the world, is in need of true soldiers. 
Service of the coimtry, service of the world, self-realization, vision 
of God — ^these are not separate things but difiEerent aspects of the 
same thing. Maganlal realized the truth of this in his own life and 
made others do so. Those who are curious can study his life and 
find this out. 

[From Gujarati] 

J^aoajivan, 29-4-1928 


334. LETTER TO KUJ^VERJI KHETSHI PAREKH 

Sunday [April 29, 192Sfy 

cm. KXJNVBSJI, 

I have your letter. I have never felt that you have taken up 
khadi work for the sake of money, and my question arose only 
firom yours. Will you always be able to live contented doing khadi 
work? You certainly know there is no financial gain in this. 
It provides plain bread. 1 assume firom your letter that you will 
not be able to live in the Ashram if a rule is adopted that only 
brakmaeharis can do so. Even in that case I believe there will be 
no problem in employing you in khadi work. 

Blessings fiom 
Bapu- 

From a photostat of the Giyarati: S.N. 9711 


335. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 

The Ashrau, 
Sabarmati, 
Apnl 29, 1928 

DEAR BATTS BABU, 

I have your letter. I have told you the way I want you to 
assist me. You ofiTer to come to the Ashram, and yet, at the end 
of your letter, you are obliged to say, “I am afraid for a long 


* From the postmark 



282 THE aOIXEOTED WORKS OF MAHATIfA OAMDHI 

time, I won’t be physically fit” No, your sadkana is to make your- 
self physically fit and, therefore, it is better for you to be where 
you are, and convalesce. I would even suggest your going to 
Giiidih and be at the side of Nikhil. 

The idea of burying yourself in a village in order to develop 
it makes a forcible appe^ to me. There, perhaps, you can rest 
your limbs better than anywhere else, if you have a clean water 
supply and if you will use a mosquito-net 

I have heard that you do not use milk. If this is true, it is 
bad. You won’t serve the cause by wearing away the body without 
cause. 

Love. 

Tours, 

Bapu 

From a photostat: G.N. 1591 


336. LETTER TO C. VIJATARAGHAVACHARIAR 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
April 29, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter of condolence. Grod’s will be done. 

As to the other part of your letter, what can 1 do in Bomr 
bay? I have no confidence in my ability to assist. My solution 
of the problem is so different from what is generally expected. I 
am more than ever convinced that the conununal problem should 
be solved outside of legitiation and if, in order to reach that 
state, there has to be a civil war, so be it. Who will listen to a 
proposal so mad as this? 

Tours sincorefyf 

SjT. G. Vq-AYARAGHAVAOHARIAR 
Kodaikanal 

From a photostat: S.N. 13207 



337. LETTER TO LAJPAT RAT 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
April 29, 1928 

DEAR LAIAJI, 

I have your characteristic letter. I am glad you had an ocu- 
lar demonstration of what form untouchability takes in the south. 
I wish you could h^ve been there longer to see the unapproach- 
ables and the invisibles face to face, and to talk to them. 

And in this connection let me tell you what an important part 
khadi is playing in reaching even the unapproachables and invisi- 
bles, because it is khadi that makes it possible to establish contacts 
which before were impossible or untibiinkable. However this is 
by the way and written not to influence you in favour of khadi 
tlnough a side issue. 

I am therefore glad that you are making a serious study of 
the subject. And 1 am glad, too, that you are determined not to 
come to any hasty decision. Whatever conclusions you may ulti- 
mately form, I would like you to feel about them as you feel 
about untouchability. No argument against untouchability from 
the so-called sanatana quarters or any quarter could possibly dis- 
lodge you from the position you hold. I would like you therefore 
to make a thorough study ci' the problem before coming to any 
conclusion whatsoever. 

I want you for khadi. I know what a gain it would be. But I 
do not want you as a patron on whose certificate 1 may trade. 1 
want you as a fellow-worker who will not be dislodged from his 
position and who would be working for the cause of khadi to the 
best of his ability. For the present, therefore, 1 would like you, 
after your study, to discuss the subject with me if you have any 
doubts before you commit yourself. By all means carry on corres- 
pondence with me or those who may be hostile to l^adi, but I 
would like you to promise that you will not commit yourself be- 
fore discussing with me the criticism that may appear to you to 
be convincing and unanswerable. Let me assure you that there 
are in the khadi movement people who have made a thorough 
study of the subject and who will leave khadi without a moment’s 
hesitation if they found that the premises on which they proceeded 
were insupportable. 



284 


THE aOIXEaXED WOBXS OF MAHATMA OAHDHI 


Yes, indeed, MaganlaPs death is the heaviest blow I could have 
received. But in the battle for freedom, we have little time to 
shed tears over the departure of the dearest. 

Tours sinetrsly. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13597 

338. LETTER TO RAVISHAJfKER MAHARAJ 

Silence Dcff, April 30, 1928 

BHAISHRl RAVISHANKER, 

You are fortunate. You are satisfied with whatever food you 
get, cold and heat make no difference to you, you cover yourself 
if you get some rags and now you are the first lucky one to go to 
jail. If God would permit an interchange and if you are generous, 
I would silrcly change places with you. Victory to you and the 
country! 

Blessings fiom 
Bapu 

From a copy of the Giyarati: C.W. 2935. Courtesy: Ravishanker Maharaj 

\ 

339. LETTER TO TARABEHN JASWANI 

Sabarmati, 

Monday [April 30, 192 

am. TARA, 

I have your letter. When I go for my daily walk, I think of 
you. Take great care of your health. Remain firm in all your 
vows. Write to me from time to time. 

You must have heard about Maganlal. 1 hope you get Jfavch 
jvoan regularly. 

Blessings to Ghi. Divali. 

I shall read your questions now and write to you about 
them in my next letter. 

Blessings Jim 

Bapu 

Cm. Tarabehn DmRAji.AL Jaswani 
G/ o Bhai Mobaklai. Khanderia 

WAintANER 

From a photostat of the Gujarati: G.N. 8780 
^From the postmark 



340. LETTER TO N. R. MALKANI 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
Maj 1, 1928 


MY DEAR MALEANI, 

I have your letter. I hope to write about mill-cloth in the 
next issue of Toung India.^ I am writing to Jairamdas now.^ 

I have now to try to deserve the legacy left by Maganlal. 

You will please tell me in good time whether you would 
want me to send Jaisukhlal after Mathuradas leaves. Having 
taken up flood relief work, I take it you will not in any way put 
it in jeopardy by taking an active part in any other thing how- 
ever attractive it may be. Remember the Bhagavad Gita verse; 

tRvifeaalRira. I 
^ II® 

Tom sitietnljf 
Bapu 


From a photostat: G.N. 886; also S.N. 13212 


341. LETTER TO S. RAMAJfATHAJf 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
M(^ 1, 1928 

MY DEAR RAMANATHAN, 

I have your letter about . ..*. I see your law is at fault. If 
you have no writing from . . . , I am sure that we cannot pay 
ourselves for any loss incurred owing to the negligence or firaud 
of workers, even though the latter may have furnished cash 
security. Do you not see that it is a dangerous doctrine ? If such 

> Vide "Mm-cloth v. Khadi’*, 10-5-1928. 

3 This letter is not available. 

3 III. 35. Better one’s own duty, bereft of merit, than another’s well- 
performed; better is death in the discharge of one’s duty; another’s duty is 
fraught with danger. 

* Name omitted 



^8^ tbb dOLLisatftb w6sks of kA&Aiiu OAMbMi 

■were the law, employees would be at the mercy of employers who 
would be judges and executioners combined. What may appear 
to an employer to be negligence or fraud, may not honestly 
appear to' be that to an employee and may not be such even in 
law. A well-ordered society, therefore, requires imequivocal 
written documents, if securities furnished by employees are to be 
appropriated for patent negligence or fraud. Whatever, therefore, 
you do about ... 1 suggest that you should take a written docu- 
ment from all the employees from whom you have taken securities. 

About . . . , 1 suggest that you state the facts that you may 
have in your possession in proof of his dishonesty, tell bim that 
you hold the security as guarantee for the damage sustained in 
accordance with the custom of the association and in accordance 
with the verbal agreement between him and yourself and offer 
to take bim to a court of law if he wishes or to submit it to 
arbitrators, one to be appointed by him and one by us. 

I promised to write to . . . after 1 had heard from you. I will 
await your answer before writing to him.* 

Yows sacmb>, 

Bapu 

SjT. S. Rakanathait 
Segkbtary, 

A. I. S. A., Taiou^ad 
Erode 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13593 


* A copy of this letter was sent to Secretary, A.I.S.A., Abmedabad, along 
with Bamanathan’s letter. 



342. LETTER TO DR. B. C. ROT 


The Ashram, 
SABARMA'n, 
May 1, 1928 

DEAR DR. BIDHAK, 

Your letter flatters me,* but I must not succumb to my pride. 
Apart from the fact that as a non-cooperator I may have nothing 
to do with the University that is in any way connected with Gov- 
ernment, I do not consider myself to be a fit and proper person 
to deliver Kamala lectures^. 1 do not possess the literary attain- 
ment which Sir Ashutosh undoubtedly contemplated for the 
lecturers. 

You are asking me to shoulder a responsibility which my 
shoulders cannot bear. I am keeping fairly fit. I am biding my 
time and you will find me leading the coimtry in the field of poli- 
tics when the country is ready. I have no false modesty about 
me. I am undoubtedly a politician in my own way, and 1 have 
a scheme for the country’s fireedom. But my time is not yet and 
may never come to me in this life. If it does not, I shall not shed 
a single tear. We are all in the hands of God. 1 therefore await 
His guidance. 

Tours sineersly. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13210 a 


343. SPEECH AT OPENING OF CRECHE, AHMEDABAD^ 

May 1, 1928 

Perhaps it is quite appropriate that this creche is being opened 
by one who calls hinaself a labourer, though let me confess to you 
that it was not without some hesitation that I accepted the invi- 
tation when it was brought to me by Sheth Kasturbhai, not 

*Dr. Roy had requested Gandhiji to deliver lectures at the Calcutta 
University. liie earlier lecturers were Annie Besaat, Srinivasa Sastii and 
Sarojini Naidu. 

2 Instituted by Ashutosh Mukheijee 

^Ktuturbhai Lalbhai, Agent, Raipur Manufacturing Company, had re- 
quested Gandhiji to perform the opening ceremony. 



Sdd TdB aOLLddT^D WORltS OF OAMDEb 

because I did not like the object, but because I was so preoccupied, 
and nothing would have pleased me better than that you should 
have got this function performed by someone more deserving 
than myself preferably a mill-owner. But my regard for Sheth 
Rasturbhai prevailed and I had to yield. 

When 1 established my Ashram in Ahmedabad the consider- 
ation which weighed with me was not merely that it was the capital 
of Gujarat, nor that it was a busy commercial centre but that it 
was a great centre of textile industry and I felt that I could 
reasonably count on the help of the mill-agents and be able to 
render some service to the city. Today I am glad to be able to 
say that these expectations of mine have not been altogether \m- 
fulfiUed. Though I have a recollection of some bitter experiences 
I have also a number of sweet recollections of my relations with the 
mill-owners. I have not yet given up hope of Ahmedabad. I stiU 
expect great things of it. It has much to accomplish yet, and 
gtnnn g other things, q)ealdng as a labourer myself, and as one 
who has tried to enter into the innermost feelings of the working class 
I say that Ahmedabad has much to do yet towards the 
amelioration of the condition of the labouring class. 

My connection with the labour of this place is not of yester- 
day. It is as old as my first coming to this city, and so I make bold 
to tell you that you have not yet done your part towards your 
labouring population. In some cases the labourers have not 
been provided with even the primary amenities of life. There are 
exceptions, however. Some mill-owners have made some effort in 
the direction, and the present one is an instance in point. 

The sentiments about the welfare of the mill-hands that Sheth 
Kasturbhai has just now uttered before you reflect credit on 
him and the city of Ahmedabad. Sheth Kasturbhai was delighted 
with Port Sunlight, and rightly. But Port Sunlight cannot be our 
ideal. Messrs Lever Bros, represent to my mind -the minimum 
standard that an employer must do for his employees. To do less 
would be a discredit. But we cannot afford to rest content with 
that. We must think in terms of oiir own civilization, and if the 
picture presented to us in the Mahahharata and the Ramayana of 
the social conditions prevailing in the ancient times be correct, 
our ideal would seem to go much farther than Port Sunlight. I 
have read a lot of literature about Port Sunlight, and I am an 
ardent admirer of their welfare work, but I maintain that ours is 
a higher ideal. In the West there is still a watertight division be- 
tween the employer and the employees. I know it is impertinent to 
talk of our ideal,- while the curse of untouchability still stalks 



IMtEOa At OtBlnKO OF OttSCBB, AfiUBDABAD 28d 

through the land. But I should be untrue to myself and be failing 
in my duty to you if I did not place before you what I regard as 
the highest ideal. The relation between mill-agents and mdl-hands 
ought to be one of father and duldren or as between blood- 
brothers. 1 have often heard the mill-owners of Ahmedabad refer 
to themselves as ‘masters’ and their employees as their ser- 
vants. Such loose talk should be out of fashion in a place like 
Ahmedabad which prides itself on its love of religion and love of 
ahimsa. For that attitude is a negation of ahimsa, inasmuch as 
our ideal demands that all our power, all our wealth and all our 
brains should be devoted solely to the welfare of those who 
through their own ignorance and our false notions of things are 
styled labourers or ‘servants’. What I expect of you therefore is 
that you should hold all your riches as a trust to be used solely 
in the interests of those who sweat for you, and to whose industry 
and labour you owe all your position and prosperity. I want you 
to make your labourers co-partners of your wealth. I do not mean 
to suggest that unless you legally bind yourselves to do all that, 
there ^ould be a labour insurrection. The only sanction that I 
can tfadnk of in this cormecdon is of mutual love and regard as be- 
tween father and son, not of law. If only you make it a rule to 
respect these mutual obligations of love, there would be an end 
to all labour disputes, the workers would no longer feel the need 
for organizing themselves into tmions. Under the ideal contem- 
plated by me, there would be nothing left for our Anasuyabehns and 
Shankerlals to do; their occupation would be gone. But that cannot 
happen until there is a single mill-hand who does not regard the 
mill in which he works as his own, who complains of sweating and 
overwork, and who therefore nurses in his breast nothing but ill 
will towards his employers. 

And where is the difficulty? 

You have told us and it is recognized everywhere that the 
mill-owners stand only to gain by doing all this. Messrs Lever 
Bros, lost nothing by doing all that they did. They felt so en- 
couraged that they even tried to create another Port Sunlight in 
Natal. As our experience gradually broadens we are beginning 
to see more and more clearly that the more we give to our workers 
the more we stand to gain. From the moment your men come 
to realize that the mills are theirs, no less than yours, they will 
begin to feel towards you as blood-brothers, there would be no 
question of their acting against the common interest and the need 
for having a heavy supervisory establishment over them. 
XXXVI-19 



290 ■nta aoLLboraD woftiu oir >iA£tATktA 6AMi>at 

You have given me credit for keeping the city of Ahmeda- 
bad free from a labour upheaval such as Bombay is at present 
pnaaing thtough. WcU, 1 cannot quite disclaim that credit, for 
does anyone among you for a moment doubt that things would 
have been otherwise here, but for the work that Shrimati Anasuya- 
behn and Sjt. Shankerlal have been doing? It is true perhaps that 
you the miU-owners of Ahtnedabad are more tactfol than the 
Bombay mill-owners. In case of an upheaval you do not employ 
hooligans to crush your men as some employers in the West do, 
and I fancy that you have deliberately abjured that weapon of 
suppressing the aspirations of labour. My critics teU me that 
this is all moonshine, and that you would not hesitate to resort 
to such means, if you covid. But I believe that they are mistaken 
and I want you to prove by your conduct thait they are mistaken. I 
hope you will help to bring near the time when the sort of work 
that Sjt. Banker and Shrimati Anasuyabehn are doing would be 
rendered needless, and pending that consummation give them all 
the help, all the' encouragement that they need in their work. 

IMow perhaps you understand why I have dared to appropriate 
a little credit for the peace that prevails here today. It belongs 
not to me but to Shrimati Anasuyabehn and Sjt. Shankerlal Banker. 
They live, move and have their being among the labourers, which 
I am imable to do. If you aid the efforts of these friends you 
win find there will not be much need left for erecting creches like 
this one or for providing medical relief. I do not wish to detract 
fix>m the merit of these efforts of yours, but I ask you whether 
any well-to-do man would care to send his children to a creche 
like this. Our endeavour should be to bring about a state of things 
under which there would be no occasion for a mUl-hand’s baby to 
be tom from its mother, and when a factory hand’s child would 
receive the same opportunities for education that our own chil- 
dren have. 

Young India, 10-5-1928 



344. LETTER TO ABBAS TYABJI 

Satyaoilaha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 2, 1928 

MY DEAR BHRRR, 

You were right in your surmise about absence of any letter 
from me.i Gk>d is great and good and even merciful. 

I am following the events in Bardoli. Every word of what you 
say is well deserved by Vallabhbhai. Don’t flatter yourself with the 
belief that if the GSovemment invite you as their guest, they will 
house you at Sabarmati. The Ashram is too near for the Sabarmati 
guest house.2 

Tours sincsnly, 

M. K. Gandhi 

From a photostat: S.N. 9563 


345. JfECESSITT OF DISCIPUNE 

Some workers in the Khadi Service write 

Here there is an obvious confusion of ideals. Distorted notions 
of superiority and inferiority have given rise to indiscipline in al- 
most all the national organizations. Many people think that to abo- 
lish distinctions of rank means passport to anarchy and licence. 
Whereas the meaning of abolition of distinctions [^ould be per- 
fect discipline, — ^perfect because of voluntary obedience to the laws 
of the organization to which we may belong, i.e., the laws of our 
being. For man is himself a wonderful organization and what ap- 
plies to him applies to the social or political organizations of whi^ 
he may be a member. And even as though the different members 
of the body are not inferior to any, they are voluntarily subject 

1 Following the death of Maganlal Gandhi, Oandhiji had not sent any 
letter to the addressee. 

3 Abbas Tyabji who was at the time assisting Vallabhbhai Patel in the 
Bardoli struggle had, while giving an account of the arrest and trial of Ravi- 
shanker, mentioned the possibility of his own arrest. 

3 The letter is not reprodu^ here. The workers had complained that 
though they were required to attend Khadi OfiSce punctually the Secretary 
himsdf was not punctual. They had asked: ", . . Why should this inferiority 
and superiority prevail among workers in the same field?” 



292 TttB aotUtdt&D Woiiss 6t iiMiKtttA. aANbdi 

to the control of the mind, whilst the body is in a healthy state, so 
have the members of an organization, whilst none is superior or 
inferior to any other, to be voluntarily subject to the mind of the 
organization which is the head. An organization which has no 
directing mind or which has no members co-operating with the 
mind suffers from paralysis and is in a dying condition. 

The correspondents who have signed the letter I have repro- 
duced do not realize that if they do not accept the elementary 
discipline involved in giving regular attendance, that Khadi Office 
of which they are members cannot work profitably to its purpose, 
i.e., service of Daridranarayana. Let them realize that the voluntary 
discipline of a khadi office should be much stricter than the com- 
pulsory discipline of a Government office. If the chief of the Khadi 
Office concerned does not attend always in time, it is highly likely 
that he is engaged in khadi work even when he is not at his office. 
For whilst the staff has fairly regular hours the chief has no hours 
of recreation. If he is honest and realizes the responsibilities of his 
high office, he has to work day and night in order to make khadi 
what it should be. It is one thing to come into a going concern, 
totally another to enter a newly-formed organization intended to 
be the largest of its kind in the world. Such an organization re- 
quires the vigilant, intelligent and honest watch not of one worker 
but of thousands. These workers have to come into being by 
belonging to the existing organizations and imposing on themselves 
the hardest disdpHne of which they may be capable. 

Touag India, 3-5-1928 


346. THAJfKS 

Friends firom far and near have overwhelmed me with 
their kind messages in what has been to me the greatest trial of 
my life. It was foolish of me but it is nevertheless true that I had 
never contemplated Maganlal Gandhi’s death before mine. The 
cables, telegrams and letters I have received from individuals, 
associations and Congress Committees have been a great solace to 
me. The senders will forgive me for not making personal adcnow- 
ledgments. I assure them all that I shall try to become worthy 
of the affection they have bestowed upon me and of the silent devo- 
tion with whidi Maganlal Gandhi served the ideals he held in 
common with me. 


Tout^ India, 3-5- 1928 


M. K. G. 



347. LETTER TO VIRUMAL HEGRAJ 

The Abhram, 
Sabarhati, 
Map 4, 1928 

DEAR FRJEND, 

I have your letter. You do not want me to answer your 
questions as a lawyer; for my law may not be accepted. But as a 
layman, it seems to me that neither the Bava nor his widow nor 
the Brahmin in the other case have any right to the properties men- 
tioned by you and held under the circumstances described by 
you. 

Tours sinetniy, 

SjT. ViRUMAL HeGRAJ 
“Snrom” OBnoB 
SuEKUR 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13214 


348. LETTER TO P. T. PILLAT 


Tee Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Map 4, 1928 

DHAiK. FBXBiI'QnD). 

I do not consider the burning of Manusnuiti to be on a par 
with the burning of foreign cloth. Burning of foreign cloth is 
like burning a thing that is injurious; but the burning of Mam- 
smriti is at best like the burning of an advertisement for foreign 
doth showing nothing but childish rage. Moreover, I do not 
regard MaaumriH as an evil. It contains much that is admirable, 
but in its present form it undoubtedly contains many things that 
are bad and these appear to be interpolations. Whilst a reformer 
would therefore treasure all excellent things in that andent code, 
he would expurgate all that is injurious or of doubtful value. 

If we are to attain swaraj by effort from within, 1 do consider 
removal of untouchability like adiieving Hindu-Mu^m miity as a 
condition precedent to the attaimnent of swaraj. But when the 
English rulers resist the demand for swaraj because we have not 



294 THE GOIXEGTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI 

attained fully removal of imtouchability, I rgeard their resistance 
as hypocritical and illegitimate. 

Tours smeertly, 

SjT. P. Tirukootasxjndaram Pillay 

SiNDOTPONDURAI 

Tinnevelly 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13211 


349. LETTER TO L CRANNA 


[May 4, 192 Sy 

The reference to me in the last paragraph of your letter, I 
am grieved to say, is a fabrication from beginning to end.^ I 
should be sorry to learn that the Dean of Bristol had indeed spoken 
as reported. 

L. Granna, Esq,. 

G/o Y.M.G.A. 

Singapore 

From a photostat: S.N. 14345 


*This was an enclosure to “Letter to L. Granna”, 13-7-1928; vide Vol. 
XXXVII. The addressee in his letter of May 18 had referred to it as of this 
date. 

^Granna had earlier sent Gandhiji a letter addressed to “Sustaining 
Members” enclosing a cutting from Central Christian Advocate^ which read: 

“ ‘A fiiend of mine,* said the Dean of Bristol, lately, ‘told me recently a 
striking story of Mr. Gandhi. After one of his foreign tours as a champion 
of Indian interests, he was received by a tremendous meeting of people in 
Calcutta. He was the popular hero of the day and the place was crowded 
with, I think, 15,000 Bengalees who had come to welcome him. My friend was 
the one Englishman present For three hours the orators of Bengal spoke in 
praise of themselves and Mr. Gandhi: and then came the great moment, when 
Mr. Gandhi rose and all this vast assembly settled themselves on their haunches 
waiting for their great orator to speak. His speech consisted of one sentence, 
and one sentence only: ‘The man to whom I owe moat and to whom all India 
owes most is a man who never set his foot in India — and that was Christ,* 
And then he sat down.* ** 

Granna had asked: “Has this your confirmation?** 



350. LETTER TO HARIBHAU UPADHTATA 


Vaisakha 15, May 4, 1928 

BRAI BAXSSBAXJ, 

I shall see Punjabhai with regard to Raichandbhai’s writings. 
Yes, do translate Mr. Gregg’s book* into Hindi. There is little 
hope of getting any funds from Gharkha Sangh in this connection. 
The article on khadi in C.P. will appear in Naoajivan. I shall 
try to give a synopsis in Tota^ India.^ 

Blessings fiom 
Bapu 

Shri Hasibhau 
Khapi Karyaiaya 
Ajmer 

From Hindi: Q.W. 6059. Gourteay: Haribhnu Upadhyaya 


351. INDULGENCE IN THE NAME OF DEVOTION 

Thanks to Shri Jaydayalji Goenka, an attempt is nowadays 
being made to create a spirit of devotion in the Marwari society. 
With this object in view hJuijan. groups have been formed and 
bhegan bhaeans^ are also being run. One such bhavan called Govind 
Bhavan has been started in Calcutta. At Shri Jaydayalji’s instance, 
a certain gentleman was put in charge of it. He indulged in 
debauchery in the name of devotion. He accepted puja from 
women; women regarded him as God and worshipped him; he 
gave them his lefr-overs to eat and debauched them. The simple- 
hearted women believed that having physical relations with one who 
had attained self-realization could not be regarded as sinful. 

Although the incident is painful, it does not surprise me. AU 
around us we frnd people who gratify their lust under the guise of 
devotion. And so long as the essence of devotion is not under^ 
stood, is it surprising that robberies are committed in the name of 

^Economies (if Khaidar 

2 An article by Mahadev Daai appeared in Hindi Nanofijm, 10-5-1928, 
and a summary by Haribbau Upadhyaya in Tomg India, 9-8-1928, under the 
tide "Khadi in Gratral India". 

^ Institutions for bhegans 



296 


THE aOLLEOTED WORKS OF MAHATUA GANDHI 


religion? It would be surprising if false devotees did not bring 
evil. 

I am a votary of Ramanama and the dwadashamanira but my 
worship is not blind. For anyone who is truthful, Ramanama 
is like a ship. But I do not believe that anyone who repeats 
Ramanama hypocritically is saved by it. Instances are cited of 
Ajamil and others; they are poetical creations and even there there 
is a hidden meaning. Purity of sentiments has been attributed to 
them. Anyone believing that Ramanama would cahn his passions 
is rewarded by repeating it and is saved. The hypocrite repeating 
Ramanama in pursuit of his passions is not saved but is doomed — 

“A person will meet the fate conforming with his sentiment.’* 

Devotees should bear two things in mind: 

One, that devotion does not merely consist in repeating the 
name but also in sacrificial activity that must constantly go with it. 
There is a belief nowadays that worldly activities have no connec- 
tion with dharma or devotion. This is untrue. The truth is that all 
activities in this world are related to dharma or adharma. The 
carpenter who practises his trade merely in order to earn a living, 
steals wood and spoils his work is guilty of adharma. Another practi- 
ses his trade for the good of others, say, for making a bed for a sick 
person, does not commit any theft and works to the best of his 
abilities and repeats Ramanama while working. This constitutes 
work done in pursuit of dharma. This carpenter is a true devotee 
of Rama. A third carpenter, whether deliberately or through igno- 
rance, gives up his trade in order to repeat Ramanama, begs for 
hitns^ and his children, and if asked to make something for a 
sick person says: “For me there is only Rama. I would know no 
sick man and no happy man.” This carpenter is a degraded crea- 
ture fiiUen into the well of ignorance. 

Man does not pray to God through speech alone but through 
thought, word and deed. If any one of these three aspects is miss- 
ing, there is no devotion. A furion of these three is like a chemi- 
cal compound. In the case of the latter, if a single ingredient 
is not present in its proper proportion, the expected result does 
not follow. The devotees of today appear to think that the limits 
of devotion are reached in the use of beautiful language and hence 
ceasing to be devotees become mere rakes and corrupt others too. 

In the second place, how and where should man, who has a 
physical fisrm, won^p God? He is omnipresent. Hence the best 
and most understandable place where He can be worshipped is 
a living creature. The service of the distressed, the crippled and 
the helpless among living things constitutes worship of God. The 



LETTER TO IIAIOLAL AND 8USHILA OAMDHI 


297 


repetition of Ramanama is also meant to help us leam to do so. 
If Ramanama does not thus result in service, it is both futile and a 
sort of bondage, as if proved in the case of the man in Govind 
Bhavan. Let this instance serve as a warning to all devotees. 

Now a few words to the women. The man who makes others 
worship him necessarily becomes depraved; but why should the 
women become so? If they must worship human beings, why 
should they not worship an ideal woman ? Moreover, why worship 
any living being? The saying of the learned Solon is worthy of 
being carved in one’s heart — “No man can be called good while 
he is alive.”* Those who were good one day have become wicked 
the following day. Moreover, we cannot even spot hypocrites. 
Hence Gk)d alone should be worshipped. If a human being has to 
be worshipped he should be worthipped only after his death. 
This is so because after his death we worship only his virtues, not his 
physical form. It is necessary that men repeatedly, insistently and 
courteously point this out to our gullible sisters. 

[From Gujarati] 

Naoajivan, 6-5-1928 


352. LETTER TO MANILAL AND SUSHILA 
GANDHI 


Silence Day, May 7, 1928 

QHI. MANUAL AND SUSHILA, 

What shall I write to you this time ? There has been no change 
at all in my routine work, nor do I think constantly about any 
particular matter, and yet I feel that a change has come over my 
life these days. Imperceptibly and involuntarily, a struggle is going 
on within me. Maganld’s soul rules over my heart. The thought 
of his death fills me with a kind of happiness. Ba, I and all of 
us had always believed that I would die first. Had it happened 
so, I feel, as I see the unmanageable growth of our activities, ^at he 
would have been crushed by their weight. We are all thinking 
how to limit them. I do not know if any of us will be able to cope 
with the work. But I put my trust in God. He who has steered 
the ship so far will steer it in future too. No matter if Maganlal 


*The saying attributed to Solon, however, is: “Gall no man happy till 
he be dead.” 



the OOLLEOTED WORES of HAHA.TUA OAITOHI 


29.8 

has died or others die. All of us will die but the truth which we 
have thought and lived will never die. 

I don’t think I can write to the others today. 

Blusings from 

Bapu 

From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.N. 4737 

353, LETTER TO MIRABEHN 

May 7, 1928 

CQECIa 

I have your letter. I hope you are properly fixed up now. 
Anyway you will insist on finding for yourself the comfort your 
health may demand. 

I have carefully gone through the revised translation. It is 
very good. 

You should occasionally go to VaUabhbhai’s meetings if he 
desires. 

Love. 

Bafit 

PS. 

Surendra took charge of the tannery yesterday. 

Shsi Mirabehn 
Swaraj Ashram 
Bardou 
Via Surat 

From the original: G.W. 5301. Qourtesy: Mirabdm 


354. LETTER TO BRIJKRISHNA CHANDIWALA 

May 7, 1928 

OHI. BRIJKRISHNA, 

Your letter. Hip-baths should not be given up. Yes, do go 
to Ahnora. Stick to the same diet as in Delhi, but there is no 
harm in eating more if you have the appetite. 

Blitsings firm 

Bapu 

From a photostat of the Hindi: G.N. 2357 



355, LETTER TO MOTILAL MHRU 


The Ashram, 
Sababmati, 
May 8, 1928 

DEAR MOtXLAlJI, 

I have your letter. As I have no power in me to resist 
you, I have sent you just now a wire* saying I would be in 
Bombay as desired by you. But as I have said in my wire, I 
have really no confidence in myself to render active service at 
the present moment. My views are like that of a mad man. Here, 
MaganlaPs death has cast upon me a tremendous burden; but it 
is a task which pleases me and which, if I can consolidate, is 
likely to be of great service to the country if not now certainly in 
the near future. And to tear myself away from that work even for 
a day in the vain hope of doing something in Bombay is not a 
pleasant contemplation. But unless you countermand your orders, 
you will fibad me in Bombay on 16th.* 

If none of these big political bodies which you mention 
want a constitution for swaraj, what can we do? We won’t be 
able to force the situation; for we have not the ability to carry 
things by storm. 

I have no faith in a legislative solution of the communal ques- 
tion. And who will listen to my drastic views on almost every matter ? 
But apart from my views, will it be good statesmanship to have 
the meeting in Bombay unless we can be sure of a representative 
attendance? It might be as well to ascertain beforehand whe- 
ther those whom we would like to attend the meeting would do 
so or not, and, in the event of negative replies, to convene a meeting 
of the Working Committee only to decide upon the futiire pro- 
gramme. I throw out this suggestion for what it is worth. As I 

^This is not available. 

* In his letter of May 3, Motilal Ndiru had written: "Dr. Ansari has 
imtructed Jawahar to call a meeting of the Working Committee on the 16th 
May. ... It will be for the Working Committee to go thoroughly into the 
various aspects of the situation and fully make up its mind as to what is in 
the best interest of the country to do at the present moment When we have 
so made up our minds we can press our views on the all-Parties or some- 
Parties Conference whatever it is going to be with confidence bom of convic- 
tion. ... I simply want you to be in Bombay, while these meetings are being 
held, to be accessible to those who might wish to consult you." 


300 TEB aOLLBQTED WORKS OF MAHAIMA CUVKDHI 

am not aa faxt with the full situation, I know that my opinion 
should not carry much weight. You must be the sole judge. 

Of Twilla when we meet. 

Toan tinetr^. 

Pandit Motilaz. Nbhru 
Anand Bbavan 
Allahabad 

From'a photostat: S.N. 13218 


356, LETTER TO MIRABEHN 


[Maj» 5, iP25]‘ 

CEBDC* l i t Aj ^ 

Your letter. Never mind the cold bath if you took all the 
precautions after. The bath in the circumstances you men- 
tioned was almost inevitable. In futitre it is better to remember 
tbat a sponge in such circumstances is better. Tell Pyarelal to 
write to me. Ghhotelal has taken up his work. 

Bajpu 

From the original: G.W. 5302. Courtesy: Mirabehn 


357. MILLCLOTH v. KHADl 
A friend writes in eflTect: 

Several Gongresamen are nowadays advocating the use of indige- 
nous mill-cloth side by side with khadi. There is a movement to give 
mill-cloth a place in Congress khadi shops. Will you not give your clear 
opinion on this point? I know what it is but all Congress workers do 
not. They would like to have your guidance especially in view of your 
recent articles on the part the indigenous mills may play in the boycott 
movement. 

The Congress resolutions on khadi are unequivocal. For those 
therefore who wish to respect them there is no course open but 
to avoid the use of cloth manufactured in our mills. But in these 
days of growing anarchy, it is idle to quote Congress resolutions 
either to support or to oppose particular conduct on the part of 
Congressmen. 


1 From the postmark 



mIll-oIoM p. kHAin 


Soi 


Let us therefore re-examine the question of Congressmen 
optionally using indigenous mill-cloth . in the place of foreign 
cloth, or hawing such mill-cloth. We know foe experience of 
Bengal. The swadeshi movement of Bengal during foe partition 
days suffered a check because of foe greed and dishonesty of mill- 
owners. They inflated prices and even sold foreign cloth in foe 
name of swadeshi. There is no warrant for foe belief that they 
would behave better on this occasion. Indeed foe facts about spu- 
rious khadi that 1 have brought to light show that foe mills will 
not be slow to exploit foe swadeshi spirit for their own benefit as 
opposed to the larger benefit of foe consumer. 

But even if the mills were to play foe game, Congressmen will 
not need to use mill-clofo or to advertise it The mills playing 
foe game means their advertising and selling khadi, their assiinila- 
tion of the khadi spirit, their recognition of foe predominance of 
khadi over mill-clofo. 

It must be definitely realized that mills alone, even if they 
wished, cannot in our generation displace foreign cloth. There- 
fore there must be in foe country an agency that would devote 
its attention, so far as boycott of foreign cloth is concerned, exclu- 
sively to khadi propaganda. That agency has been foe Con- 
gress since 1920. Khadi production and khadi propaganda act at 
once as a check upon foe g^eed of mil l s and also, strange as it 
may appear, as an indirect but very effective encouragement to 
TTiilla in their struggle against foreign competition. Exclusive devo- 
tion to khadi on the part of Congressmen enables khadi to find 
a foothold and enables mills efiectively to carry on their opera- 
tions where foe Congress has as yet no influence worth foe name. 
Hence it is that the millH have never resented foe khadi propaganda. 
On foe contrary many of their agents have assured me foat they 
have benefited by foe khadi propaganda inasmuch as it has created 
an anti-foreign-clofo atmosphere enabling them to sell their compa- 
ratively coarser-count cloth. Stop exclusive khadi propaganda, 
play with mill-cbfo and you kiU khadi and in foe long run you 
kill even miU-doth, for it cannot by itself stand foreign compe- 
tition. In a competition between indigenous and foreign mills 
foe one disturbing foctor of healthy mass sentiment will be 
wholly wanting, if there was no khadi spirit 

Last but not least foe inestimable value of khadi consists in 
its capacity for tremendous mass education, mass uplifi; and sub- 
stantial relief of growing starvation. Whereas mill-clofo affords no 
work and no financial help to the masses, every yard of khadi 
mwana so much work and money to foe masses who are being 



SoS rait GoixtooiltD WosxS 6f kA^*niA oan1>Bi 

doubly ruined for want of work and wages. Therefore for every 
patriotic lover of the country there is no escape from exclusive use 
of and propaganda of khadi. 

Toung Indian 10-5-1928 


358. MORE OF MIU^OWNERS' GREED 

The figures I gave the other day of spurious khadi manu&c- 
tured by our mills were for nine months only.* I have now ob- 
tained diem for ten months. Here are the magic figures: 

Figurts of the Production of Khadi, Dungri or Khaddar for Ten 
Months, April to Jamary: 

1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 

Lb. 2,58,22,442 3,11,95,169 3,70,36,206 

Yards 7,32,44,238 8,54,31,611 10,30,61,072 

This diows that they manufactured one crore yards per month, 
meaning at least 20 lakhs of rupees worth of l^adi per month. 
This means a year’s output of genuine khadi. This is taking money 
directly out of the mouths of the poor people through a move- 
ment that was designed for helping the starving millions. Base- 
ness could go no fiirther. The mill-owners could have served the 
country if they had made common cause with khadi and helped 
it direcdy instead of trying to kill it by unfair and dishonest compe- 
tition. Their action is on a par with that of merchants who sell 
to a gullible public artificial ghee claiming it as genuine product. 
Like the Government they have traded on the ignorance of the peo- 
ple and like all their predecessors in kind they will find, if they do 
not retrace their steps, that they played the trick once too <^fien. 
It is possible to fool some people for all times but it is not possible 
to fool all the people all the time. It should not be necessary for 
capital to be dishonest for its growth. 

Xom^ India, 10-5-1928 


* Vide “A Mill-owner on Boycott”, 5-4-1928. 



359. DEADir MARCH OF CmnZATION {?) 

‘•Although at the time of writbg (1917) foreign doths are being 
imported to a certain extent into the Shan States^ it is the custom for 
all Shan women to weave cbth for their own garments and those of their 
families. . - . The cotton from which the cloths are made is grown locally 
and prepared by the women. ... In Shan villages nearly every house has 
a loom made sometimes of bamboo^ sometimes of heavy wood, and 
generally kept on the ground in the open space beneath the living rooms. 
The raw cotton is prepared by drying the balls in the sun, extracting 
the seeds by passing them through the usual small two-roller gin and 
then opening it out by catching the partly cleaned cotton up from the 
revolving basket in which it is placed, by means of an instrument shaped 
the bow of a violoncello. After the cotton fibres have been separated 
in this way they are made into slivers and wound round a stick about 
8 in. long and \ in. thick, from which the cotton is converted into thread 
by a fbrm of spinning jenny.” From BumssB TexHU from the Shan and 
Oachin Dt, . . . Notes from Bankfield Museum, by Laura E. Start 
1917. 

But for the hypnotic spell under which the intoxicating edu- 
cation of our times drives us to live, we would consider it a sacrilege 
to deprive people of their own existing honourable occupation in 
the distant, vague and often vain hope of bettering their fleeting 
material condition. If civilization means change of form merely 
without regard to substance it is an article of doubtful value. And 
yet that is what the foregoing paragraph sent by Sjt. Balaji Rao 
means. Under the guise of the civiUzing influence of commerce 
the irmocent people of Burma are being impoverished and reduced 
to the condition of cattle. As Sjt. Madhusudan Das has pointed 
out, people who merely work with cattle and forget the cunning of 
the hand by giving up handicrafts are impoverished not only m 
body but also in mind. 

Toung India^ 10-5-1928 



360. LETTER TO BEHRAMJI KHAMBHATTA 

May 10, 1928 

BHAISHRI EHAMBBATTA, 

I have your letter. I have already written to you in reply 
to your telegram. Do not grieve about your son Jd. His soul 
is immortal. It was, moreover, a highly advanced soul and, there- 
fore, you may be sure he is happy wherever he is now. If we suffer 
it is because of our selfish attachment to transitory things. Improve 
your health if you can. I do not know anyone connected with 
Kuhne. If you find his place, he will do for you what he does 
for others. You can of course make use of my ordinary letters. 

To both of you, 

Blessings from 
Bapu 

From a photostat of the Gidaniti: G.N. 7540 


361. LETTER TO MRS. E. BJEBRUM 

The Asedram, 
Sabasuati, 
May 11, 1928^ 

I must try to answer your questions today. 

What you say about prayer at the Ashram is largely true. 
It is still a formal thing, soulless; but I continue it in the hope of it 
becoming a soulful thing. Human nature is much the same whether 
in the East or in the West. It does not therefore surprise me 
that you have not found anything special about prayers in the 
East and probably the Ashram prayer is a hotchpot of something 
Eastern and something Western. As 1 have no prejudice against 
taking anything good firom the West or against giving up anything 
bad in the East, there is an imconscious blending of the two. For 
a congregational life a congregational prayer is a necessity and, 
therefore, form also is necessary. It need not be considered on that 
account to be hypocritical or harmful. If the leader at such 

1 It appean the letter was dictated on May 10 and dispatched the next 
day after revision. 



305 


LliirffiR TO 11R3. B. BJBKRUU 

congregational prayer meetings is a good nuin the general level 
of the meeting is also good. The spiritual effect of an honest 
intelligent attendance at such congregational prayers is un- 
doubtedly great. Congregational prayer is not intended to sup- 
plant iudividual prayer, which, as you well put it, must be heart- 
felt and never formal. It is there you are in tune with the 
Infinite. Congregational prayer is an aid to being in tune with the 
Infinite. For man who is a social being cannot find Gk)d unless he 
discharges social obligations and the obligation of coming to a 
common prayer meeting is perhaps the supremest. It is a cleans- 
ing process for the whole congregation. But, like aU human 
institutions, if one does not take care, such meetings do become 
formal and even hypocritical. One has to devise methods of avoid- 
ing the formality and hypocrisy. In all, especially in spiritual 
matters, it is the personal equation that counts in the end. 

The roU call is not the ordinary roll call. It is a note of the 
results of the daily yajna, that is, sacrifice. Everyone says what 
he has spun. Spinning has been conceived in a sacrificial spirit. The 
idea is to see God through service of the millions. The day must 
not close without every member of the congregation confessing 
whether he or she has or has not performed the daily sacrifice to 
the measure of his or her promise. It is therefore not busmess 
at the end of the prayer, but it is the finishing touch to the pra- 
yer. It is not done at the beginning of the meeting, because those 
who are late should have the opportunity of registering their sacri- 
fice. Remember, too, this is a sacrifice not intended to be made 
in secret. It is designed to be done in the open. 

In my opinion, Christianity or the message of Jesus is a res- 
ponse to the human want even as are the messages of Ehishna, 
Buddha, Muhammad and Zoroaster. Though they were designed 
and delivered at different places and at different times, they 
have also a universal value. According to the needs of the time 
one message puts more emphasis on one thing than upon an- 
other. A man of religion will not hesitate to profit by all these 
messages and according to his predilection derive more comfort 
firom one than firom another. 

I do believe that real art consists in seeing tbe hidden beauty 
of moral acts and effects and, therefore, much that passes for art 
and beauty is, perhaps, neither art nor beauty. 

I thii^ I have now answered all yomr questions. You will 
please remind me if I have missed any and you will not hesi- 
tate to write to me ag^ain if I am anywhere obscure or uncon- 
sciously evasive. 

XXXVI-20 



306 


the aOLLEOTED WOKES OF MAHATICA. GANDHI 


My love to both of you.* 

Tours siaetrdy, 

Mbs. £. Bjerkum 

Untied Theolooioai. College 

Bangalore 

From a photostat: S.N. 13221 and 15365 


362. LETTER TO MART J. CAMPBELL 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
M(& lU 1928 

DBAS. JffiRIENnDj 

I have your kind letter for which I thank you. 

The only message I can think of sending to the World Con- 
vention of Temperance Women is that the sisters assembled should 
study the facts about every country in which temperance move- 
ment is being carried on by them and then and not till then 
may they expect a proper solution. For I find that many move- 
ments of reform lack this very simple foundation of facts. I take 
India by way of illustration. Very few temperance societies real- 
ize that total prohibition in India is impeded not by the people 
but the policy of the existing Government. 

I thank you for your sympathy in my loss and reciprocate your 
wish that we may some day meet. 

Tours situsrtly. 

Miss Mary J. Campbell 
Dblhi 

From a photostat: S.N. 13220 


1 Vide also Vol. XXXIV, pp. 163-4. 



363, LETTER TO S. GAJfESAJ^ 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
Map 11, 1928 

MV DEAR OANESAN, 

I am asking the Manager, Young India, to supply you with the 
list you require if he has not any objection. 

I see no objection to your turning the concern into a limited 
company if you can find sufBcient fiiends to support you. I 
cannot reconcile myself to your getting a loan carrying a big 
interest. 

What I mean by offering to take Mr. Gregg’s book off your 
shoulders was that if it would be of any help to you 1 might 
try to have the books bought out. 

Tows sincerely, 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13221 a 

364. LETTER TO AJIJfE MARIE PETERSEN 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Map 11, 1928 

MV DEAR PETERSEN, 

1 was glad to have yoirr letter. I know that if you did not 
write it is not fbr want of affection but it is because of affection. I 
have you often in my thoughts. 

Yes, Maganlal’s death is a heavy blow, if I am to consider this 
to be a Godless universe and we a purposeless creation; but when 
I realize that the hand of God is in everything, the grief itself 
turns to joy and gives me zest for greater service, greater dedication. 

Tom skconly. 

Miss Marie Petersen 
. Kodajeanal 

From a microfilm: SJNf. 13222 



365. LETTER TO S. N. MITRA 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 11, 1928 

DEAR VRIEin), 

I have your letter. The only tiling I can advise the students 
to do is that they should at least boldly adopt khadi and spin- 
ning irrespective of cost and consequences if they would at all 
identify tlicmselves with the poorest at whose expense they are 
being taught in Government colleges and schools. 

Tom sinmofy, 

SjT. Saqhindra Nath Mitra 
5/2 ICahtapukur Lane 
Baobazar 

CALatJTTA 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13600 


366. LETTER TO DEVCHAND PAREKH 

Mq)> 11, 1928 

BHAX SBVaHANDBHAI, 

Bhai Bhagwanji was here and he told me that it would be 
better if an arbitrator is appointed to settle tlie dispute between 
Revashanker and Manasukhbhai’s wife. He suggests Krishnalal 
jhaveri’s name for the purpose, but will accept any other name 
which you may propose. I am sure you will agree to this propo- 
sal. 


From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.N. 5699 


VandtmUtram from 

Bapu 



367. LETTER TO MIRABEHJf 


May 11, 1928 

QHI. MIRA, 

I am glad your fever has left you. You must be strong and 
send me your weight. You are there under VaUabhbhai’s juris- 
diction. If he wants you, you may stay on and take part in the 
struggle to the extent desired by Mm. You may come whenever 
you like to fetch your things if you are to stay there beyond 
your programme as originally mapped. 

Love. 

Bapu 

From the original: Q.W.5303. Courtesy: Mirabdm 


368. LETTER TO T. B. KESHAVARAO 

Thx Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Mq^ 12, 1928 

DEAR ERJQSNDj 

I have your letter. Nothing would please me better than to 
dot India with model dairies and model tanneries after my con- 
viction; but unfortunately I have not been able to convert even 
the existing cow societies to my view. In spite of repeated 
letters to them individually, they have not responded even to the 
^ent of supplying the Secretary with the information wanted. 

The monetary help received also is not much, as you can 
notice from Touag India. The substantial help received has been 
from personal friends only, not ftom the general public. Every 
donation and yam contribution is published periodically in the 
pages of Toung India. Both Ihe tannery and the go^ala in the 
Ashram are partly helped by the funds collected. 

I think this deals with all your questions. 

Tom smeardy, 

SjT. T. B. ILeshavarao 

Pbakedaya Gnyanaprasaraka Sanoha 

Davangbrb, Mysore State 

. From a microfilm: S.N. 13223; alao G.N. 161 



369. , LETTER TO NIRANJAN SINGH^ 


May 12, 1928 

DEAR ERJEin), 

I have your letter. There is no objection to your publishing a 
Punjabi translation of “My Experiments with T^ruth" as long as 
thing is omitted from the book< 

Tours, 

M. K. Gaiidhi 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13215 


370. LETTER TO MOTJLAL NEHRU 

Ti ri l i ASwkAM^ 

Sabarmati, 
Mof 12, 1928 

DEAR MOTILALJI, 

As every day spent at the Ashram just now is precious to me, 
I propose to be in Bombay not on the 16th but the 17th instant. 
Jawahar expects me to be in Bombay not earlier. You yourself 
tell me in your wire that you will be in Bombay in the afternoon 
of the 16th. Unless therefore you want me in Bombay on the 
16th, I propose to reach there on the 17th, that is, if you do not 
absolve me finm the obligation altogether. 

Tom simtrely, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13224 


^ The addressee was Proiessor of dhemistry, Bihalsa QoUege, Aniritsar< 



371. LETTER TO SHAJfKARAN 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 17, 1928 

MY DEAR SHANKARAN, 

I have your letter. I am glad you have written. But you are 
mistaken. I do not want to turn all into Maganlals. That would 
be an impossible task. But 1 am trying to put the A^am on 
a basis such that it becomes easy of management. If we have a 
common kitchen, it should be common to all, should it not? 
But there too I shall be doing nothing without the consent of the 
general body of the people. In any case under the present consti- 
tution I can do nothing except through the Managing Board in 
which I have no voice officially. That everybody still listens to me is 
of course true. I wish you were here whilst these changes are be- 
ing made. But you are on duty. That is as good as being here. 

I cannot send you to Bardoli unless 1 can replace you, which 
it is not possible to do just now. 

Bapu 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13225 


372. LETTER TO LAJPAT RAJ 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
12, 1928 

DEAR LALAJI, 

I have your letter. Please do not think that I used the term 
*‘patroni 2 dng’’ in any offensive sense.* Let me reiterate what I have 
said and want to say. I want you not as a distant admirer of 
khadi and khadi movement. 1 want you to throw yourself heart 
and soul into it with a full deep .conviction just as you have thrown 
yourself into untouchability movement. You axe not satisfied 
with merely recounting the merits of removal, but you are devot- 
ing your great energy to the eradication of the evil. And so I 


* Vidf “Letter to Lrjpat Rai”, 294-1928. 



3122 THE GOLLEOTED WOREB OF MAHATIAA. GANDHI 

want you not to wait for the hostile criticism that may appear in 
the Press, but to ask those who are likely to be hostUe critics to 
let you have their views, unless of course a second and serious 
reading of the literature, especially of Gregg’s book, has made your 
conviction unshakable. I know that your health cannot permit 
you to engage in a hurricane tour. But you know what I want, 
and that you can give me only if you have an inunovable heart 
conviction. 

Tmirs mmdy, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13226 


373. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 12, 1928 

DEAR SATIS 3BABV, 

I am glad you have given me the details of your diet. I am 
inclined to think that you should omit gram powder. It is not 
easy to digest especially when the gram is fried. You take it I 
suppose for its protein. Why not take the more digestive wheat in 
the form of well-cooked chapati or even baker’s bread. It seems 
to me that you are not ta^g enough milk. A cup of milk I 
suppose means eight ounces, and if you take it twice, it means 
one pound only, not sufficient for the work you do. You should 
take at least two pounds of milk. 

I do not know that you need rice. If you do^ take it by all 
means. There is very litde fiuit in your diet. Occasional oranges 
won’t do. We want vegetable vitamins just as much as we arc 
supposed to require animal vitamins. And the vegetable vitamins 
are to be had principally from fresh fruits or fresh vegetables,, 
the latter uncooked are not so easily digestible as freiffi fruits, and 
the moment you cook anything you lose part of the vitamins. 

. How about the water treatment — hip-baths? They ought to 
put you right with the food I suggest And if you will take a libe- 
ral ffiet and occasional fast, you will do a great deal of good. 

From what you tell me, we must be prepared to lose Nikhil. I 
should SO' love to put bitn under the treatment of an experienced 
nature-cure man. 

Jamnalalji tells me you would like to pass a few days with me. 
That you can do any time. I would have even Nikhil -here and 



LETTBR TO BHAOWAIQI 313 

if he must die, he may do so here. But the weather may be too 
trying for him and for you all. 

Love. 

Bafu 

From a photostat; S.N. 13227 


374. LETTER TO G. 2). BIRLA 


May 12, 1928 

BHAI OHANSHYAMDASJI, 

I got yoxir letter. 

Jamnalalji is here. I shall speak to him about exercise. He 
needs it 

Which asanas are you practising? My health may be said to 
be fair. 

It would be good if Satis Babu was given assistance. He is 
so self-sacrificing and pure. 

Tours, 

Mohaitoas 

From Hindi: G.W. 6167. Courtesy: G.D. Birla 


375. LETTER TO BHAGWANJI 


May 12, 1928 

BHATSHM BHAOWANJI, 

I have of course written to Dcvchandbhai.* 

I have carefully preserved your article on God. I hope to 
write about it some day. 

Vandmataram fim 
Mo£candab 


From a photostat of the Gigarati: G.N. 5811 


* Fi<fo “Letter to Devchand Parekh”, 11-5-1928. 



376. CELEBRATING PENANCE 


A fiiend writes to say:* 

I congratulate this fiiend on showing so much courage and 
disregarding an unworthy practice. If other Jains^ Vaishnavas, 
etc., follow this example, welfare activities in the country will be 
helped and pleasures enjoyed in the name of religion wUl be some- 
what curtailed. 

We are so much given to enjoyments that we convert the 
pimest of pure activities into excuses for them. Putting aside the 
spiritual benefits of fasting, we seek greatness thereby and then 
make fasting an occasion for indulging our palate. 

Indeed those who would practise austerities should abstain 
fiom proclaiming the fact with beat of drums or causing others to 
do so and they should not become proud. And if relatives and 
su<A others wish to put such penance to good use, they should 
quietly and without a motive make that an occasion for making 
donations to worthy causes. 

There is another point too in this fiiend’s letter. Institu- 
tions like orphanages and children’s homes expect donations for a 
feast on sudx occasions. Ihis is a deplorable custom. By estab- 
lishing orphanages, orphans should be given a sense of belong- 
ing. And if these latter are given this sense of belonging, they 
diould never be fed on meals which have been begged firom 
others. It is one thing to obtain donations for running orphanages 
and another to feed its inmates with whatever donors wish to give 
them. In the one case the purpose is to run an institution while in 
the other the self-respect of the orphans is touched. Moreover, 
institutions accepting such meals endanger the health of their 
inmates, make them fiissy about food and cause them harm. 
Hence if such institutions insist upon donations instead of meals and 
if donors insist upon not giving feasts by way of donations, they 
will be contributing to public welfare. 

[From Gujarati] 

Ncaajioan, 13-5-1928 

*The letter is not translated here. The correspondent had referred to 
the practice current among Jains of celebrating the end of a religious fast on 
Vmshakh Sud 3 by feasting on a lavish scale, accepting gifts and singing as at a 
wedding. The conespoodent had however refrained from such celebration and 
saved Hs. 201, which he sent to Gandhiji to spend on any cause he liked. 



S77. THE YAJHA IN BARDOLI 

So far Vallabhbhai has not asked for any financial assistance 
for the yajna that is going on in Bardoli; now, however, the time for 
that has come. Satyagrahi soldiers like Shri Ravishanker and 
Shri Ghinai are in prison. Others too will follow them as they 
ought to. If the people have any fire in them and if the Gov- 
ernment does not wish to yield till the end, not a single soldier will 
remain outside prison nor a single landowner will own any pro- 
perty or remain outside prison. All wars are alike up to a cer- 
tain point, whether they be satyagrahi in nature or those involving 
brute force. Both certainly involve sacrifice. In the Great War 
in Europe, soldiers on both sides were ruined, the warriors of both 
sides lost their lives. Myriads of people in Germany were rendered 
homeless. However, here the similarity between brute force and 
satyagraha ends. Ibe satyagrahi ruins himself. He deliberately 
gives up the momentary pleasure of ruining the enemy and finds 
happiness in his own renunciation. Hence a satyagrahi struggle 
may be called a yajaa. It involves self-purification. 

In this sacrifice, financial support has chiefly come till today 
from Bardoli itself. Whatever contribution has been sent by any- 
one voluntarily has been accepted. To do so hereafter would 
be beyond our capacity. Tomorrow the people of Bardoli may 
have no homes, no possessions, no fields, no cattle. In such cir- 
cumstances, Vallabhbhai has a right to ask for outside assistance. 
Everyone ^ould read Vallabhbhai’s leaflet appealing for funds 
and those who approve of this movement in Bardoli and those 
who see purity and courage in it should contribute all they can. 

[From Gujarati] 

Naoajioan, 13-5'19^8 



378. PRIMART EDUCATION-I 


Among the aims of the Gujarat Vidyapith is that its activity 
should be primarily concerned with village education. Village 
education today has broadly come to mean primary education. 
The task of this Vidyapith is not to turn out schoolteachers or 
clerks but to train village workers. If the Vidyapith must be near 
a city, its task is to contribute towards changing the attitude of 
the city if possible. In other words, the' cities which today flourish 
on the ruins of villages should so change that they serve the 
villages. 

'Whether or not the cities change, the Vidyapith must convert 
to this viewpoint as many as possible of the young men and women 
there. 

Hence it is necessary that primary education should be 
considered from various points of view. 

I wish to dwell on only one idea in this article. From 
many years of reflection and quite a few experiments, I have 
come to the conclusion that primary education should be given 
for at least a year without using any text-books and even after 
that pupils should make the minimum use of them. 

'When a child is learning the alphabet, when he is trying to 
master the fornis of numerals and letters, his senses remain dor- 
mant and his intelligence, instead of blossoming, becomes stunted. 
A child starts learning immediately after birth but it does so mainly 
through the eyes and ears. It learns language as soon as it 
sta^ speaking. Hence the child is as its parents are. If the latter 
arc cultured, the child pronounces words correctly and imitates 
the right ways of the home. This alone constitutes his true edu- 
cation and were it not that our civilization has become so dis- 
rupted, children would be. receiving the best education in the home 
itself. 

But we are not yet in such a happy situation. There is no 
alternative to sending children to schools. 

However, if children must go to schools, these should feel like 
homes to them and their teachers should be as parents. The 
education given also should be similar to that which is imparted 
in a cultured home. In other words, children must receive their 
primary education from teachers through the spoken word. By 
receiving education in this manner a r.bilH can gain in a year 



1>RI>CARY SDtJGA.TtOM-1 317 

through his eyes and ears ten times the knowledge he can acquire 
through the ^phabet. 

The child will have got a general knowledge of history and 
geography in the first year through play and in the form of sto- 
ries. He will have learnt some poems by heart with their correct 
pronunciation. He will have memorized his tables. Moreover, as 
the child will not be burdened with having to identify letters of the 
alphabet, his mind will be kept from withering and his eyes will not 
be misused. 

The child’s hand, instead of being used to form crooked letters 
on a slate and trying to understand the difficult symbols that are 
letters, would rather be engaged in drawing geometrical lines and 
recognizing pictures. This is the primary education of the hands. 

And if we wish to impart primary education to the crores 
of children of Gujarat and of India, we shall not be able to do 
so in any other way. 

Under the present circumstances, it is impossible for this coim- 
try to see that books reach crores of children. I admit that if it is 
necessary to supply children with books in order to give them 
primary education, we should try to do so, whatever the cost. How- 
ever, if books are regarded as superfluous and harmful, the practi- 
cal argument may be put forward. What is unnecessary or harm- 
ful fi:om an ethical standpoint is also found to be impractical. In 
a civilization that is free firom flaws, the ethical and the practical 
are not opposed to each other and should not be. 

It is clear that such education cannot be given by the teachers 
of present-day primary schools. These teachers may thrash the 
children and noiake them learn the alphabet and perhaps a few 
numbers. The poor teacher himself does not have the general 
knowledge which I visualize for the child in the first year. When 
the teachers themselves do not know how to speak the lang- 
uage in its pure form, how can the children learn it firom them? 

We shall consider this idea in the second part. 

[From Gujarati] 

Maoajioan, 13-5-1928 



379. LETTER TO P. V. KARAMCHANDANI 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmait, 
Map 13, 1928 

DEAR ERtEND, 

I thank you for your kind letter. I had heard of the radium 
treatment* 

I thank you for your offer to send me the bottles in your pos- 
session. But 1 shall not aveiil myself of your offer as, apart from 
my disinclination to take medicine internally, at the present 
moment I do not seem to be suffering from much blood-pressure. 

Touts sincenly. 

Captain P. V. Karamohanoani, I.M.S. 

Indian Military HosprrAL 
PiSHIN 

Baluohistan 

From a photostat: S.N. 13228 


380. LETTER TO SHAMTIKUMAR MORARJI 

Sunday, May 13, 1928 

OBI. SHANTIEtIMAR, 

Even if you don’t ask for my blessings, you have them. May 
you live long and render much useful service. What present did 
Sumati give you on your birthday? Does she spin daily? Is she a 
habitual wearer of khadi? Does she constantly think of the 
poor? If she gives you such presents on every birthday, both of 
you will reap the reward of goodness and the poor will prosper. 

I will use your cheque in accordance with your wishes. 

Blessings fiom 
Bapu 

From a photostat of the Ghyarati: Q.W. 4704. Courtesy; Shaatikumar 
Moraiji 

^The addressee had suggested the use of radium chloride for treatment 
of Gandhiji’s blood-pressure. 



381. LETTER TO LORD IRWIN 


Sabarmah, 
May 16, 1928 

I deeply appreciate your letter containing reference to my 
loss. I am just reminded that Maganlal Gandhi was presented to 
you at Nadiad last year. 

I am. 

Your Exulimy's Faiti^frd Ftiend, 

M. K. Gandhi 

From a photostat: S.N. 13386 


382. THE ONLY ISSUE 

The BardoU campaign is going on merrily. At the rate the for- 
feiture notices are being served, practically Ihe whole of the Taluk 
of Bardoli should be in Government’s possession and they can 
pay themselves a thousand times over for their precious assessment. 
The people of Bardoli if they are brave will be none the worse for 
dispossession. They will have lost their possessions but kept what 
must be the dearest of all to good men and women — their honour. 
Those who have stout hearts and hands need never fear loss of 
belongings. 

But forfeiture notices having failed the Government are now 
adding to them the imprisonment of workers. They are holding 
mock trials such as we saw during the Punjab martial-law days. 
The prosecutor is asking for and the obliging special magistrate 
is giving deterrent sentences which are all rigorous. Iliese too 
like dispossession will do good to the willing victims. Suffering 
willingly undergone never harms the sufferer. 

What however goes against the grain is dishonesty and inso- 
lence of office. The Commissioner, Northern Division, has written 
a letter to a correspondent which is full of insulting insinuations 
and untruths. 

It is an untruthful insinuation to suggest that the campaign 
was started by Kheda agitators. It was started by the Bardoli 
people themselves and the only person whose help and advice they 



320 TH£ QOLtEOt&D W6RKS 61r jilAfiATllfA dANiSfitt 

sought was Sjt. Vallabhbhai Patel whom I presume the Com- 
missioner knows somewhat. Whether he can truthfully be called 
agitator in the sense intended by the Commissioner must be left 
to the reader to judge. 

It is untruthful to say that the officers of the Government are 
subjected to “spying, mobbing and other indignities". 

The workers are described as “the swarm of agitators living 
on them (the people of Bardoli) and misguiding them". This is an 
insult for which imder better times and if the nation was con- 
scious of its strength the Conunissioner would be made to offer 
a public apology. Let him know that those whom in his anger and 
intoxication of power he calls a “swarm of agitators" are honour- 
able servants of the nation giving their free services to Bardoli 
at considerable sacrifice. Among these, besides Vallabhbhai Patel 
who is a Barrister, are the hoary-headed Abbas Tyabji, another 
Barrister and an ex-Chief Judge of Baroda, Imamsaheb Bawazir, 
who is practically a fakir needing no support from BardoH, and 
Dr. Sumant Mehta and his equally cultured wife. Dr. Sumant 
Mehta who has been aUing for some time has gone to Bardoli at 
considerable risk to his health. These four by the way do not 
belong to Kheda at all. Then there is the Darbarsaheb of Dhasa 
and his intrepid wife Bhaktiba who for the sake of their country 
have sacrificed their estate. They are not living upon the people 
of Bardoli. There are Doctors Chandulal and Tribhuvandas, again 
not of Kheda. Add to these Fulchaud Shah, his wife, and his 
lieutenant Shivanand (already in jail). These again do not belong 
to Elheda and have for years dedicated themselves to silent ser- 
vice. It is the wail of Bardoli that has called these and others 
whom I can name. If the Commissioner has any sense of honour 
about him he will volunteer an apology to these ladies and gentle- 
men. In fact the Kheda workers are in a hopeless minority among 
the numerous workers. 

The Commissioner pompously trots out the adverse vote of 
the Bombay Council and conveniently suppresses the two previous 
votes of the Council that had gone against the Government and 
that were by them treated as beneath contempt and beneath notice. 

The Commissioner suppresses the very relevant truth that 
before resorting to direct action the people of Bardoli tried every 
means known as constitutional to get redress and hopelessly failed. 

The Commissioner throws dust in the eyes of the public when he 
suggests that if the sorely tried people of Bardoli give up their 
campaign he would gladly investigate the case of any village that 
may be found to have been wrongly grouped. He suppresses the 



THE ONLY ISSUE 


321 


truth that the point at issue is not the wrong grouping of this 
village or that; the point at issue is the palpably wrong method of 
assessment. And the people of Bardoli do not insist upon their point 
being accepted but they do insist upon an independent and impartial 
tribunal being appointed to inoesHgate the justice of their complaint 
and to abide by the judgment of that tribunal whatever it may be. 
Here there is no shirking of payment, no question of redress of 
individual hardship. The question is one of principle. The people 
of Bardoli deny the right of the Government to dictate without 
proper investigation any increase in the assessment. Let me add 
that this is no no-tax campaign launched for any political end. 
This is a campaign directed towards a well-defined specific grie- 
vance affecting the people of a whole Taluk. 

It is therefore the height of impudence and gross untruth for 
the Commissioner to say: 

No one is more anxious than I that the poor cultivators should not 
be ruined by the swarm of agitators who are living on them and mi»- 
guiding them. 

There are five taluks in Kaira District from which these agitators 
come, the revision settlements of which have been postponed for 2 years 
on account of floods. Nearly half a crore of rupees has been advanced 
by Government in Kaira District for flood relief in the last 7 or 8 months. 
If they succeed in Bardoli, the recovery of Government assessment and 
takiai in Kaira District would be imperilled. 

If the “agitators” succeed, it will not be the takaoi to Kheda 
that will be in jeopardy. If it is withheld by the borrowers the 
Government will find die arch-agitator Vallabhbhai Patel to be 
their unpaid collector of the loans. What however will happen 
if the agitators succeed is that the Government officers will not 
dare to insult honoured servants of the people and utter untruths 
as the Commissioner, Northern Division has done and that the 
people will be able to have some redress against grossly unfair and 
unjust assessment as the Bardoli assessment is daimed to be. 

One word to the people. The Government in their wisdom 
and in order to emphasize the fact that this rule is sustained by the 
policy of divide et impera have drafted in the midst of an over- 
whelmingly large Hindu population Mussulman officials and 
Pathan hirelings. As satyagrahis the people can easily checkmate 
the Government. Let them treat the officials and the Pathans as 
fidends. Let them not distrust or in any the slightest manner fear 
or molest them. They the officials are our countrymen, the Pathans 
are our neighbours. Ere long the Government will discover their 


.XXXVl-21 



322 THE aolXCaTES works or liAAKlMA OANDm 

mistake and know that the honour of a Hindu is as dear to a 
Mussalman as to a Hindu and vice versa. The people of Bardoli 
have the chance of demonstrating this in a concrete manner. Let 
them vindicate the law of satyagraha which is also the law of Love 
and they will melt even the stony heart of an autocratic Com- 
missioner. 

Toung Mia, 17-5-1928 


383. SUPPRESSED CLASSES AJ{D BAGHAT STATE 

After all the Rana Saheb of Baghat did receive on the 5th 
instant a deputation on bdialf of the Arya Pratinidhi Sabha, Pun- 
jab, consisting of Rai Saheb Lala Ganga Ram, Pandit Ghamu- 
pati, M.A., Dewan Ram Sharan Das of Ludhiana, Pandit Dharma- 
vir Vedalankar and Lala Shankar Nath, Advocate, Simla, to dis- 
cuss the situation that had arisen out of the recent attitude of the 
State in the matter of wearing of the sacred thread by Kohs, re- 
claimed by the Arya Samaj. 

The deputation has been permitted to issue the following 
agreed statement of what happened at the interview: 

The meniben of the dqtutatioii thanked Rana Saheb for the cordial 
hoq>itality extended to them, and explained the position of the Shaatras 
and the Arya Pratinidhi Sabha in this behalf. His Highness gave a patient 
hearing to their representation and assured them that his State gave 
per&ct liberty to all well-eatabliahed religious societies to propagate their 
religion among his sutgects. The members eiQjresscd their gratitude 
for the courtesy with which their representation was heard and the 
encouraging reply vouchsafed to them and withdrew. 

The agreed statement betrays too much caution and great 
timidity on the part of the State. The State would have gained in 
public estimatiou by a ftank confession of the wrong done to the 
suppressed classes and the insult offered to a great religious organi- 
zation. However let us be thankful for small mercies. The wrong 
and the insult will be forgotten if the letter and the spirit of the 
promise made by the Rana Saheb are fulfilled. 

Toung India, 17-5-1928 



384. MAGANLAL GANDHI MEMORIAL 


The Council of the All-India Spinners* Association passed 
the following resolution at its meeting on the 12th instant: 

Resolved that a khadi museum be organized in memory of the 
late Sjt. Maganlal K. Gandhi and that an appeal be made for rupees 
one lakh for this purpose, the location of the Memorial and other details 
of the administration to be decided by the Council. 

The numerous messages of condolence sent to me from all 
parts of India and distant South Africa show the place that the 
deceased found in the affections of the public. A silent worker 
so good and popular as the deceased deserves a memorial. The 
Council of the AU-India Spinners’ Association after deep considera- 
tion came to the conclusion that there could be no better memo- 
rial to the deceased than that a khadi museum be established 
at some suitable place. The deceased himself had conceived the 
idea and as was his wont had utilized a room in the Satyagraha 
Ashram for a miniature museum. But the manner in whidi khadi 
has progressed requires a permanent and commodious build- 
ing and a collection worthy of the deceased and the movement. 
Such a museum cannot cost anything less than one lakh of rupees. 
Hence the miniTnum amount of one lakh fixed by the CoundL A 
khadi museum to be a house of serious study and instruction is 
capable of limitless expansion. With one lakh of rupees the Council 
hopes only to make a modest yet substantial beginning and give 
permanent shape to the scheme the deceased had in view. In ac- 
cordance with the response the public may make, the museum 
may have a full set of books dealing with the past and the present 
of cotton culture, the specimens of the finest to the coarsest 
ybsLfli produced in the past and in the present^ the specimens of 
spinning-wheels, hand-gins, carding-bows and handlooms firom the 
most ancient obtainable to the most modem. There may be a 
plot of ground attached to the museum where experiments can be 
Tna>i<». in cotton-growing to suit not the world market and the princ- 
es of exploitation but the humble villager. This latter was being 
done by the deceased at the Satyagraha Ariiram. The cotton grown 
at the Ashram has become very popular with spinners. Home-grown 
cotton, which is well picked and which does not need to undergo 
the devitalizing process of pressing, saves immense labour and time for 
the carder and enables the spimier to draw a stronger thread. These 



324 THE aOLLEOTED WORKS OF MAEATliIA OANDHI 

and many other things can be done at the proposed museum if the 
response is liberal and exceeds the minimum ^ed by the Goimcil. 

The machinery to give effect to the scheme is to be the All- 
India Spinners’ Association which is a growing organization of men 
determined upon doing solid and constructive work. 

The venue of the museum is not fixed as the Council has a 
choice of more places than one. Sabarmati naturally occurs first 
to the mind. And if it is found to be otherwise the most conve- 
nient spot, no doubt it will be chosen by the Council. It hopes 
to make ^e Museum as businesslike as was the deceased him- 
self. No false sentiment will therefore be allowed to weigh with the 
Council in the choice of the venue. 

All subscriptions will be acknowledged in these columns. Pay- 
ments may be made either to the Secretary, Sjt. Shankerlal 
Banker, Mirzapur, Ahmedabad, or to Sheth Jamnalalji Bajaj, 
395, I^badevi Road, Bombay, or to the Manager, Satyagraha 
Ashram, Sabarmati. 

Toung India, 17-5-1928 

385. KHABI IN HWERABAD STATE 

It is a matter for joy that the Princes of India are recognizing 
the place of khadi in national economy. The latest comer in the 
line is the Hyderabad State. The Department of Industries in 
the Nizam’s dominions recently sent its inspector to study the 
technique of khadi at the Satyagraha Ashram and sent abo two 
young men to learn the various processes. The young men were 
not able to finish the course, as the climate and perhaps the life 
at the Atiiram did not agree with them. The point is that a 
beginning has been made, the inspector Moulvi Mahomed Ali 
was full of enthusiasm and he seemed to realize as never before 
die importance of the spinning-wheel. Let me hope that the De- 
partment of Industries will keep in touch with tlie Technical 
Department of the A.I.S.A. and organize the charkha work in 
Hyderabad in a proper businesslike manner, as it is being done 
in Mysore, where the other day the Dewan Mr. Mirza Mahomed 
Ismail personally inspected the khadi work being done through 
the suppressed classes. Sjt. Pujatii who escorted the Dewan tells 
me that he admired the work and appreciated the fact that besides 
being a supplementary occupation for the peasantry the spioning- 
wheel seemed to give substantial uphft to the suppressed classes. 

Tomg Lidia, 17-5-1928 



386. THE FACTS ABO UT INDIA : A REPLT TO MISS MA TO 


It is not without regret, certainly not without hesitation, 
that I find room for the following chapter and more to follow.* 
I doubt if repUes to Miss Mayo have not been overdone. If I 
was convinced that the readers of Miss Mayo’s libel read the refu- 
tations that have been and are being published I diould have much 
less hesitation in publishing Dcenabandhu Andrews’s reply. But I 
fear that the refutations do not reach her readers and therefore 
lose much of their value. Miss Mayo represents an evil principle. 
No nation can be a world menace. India certainly is not. But 
writers like the authoress of Mother India are a world menace. And 
I am not sure that they can be dealt with by mere counter-writiags 
however pure and able they may be. In other words the question 
that is troubling me is whether lying tongues and pens can be 
checked merely by truthful tongues and pens. Is not something 
quite diflFerent and nobler necessary to be done if the evil propa- 
ganda of Miss Mayo is to be successfully checked? But I have 
no ready-made effective substitute for the writings such as Deena- 
bandhu Andrews’s. And as he is a co-sharer with me in the 
principle that Toung India coimotes and even after second 
thoughts he persists in thinking that there is still room for his 
refutations, I am no longer able to resist him. I know that he 
wiU be satisfied, as I shall certainly be, if even one man or woman 
who before beUeved Miss Mayo’s caricature comes to be disillu- 
sioned by his chapters. 

Touag India, 17-5-1928 


* These articles by 0. F. Andrews are not reproduced here. 



387. LETTER TO TREASURER, AJMAL JAMIA FUND 

Satyagsaha. Ashram,^ 
Sabaioiait, 
May 18, 1928 

The Tseasurkr. 

Ajmal Jamia Fond 
395 Kalbadevi Road 
Bombay 

DEAR SIR, 

Ajmal Jamia Fuin> 

Your letter of the 10th May. I have to draw your attention 
to a discrepancy in the totalling in the copy of the list sent to 
us on 21-4-28. You have put it down as Rs. 6,935-1-0, whereas 
on actual totalling it comes only to Rs. 6,884-9-0. Therefore there 
is a difference of Rs. 50-8-0, Kindly compare the figures pub- 
litiied ia Toung India of this week with yom books and find out the 
discrepancy and let me know so that the same can be rectified in 
tiie coming issue. 

The following names and their donations have been omitted 
firom the list, “Further QjUcctions m the Week”. This was done, 
because we deemed it much better to give the collections made from 
the members of the Adiram in a lump sum. The Secretary is send- 
ing you a complete list in which you may include the omitted 
figures also. 

Names and donations omitted:^ 

Unfortunately in this week’s Toung India, a mistake in the 
figures m the list published has crept in. The totalling in actuals 
exceeds by eight annas. I am looking into the original list sent to 
the press and I hope to find the mistakes and rectify the same in 
the coming issue. 

When sending the new list you will kindly send us a complete 
list including the last one sent by you for publication in this 
week’s issue, that is, the list sent by you after your letter dated 
10th May. Please omit the names of the Ashram donors. It is 
thought better to contribute a Imnp sum in the name of the 

1 Gandhiji was in Bombay on May 18, 1928. 

3 Here followed a list, which is not reproduced. ^ 



PBHIARY EDUOA-nON-n 


327 


A^am rather than small sums in the names of the individuals. 
If you want the list to be published it must reach us before Monday. 

Tours faitiifulfy. 

From a photostat: S.N. 14923 


388. TELEGRAM TO MAHOMED ALI 

[On or after May 19, 1928f\^ 

DELIGHTED REOEIVE YOUR WIRE. HOPE PROGRESS 
KHADI WILL BE GUARANTEED BY HAHARAJA SAESB. 

Gaitohi 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13599 


389. PRIMARY EDUCATION-n 

The problem is how to impart the education we discussed 
in the last issue and wherefrom to get the teachers to impart 
it. This is the real problem regarding education. The Government 
Training College has not solved this problem. It has not even 
solved the problem of the three Rs — ^that is, reading, writing and 
arithmetic. Even of these three so little is learnt that neither the 
pupils nor the public profit much by it. 

Hence this task has to be taken up by the National College. It 
is the duty and the right of the latter to find new methods in the 
field of education wUch would sustain the national cause. And 
in my humble opinion, we can take these methods in a very 
small measure from Europe and in an even smaller measure from 
the current trends in India. In every coimtry education is for 
the preservation of its independence. 

Hence we shall have to conduct new experiments in our edu- 
cation. In doing so, we may well make ourselves familiar with the 
experience in Europe; but we should not conclude that all that 
is found there is good or what is good under the conditions prevail- 
ing there will be good for us. One of the conclusions that emer- 
ges from this is that we should regard with suspicion the methods 
practised in the Government schools. Since the education impart- 
ed by the Government is fatal to swaraj as well as to our 

* This was seat in reply to a tdegran received on May 19 firom. Mahomed 
All, Inspector, Industries, Aurangabad, which read: "Khadi Exhibition q>inning 
demonstration successful by your blessings. Maharajah Bahadur kissed your 
yam and sends beat salaams and promises to spin. Your blessings requir^.” 



328 THE COLLEOTED WOEX8 07 MAHATIilA GANDHI 

civilization, it is possible that if we follow the opposite methods in 
many matters we may find the right path. Let us take an example. 

The medium of instruction there is English, hence we must 
conclude that the medium of national education cannot be English. 

They put up huge expensive buildings in which to give 
education. We should realize that this is improper. Our School 
buildings should be simple and inexpensive. 

Stress there is purely on literary learning and India’s indus< 
tries are ignored. We know that this is improper. 

In that form of education, teaching of religion, that is, re- 
ligion not of any particular community but universal religion, 
has no place. We teow that this leads to a negation of education. 

The history that is taught in Government schools is, if not 
false, written from the British stzmdpoint. The very same facts 
have been interpreted difierently by German, French and Ameri- 
can historians. Contemporary events are interpreted by the 
Government in one way and by the people in another, as in the 
case of the massacre in the Punjab. 

The economics taught in Government schools upholds the 
British system while we, on the other hand, view it differently. 
Government schools make a plea for the town civilization, where- 
as the villages are the soul of our national civilization. 

In Government primary schools, their teachers, with the 
minimum amount of knowledge, are employed without regard to 
their character and on the minimum salaries possible, whereas 
in national primary schools, the teachers being self-sacrificing and 
persons of character and learning (and not because they are in 
in a sorry plight), riiould accept the smallest salaries. 

We can now have an idea of the kind of education that should 
be given in the city schools. 

Our pupils should live in villages, lend stability to village 
civilization, be familiar with the needs of villagers, rid them of 
such &ults as they may have, teach their children not to become 
city-dwellers but to remai n villagers, i.e., to become farmers. 
-Hence so long as .the existing system of education in the cities 
is not basically changed without fear, we shall not attain one of 
the basic ideals of the Vidyapith nor may we be said to practise it. 

^t us take only one example; In Ahmedabad itself we are 
running a university, a new Gujarati school and a Vinay Msmdir. 
We shall have the right to run them only when we attempt to 
make villagers out of the children who study in them, when we 
succeed in making them take interest in village life, when we make 
them understsmd the latter, and, finally, when those of them who 



LETTER TO ZAEIR HU8A1N 329 

are about to leave the Viaay Mandir or the University, spread 
out into the villages and start serving the villagers. 

We shall consider next how this can be done. 

[From Gujarati] 

J^avajivan, 20-5-1928 


390. LETTER TO MAJ(IBEHN PATEL 

Silence Day \May 21, 1928y 

I read your note about Sharadabehn in your letter to Chi. 
Kanti. I felt slightly unhappy. I think about the matter every 
day. I inquire about it firom everyone coming from there. Mira- 
belm has told me much. How can I write all that? But I have 
not given up hope. I rest in the belief that everything will be all 
right. Write to me when you feel like doing so. From what 
Vallabhbhai told me in Bombay I could see that he was satisfied 
with your work there. I felt so happy. But then, that is not 
enough for me. I want to see in you maturity, equammity, content- 
ment, discrimination, modesty, firmness, scrupulous regard for truth, 
earnestness, study and meditation. Without these yours will not 
be a life that becomes a virgin and dedicated social worker. 

Blessings from 
Bapu 

Cm. Manibehn Patel 
Swaraj Ashram 
Bardoli 

[From Gujarati] 

Bafma Patro~-Mambdm Patdne, pp. 65-6 


391. LETTER TO Z^KIR HUSAIN 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 23, 1928 

MY DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter, which 1 prize for its absolute frankness. 

I would personally have preferred a declaration of empha- 
tic non-co-operation; but I am not prepared to advise you to 


1 As in the source 



330 THE aOIXEOTBD WORKS OF UAHATUA GANDHI 

abandon die institution because you have a milder declaration. 
After aU, it is not the declaration that so much matters as action 
when the testing time comes. The iate of the institution wiU 
depend ultimately not upon the trustees but upon the professors 
who are giving their all to it. 

I know your pecuniary difiEiculties. I am helpless. I discussed 
the thing wi& Dr. Ansari in Bombay and he told me that he hoped 
to send you some money from Bombay. I could not ask Jamnalalji 
to send you iurther advance unless everything was in order. 

I do not at all like the large body. 

Dr. Ansari has promised to come to Sabarmad immediately 
after Id. If he does, I shall re-discuss the thing with him. 

Yowt sineirefy. 

Dr. Zakir Husain 
Jamia Millia 
Earol Baoh 
Delhi 

From a microfilm: S.N. 14925 


392. HISTORT OF SOUTH AFRICAN SATTAGRAHA 

Sjt S. Oanesan, the enterprising publisher of Madras, has 
now brought out a translation from the original of my History, 
if it may be so called, of Satyagraha in South Africa.* The trans- 
lation has been carefully made by Sjt Valji Govindji Desai. The 
volume is weU printed, is bound in khadi, covers 511 pages and 
is rightly dedicated by the publisher to the late Maganlal Gandhi. 
The book contains 50 chapters and covers practically the whole 
of the period of my stay m South Africa. Those numerous readers 
who are following “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” cannot 
afford to be without this volume, if they will rightly understand 
the unplications of truth as they have occurred to me and the 
very wonderful and matchless force which I have called or rather 
which Maganlal Gandhi called ‘satyagraha’ otherwise rendered 
as ‘love-force’, ‘soul-force’, ‘truth-force’, as distinguished from 
the force connoted by the term ‘passive resistance’. Satyagraha 
is not conceived as a weapon merely of the weak. It is the 
strongest force that one can possibly imagine or wish for and is a 
complete substitution for brute force. Those who will understand 
how the former worked in South Africa in the face of all odds 


1 rtdi VoL XXtX. 



BUYING MERIT 331 

should possess this volume. It can be had from S. Gauesan, 
Publisher, Triplicane, Madras, S. £., price Rs. 4-8-0. 

Toung India, '24-5-1928 


393. ANDREWS'S TRIBUTE 

From the tribute sent by Deenabandhu Andrews to the memory 
of Maganlal Gandhi, with whom he had come in close contact, 
I take the following^, omitting personal references. 

Toung India, 24-5-1928 


394. BUriNG MERIT 

A correspondent draws my attention to the institution of 
btteries in Goa for the purpose of supporting hospitals. The corres- 
pondent tells me that lakhs of rupees are spent by people in 
British India in these lotteries in the vain hope of suddenly be- 
coming rich without effort and yet gaining heavenly merit. Here 
is an extract from an advertisement sent by the correspondent: 

Behold the sick. He that giveth to the poor lends to God. Then 

why not help our poor by staking a rupee at this drawing? It is a 

comely way of exercising charity. 

The advertisement contains a portrait of a hoary-headed rever- 
end gentleman. 

It would be interesting to know the condition of the hospitals 
built with the monies gained from these lotteries. Meanwhile it is 
worth whole to examine the ethics of foimding charitable insti- 
tutions with monies collected by an appeal to man’s greed, en- 
hancing it by a promise of merit if the purchaser of such a lottery 
ticket should fail to get the templing prize or prizes as lakhs of 
purchasers must fail. 

As it is, the haste to be rich without working and waiting for 
the happy day pervades the atmosphere. Everyone who spends 
a rupee on the race course or in a lottery ticket erects the pyramid 
of his hope on the foundation of the ruin of a multitude of such 
hopes of men and women having equal right with the few lucky 
(?) winners of prizes. It is difficult, however, to single out the 
lottery system for criticism, when the gambling spirit possesses 

iNot reproduced here 



332 THE OOLLEOTED WOIUECS OF MAHAIUA OANDEI 

even those who are ranked among the most respectable. The share- 
market is nothing but a feverish gamble. And yet who is free 
from that fever? Every man who finds himself rich in a day 
by manipulating the share-market knows that the sudden acces- 
sion of wealth means desolation of many a widow’s home. Only 
the relatives of the widows who bought shares had, no doubt, 
almost the same kind of hope that the clever speculator of our 
imagination had. 

Cotton, rice and jute are, strange as it may appear, objects 
of such speculation. The system of lottery is but a crude exten- 
sion of the same gambling spirit. It is no doubt good to treat 
the lottery as disrespectable, but it is better to make the acquaint- 
ance of the spirit that is common to the lottery and the share- 
market and thus deal with the root cause of the disease rather 
than its worst symptom. It is, therefore, to be wished that the 
worst symptom will enable us to reach ^e root cause and deal 
effectively with it. 

But it is a far-off hope. Let not my mention of the pervasivd 
nature of the disease make a single person connected with these 
lotteries seek justification for his participation in the lottery system. 

And the caution is aU the more necessary when the lottery is 
in connection with a charitable institution. Surely it is bad enough 
to want to be rich without deserving, but it is positively wrong to 
connect charity with a gamble. Those who throw away rupees in 
lotteries must not think that they gam merit even whilst they are 
hoping to satisfy an imlawful ambition. We may not hope to 
serve Gk)d and Mammon at the same time. 

And why do the Christian conductors of the Goan hospitals 
degrade religion by exploiting the evil tendency of human nature? 
Do they imagine that they please God by attempting to support 
a hospital by making lakhs of people mor^y diseased? Are they 
not robbing. Peter to pay Paul? What will it profit them to 
heal a few bodies if at the same time they wound a thousand 
times more souls? 

Toimg IndiOt 24-5-1928 



395. SPINmm IN MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS 


The Secretary, Khadi Board, Jalgaon, sends me a well-prepared 
tabulated report of takli and charkha-spinning in its municipal 
schools. The report covers the period between 15th Jime, 1927 
and 15th February, 1928. 149 girls and 126 boys were spinning 
either on the takli or the wheel. The time allowed was from 25 
minutes to 50 minutes per day. The total output was 4,48,000 
yards. The maximum speed on the takli was 125 yards per hour 
and on the wheel 325 yards. This is a creditable record. What 
has been possible in the Jalgaon Municipal schools is possible in all 
the municipal schools. It can be shown that if the nation willed 
it, it could get all the yam it needs through its school-going 
children and teach them self-respect and self-reliance during their 
scholastic life, a period which some falsely think is one of irres- 
ponsibility and indulgence. I note that only boys spinning on the 
wheels do their own carding. The implication is that the others 
do not. It is being more and more realized that the secret of good 
spinning is not merely good but perfect carding. This can be 
attained only if everyone cards for himself or herself. If it is leamt 
truly it is easily leamt. Another suggestion I venture to offer is that 
no time should be lost in turning aU the yam spun into khadi and 
for that purpose either one of the promising boys should be trained 
or one of the teachers should learn the art of weaving. Failing 
that the local weaver should be induced to weave such yam. 

Tomg India, 24-5-1928 

396. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 

Satyaorahsl Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 24, 1928 

DEAR SATIS BABU, ' 

I have your letter. Here is a copy of my letter to Mr. Sen 
Gupta.‘ 

Tours, 

End. 1 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13640 

I Vidt the following item. 



397. LETTER TO J. M. SEN GUPTA 

May 24, 1928 

DKAR FRIEND, 

1 hear that you are having a grand exhibition at the tune 
of the forthcoming Congress at Calcutta. But I am told also that 
it is not to be confined merely to absolutely genuine swadeshi 
but that it is to contain all exhibits — ^foreign and otherwise. Can 
this be true? I should have thought that you wiU have khadi 
as the centre-piece and round it you will have exhibits of those 
t>n'ngs that are absolutely swadeshi firom start to finish and that 
you will not only exclude foreign cloth and all foreign things 
but aUn iudigenous mill-cloth. Such has been the history of the 
Congress Exhibitions since the Ahmedabad Session. The first 
painful departure fi:om this practice took place at Madras last year. 
I hope Calcutta won’t repeat the mistake. 

Tours sbtttrelj/, 
M. K. Gandhi 

SjT. Sen Gupta 
Calcutta 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13606 


398. LETTER TO MAHOMED HABIBULLAH 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 24, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I thank you for your letter enclosing copy of Sjt. Sastri’s 
cabled for my confidential information. 

Tours sinesraly. 

Sir Mahomed Habibullah 
V ioERor’s Council Member 
Simla 

From a photostat: S.N. 11987 

1 Sastri’s cable from Qape Town read: “In continuation of my telegram 
dated 24th April 1928, No. 202, 1 have been obliged to caned the tour in Transvaal 



399. LETTER TO T. PRAKASAM 


May 24, 1928 

117 DEAR PRAKASAM, 

I have your letter. Mr. Banker reminds me that the money 
was given to you at my instance whilst I was convalescing at 
Juhu. Of course you got it for khadi work, but surely you don’t 
mean to suggest that because you got it for khadi work, you are 
not personally liable? In fact the money was advanced because 
of your personal guarantee. If you question the correctness of the 
interi^etation will you accept arbitration? The Goimcil of the 
A.I.S.A. has a duty to perform. You will therefore recognize their 
difBculty and mine.* 

Yours sincmfy, 

SjT. T. Prakasam 
“Swarajya” 

Broadway, Madras G.T. 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13607 


400. A LETTERS 


May 24, 1928 

dear friend. 

You will now have heard from Mr. Ramanathan, and I trust 
that if you are not satisfied about the reasons for withholding the 
amount of security deposited by you, you will accept arbitration. 

Tours sinemly, 

From a microfilm: S.N> 13608. 

and come to Cape Town to interview the Minister of Interior regardmg con- 
donation scheme. Have urged 1914 lines which Gandhi and Patrick Duncan 
favour. Department of Interior is keen on the scheme being operated not- 
withstanding recent judgments reported in my telegram dated April 27th 
No. 214. Indians Transvaal greatly agitated especially the Gujaratis but 
might be pacified by the 1914 line. Minister promised consideration but I have 
misgivings. 

Please send copy of this confidentially to Gandhi by post” 

*A copy of this letter was forwarded to the Secretary, AU-India Spin- 
ners’ Association. 

3 Addressee’s name is omitted. ! 



401. LETTER TO S. RAMANATHAN 


May 24, 1928 

MY D]£AR RAMANATHAN, 

I have your ktter about .... It is quite correct. I have 
written to ... as per enclosed copy.* 

I send you herewith connected papers. 

Touts smertly. 


From a microfilm: S.N. 13609 


, 402, LETTER TO MEHAJt SINGH RAFT 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 24, 1928 

dear friend, 

I have your letter. I feax that so long as we are without 
swaraj, we must resign ourselves to the disabilities such as you 
are labouring under.* 

Tours sinemly, 

M. K. Gandhi 

From a photostat: G.N. 808 


I Vide the preceding item. 

*The addressee had been deported from America. His American wife 
also had lost her citizenship **by marrying a Hindu”. 



403. LETTER TO SATIS CHAJIDRA DAS GUPTA 


Satyaoraha. Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 24, 1928 

DEAR SATIS BASU, 

Ram Binod is giving great trouble. He has not yet dis- 
charged his obligation to the Association. Is it possible for you 
to make an appeal to him? 

What is Krishnadas doing? 

How are you keeping? 

With love, 

Bapu 

From a photostat: G.N. 1592 


404. LETTER TO F. H. BROWN 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 25, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND^ 

I was delighted to receive your letter. I remember very well 
our meetings in London, when I visited it with the South African 
deputation. 

With reference to the permission for an English edition of 
“The Story of My Experiments with Truth”, the permission was 
given last year to the Macmillan Company of New York. 

The second volume of the book is not to be published just 
now. It will take some time, because I do not Imow how the 
chapters of Indian experiences will run. I have no definite plan 
mapped out. I am, therefore, unable to say how many more 
chapters I shall have to write, and it is for that reason that pub- 
lication of the second volume has been suspended. 

I thank you for your condolence. 

Tours siiuorsfy, 

M. K. Gandhi 

F.H. Brown, Esq,. 

Dilkusha 

Forest Hnx, LoimoN, S.E. 23 

From a copy: S.N> 14317; alio CLW. 4440. Qourtesy: F.H. Browa 
XXXVM2 



405. LETTER TO JANMDHARJ PRASAD 

The Ashrah, 
Sababmati, 
May 25, 1928 

DEAR JANAEDHARI BABTJ, 

I have your letter. There should be nothing between Glod 
and us, if we are to be nearest to Him. Love between husband 
and mfe is a hindrance, for that love as we understand it, is 
necessarily exclusive and necessarily personal. 

2. Faith in God cannot be reasoned out. It does not come 
&om the head but from the heart, and, things of the heart are 
spontaneous and instinctive. Our very weakness and limitations 
should inspire &ith in the Perfect and the Limitless. And if we 
have that faith, we would necess 2 irily be without troubles, mis- 
eries and the like. 

3. Why do you say that you are not serving the public 
cause because you are drawing Rs. 50 per month ? Everyone who 
serves the Charkha Sangh undoubtedly serves the nation. It., 
would be foolish to expect in this poor country to work without 
even being fed. That other people have no regard or love for 
you because you are not a floxirishing lawyer is no cause for 
sorrow. But it is a good cause for congratulation, if you can be 
happy without wealth and public esteem. 

Why should Babu Vindeshwaii Prasad seek your protection? 
If he has the conviction that it would be right in giving up his 
practice, he should delight in earning his starvation wage as mil- 
lions of our coimtrymen are doing. If he is repentant that he 
gave up his practice, he should resume it. 

As for your children the true education that you can give 
them is to bring them up as honest labourers. And that educa- 
tion can profit them and the country; and, instead of your child- 
ren being a burden on you, will be a blessing to both. 

I hope your wife has completely recovered. Let me say that 
the Ashram constitution is undergoing a drastic revision and at 
the present moment, the desire is not to take any more for at 
least one year. Therefore, if your wife should desire to cpme 



Lfiimeft. TO KISHOR&LAL MASBRtlWALA. 339 

here dtiring the next one or two months, please write to me be- 
fore you think of sending her. 

Tours si/umly, 

M. K. Gandhi 


From a photostat: G.N. 51 


^5. LETTER TO H. S. L POLAR 


The Ashkah, 
Sabarmati, 
May 1928 

I have your letters. I asked Mahadev to keep you duly in- 
formed and tell you everything about Maganlal’s death. I have 
not the timfi to dictate much. This is just to say how much I 
appreciate your cable and your letters. 

I have now taken up my abode in Maganlal’s room. 

Mahadev must have given you the cause. Maganlal went on 
duty to Calcutta. Then he went to Gaya, from there to see 
• Radhft at the place where she had gone to tear down the purdah 
in a family. On the way he contracted a chill, developed pneu- 
monia and surrounded by kind friends who did all that was 
humanly possible for him, he died in peace after nine days’ 
illness. 

H.S,L. PoLAK, Esq,. 

42, 47 & 48 Danes Inn House 
265, Strand, London, W.O. 2 

From a photostat: S.N. 14316 


407. LETTER TO KISHORELAL MASHRUWALA 

Friday, Jetk Sud 6, 1984 [May 25, 1928f\ 

am. EISHORBLAL, 

1 have read both your letters carefully. 

What I said, and the maimer in whidb I said it, does not 
seem to have been correctly reported to you. 

There is nothing new in the changes 1 have suggested. I 
have not made any change in the definition of an Ashram inmate. 
The only significance of the change is that we riiould strive hard 
to follow the ideal which we have always kept before us. 



340 THE COLLECTED WORKS OF MAHA.THA GAHDHl 

1 never put pressure on anyone, and have never wi^ed to do 
so. I have recently refused to do that on two friends who wish 
to run separate kitchens for themselves. I, therefore, see no com- 
pulsion in regard to anything. I employ earnest argument (with 
love) and try to explain everything clearly. 

I am of the view that those who have joined the Ashram 
^ould conform to the moral growth or changes in the Ashram. 
They cannot say that they will obey certain rules only and that, 
if new rules are made and applied, it would be breach of contract. 
No institution can continue to exist on that condition. There 
can be hxity only about concrete matters, such as salary, period, 
etc. At the Ashram, however, generally speaking, we have no 
restrictions other than moral. 

Even so, we decided to enforce the rule about brahmachiaya 
only after all the inmates had been invited to discuss it and every- 
one had accepted its necessity. 1 did say, when reading out this 
rule, that those who could not or did not wish to observe it, 
could leave the Ashram. 

The common kitchen is functioning satisfactorily at present. 

I shall not inflict anything more on you. I have written 
even this unwillingly. Really speaking, you should not, in your 
present illness and from that distance, strain yourself thinking about 
the changes taking place here. Maybe it is morally wrong for you 
to do so. 

How arc you now? There is of comrse no question of your 
staying at Santa Cruz. You are fit enough to come here. You 
can take your treatment even here. The climate here is certainly 
better than there. If, however, you decide to come, I hope you 
will not think of going away again. 

Bltssbtgs from 
Bapu 

From a photostet of the Gujarati: S.N. 11802 



408, TELEGRAM TO HARILAL DESAI 


[After May 25, 1928y 

RSOErVED LETTER. IMPOSSIBLE FAY ENHANCED PORTION 
BEFORE ENQUIRY. ORIGINAL ASSESSMENT OAN BE PAID IP 
INDEPENDENT OPEN INQUIRY WITH RIGHT lEAD EVIDENCE 
CROSS QUESTION CROWN WITNESSES GRANTED FORFEITED LANDS 
RESTORED SATYAGRAHI PRISONERS DISCHARGED. PEOPLE WILL 
ACCEPT DECISION ARBITRATION COURT WIRE REPLY: BARDOU 
VALLABHBHAI. 

From a photostat: S.N. 12705 


409. LETTER TO MAHADEV DESAI 

May 26, 1928 

cm. MAHADEV, 

You send me enough every time. How did all of you imag- 
ine something which had not occurred to me even in my dreams? 
On that occasion, the day before yesterday, I did not aim my 
remarks against anyone in particular. I opened the subject 
in a genersi way as affecting all eighty people. Even in my mind 
1 did not, and do not, blame, or think harsh things about those 
who cannot join the common kitchen; where was the question 
then of my saying such things in the meeting? It should be 
enough, therefore, if I say that there was no violence in my heart. 
I said harsh things only on that evening. On that occasion, I 
was not at all pained by the opposition. I was unhappy because 
of the weakness displayed by all. 1 liked Narahari’s frankness 
very much indeed, but I did not like that he and others should 
have lost the use of their reason. If it was I who had deprived 
them of their reason, what a worthless fellow I must be? As I 
tried to think, what my duty in these circumstances was, and as 
I realized it, I awoke and was immediately at peace. Do you 


* The tdegnun was sent by VaUabhbhai Fatd in reply to the addrenee's 
letter of May 25. It was drafted by GaadhljL 



342 TOE aOIXEGTED WORKS OF UABATISA OANDB3 

kaow that I have put on two pounds in nine days? Gan you 
imagine what peace of mind this means? 

BUaings from 
Bapu 

From a photostat of the Gujarati: S.N. 11448 


410. LETTER TO C. F. ANDREWS 

Satyaoraha. Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 26, 1928 

MY DEAR OEARLIE, 

I have been receiving your letters regularly. I told Mahadev 
to write to you also which I hope he did. He has to go to 
Bardoli for two days in the week to help Vallabhbhai. He is 
therefore away today. 

I always think of you, but never get the time to write to 
you. And I do not fed disturbed as I know you never expect 
letters from me. 

My whole heart goes out to Gurudcv.* I do hope that he 
will be strong enough to take up the voyage giving himself full 
rest on the Qontinent and return with renewed vigour. And I 
hope too that inddentally you would rest your wearied limbs 
and still more wearied brain. But I have my doubts about your 
being able to do so. 

I am concentrating my attention on overhauling the Ashram 
and bringing it more in line with its ideals. We are therefore con- 
ducting the common kitchen on a large scale. About 80 sit together 
at meals where they attempt to consecrate themselves to more 
service. But more I must not say for want of time. 

Did Mahadev tell you that I had taken up my abode in 
Maganlal’s litde room. And it makes me fed happy and enables 
me more fiiUy to conumme with his spirit. 

With love, 

Mohan 

From a photostat: S.N. 13392 


^Tagore had fallen ai on his way to l-guclon to deliver the Hibbcrt 

lectures at the Oxford Univeisitjr, 



411. LETTER TO SAMUEL R. PERRY 


[After May 26, 1928'] 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I was thankful for your letter of 26th May last. I do not 
remember having received the book Does CiviUzaiion Need Reli- 
pon?' It has given me joy to have so many friends and sympa- 
thizers in the Far West. 

Tours sinemly, 

Samuel R. Perry 

From a photostat: S.N. 14043 


412. PRIMARY EDUGATION-IU 

The problems of primary education or village education can 
be solved only when we thoroughly change the curricula of the 
Vidya Mandir and the University and when the teachers have 
understood my viewpoint. 

Today we hesitate to effect certain changes for fear of losing 
pupils, for fear of public opinion or from a sense of false prestige. 
If we had no hesitation these Vidya Mandirs would produce a 
fine set of people who would serve the villages and this would 
somewhat atone for the sins of the cities. 

The pupils of these Mandirs would become first-class spinners, 
carders and weavers; they would have the best knowledge of 
cotton-growing, they would know carpentry to suit the needs of 
the village; in other words, they would know how to make good 
spinning-wheels, they would know how to repair — ^if not make — 
bullock-carts, ploughs, etc., they would know sewing enough for 
the needs of the '^age, their handwriting would be as beautiful 
as pearls, they would have a basic ability to write, they would 
know Indian multiplication tables, they would be femUiar with 
ancient literature like the Mahabharata and the Ramayana and 
their modem spiritual meaning; they would know village games; 
they would be familiar with the rules of hygiene, they would be 
good home-doctors, i.e., they would be able to diagnose common 
ailments and prescribe remedies for them; they would know how 

1 By Reiqliold Neibukr 



344 THE aOLLECTTED WORKS OR MAHA.TIAA OAHDHI 

to clean village dumping-grounds, ponds, wells and so on. In 
odier words, education in these schools would be such that it 
enables the pupOs to serve the villages in every way and the 
expenses incurred should be regarded as having been incurred on 
primary education. Only when we do so and are able to do so, 
can we be said to have truly entered die villages. 

But directly sudb a question is raised, such a change brought 
about and sudi an ideal proclaimed, our Vidya Mandirs will 
become empty. Should such a contingency arise I would be will- 
ing to welcome it in the cause of truth. But so long as the ideal 
of the Vidyapith regarding village education remains what it is, 
not to do this would amount to untruth and betrayal. 

However, it is my belief as well as my experience that if we 
remain stead&st in our objective, the public will in the end 
understand it and help in advancing it. If we looked into the 
causes of failures — so called or so considered — we would find 
that those who believed in the ideals were themselves disloyal, 
half-baked and half-hearted. He who doubts will perish, but 
people instead of takmg his doom for what it is think that it was 
his ideal that was wanting in some way and so fiuled. 

It is my firm belief that if our Vidya Mandirs had teachers 
with feith and a spirit of self-sacrifice, they would overflow with 
pupils. People can recognize a genuine thing. Often it seems 
to take time, but that is merely an illusion. It is a rule without 
an exception that the straight path is the quickest. 

An institution which panders to people’s weaknesses and their 
love of pleasure may fill in no time. So what? That certainly 
does not prove its success. One consequence may however flow 
fi'om the acceptance of my viewpoint. Those pupils who have 
come in the hope of getting the same kind of education as is 
imparted in Government schools, those who have come in the 
hope of acquiring fitness to lead a city life, would be disappoint- 
ed and leave our Mandirs. But it would be as wdl. We as well 
as they would be saved from a false situation, would be able 
to render true service to one another. 

I should like to close this series by dilating a little more on 
the idea with which I started it. And then I hope to discuss a 
few questions I have before me on thin subject. 

If the view that a knowledge of the alphabet should be total- 
ly avoided during the first year of primary education is correct, 
some of its desirable consequences ought to be apparent in the 
Vmay Mandirs and the University. 

Nowadays the cult of bookish knowledge has increased a great 



LETTER TO KARNAD SADASHIVA RAO 


345 


deal. New books are being published every day. Anyone who 
has any command over language, anyone who has reflected even 
a little, becomes eager to put his ideas into print and believes that 
•'in so doing he is rendering national service. Consequently, an un- 
bearable burden is placed on the brains of pupils and the pockets 
of their guardians. The pupil’s intellect becomes confused. Their 
brains stuffed with a multitude of facts have no room for any origin- 
al thought. And even facts instead of being properly arranged lie 
about in disorder in these brains like things in the house of an idle 
person. They are of no use either to themselves or to the public. 

Hence in my opinion the numerous books that arc published 
nowadays should not be given to the pupils. Even literate pupils 
should receive the larger part of their education orally from the 
teachers. They should read the minimum number of books but 
should reflect on what they read and while doing so translate into 
practice whatever they find acceptable. By doing so, the life of 
the pupils will become interesting, thoughtful, wise, steadfast, pure 
and energetic. Such education befits a poor nation and will prove 
useful to the pupils and the public. 

Hence the solution to the serious problem before the Vidya- 
pith depends on the capacity of its present teachers to imbibe its 
ideals and to make a mighty effort to put them into practice. 

[From Gujarati] 

J^aoqjivcai, 27-5-1928 

413. LETTER TO KARJfAD SADASHIVA RAO 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
May 27, 1928 

MY DEAR SADASHTVA RAO, 

1 hope you are now completely free from the after-effects of 
malaiia. I hope to be at the Ashram practically throughout the 
year. But I never know when I might have to move out owing 
to unforeseen circumstances. When therefore you propose to bring 
your daughters here, you will ascertain my movements beforehand. 

Tom sineertljt, 

SjT. Sadashiva Rao 

Kodaebail 

Mahoalore 

From a microfllm: S.N. 13229 



414. LETTER TO Y. ANJAFRA 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 27, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter. The only thing I can suggest to you 
now is that you should send a statement of the account and ex- 
penditure of your Company and samples of all the khaddar you 
are producing and such other information that you can send fi^m 
there to enable the AU-lndia Spinners’ Association expert to 
examine the condition of your concern. 

Tourt stnetrdy, 

SjT. Y. Anjaffa, 

G/o Yadoir and Go. 

Tobaqqo Bazar 
Seounderabad (Deogan) 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13230 


415. LETTER TO SATYANANDA BOSE 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 27, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

The suggestion that you make is not new. It has been dis- 
cussed from several points of view. But personally I have felt 
that the time has not come for us to take ^e lead. Meanwhile, 
good work in this direction is being done by the Poet Rabindra- 
nath Tagore. His work in contributing to an all-Asia awakening 
is of the greatest value. For us lesser men I feel that we would 
strengthen our position only by developing forces from within. 

Yours sinurAy, 

SjT. Satyananda Bose 
78 Dharmatoixa Street 
Calcxjtta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13231 



416. LETTER TO C. RAJAGOPALACHARI 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 27, 1928 

tty DEAR a.R., 

I just read your pencil notes “Unsold Stock”. The views 
about khadi arc purely introductory. The views about Hindu- 
Muslim unity are entirely unseasonable and are likely to be mis- 
represented if not resented. You must therefore keep them under 
lock and key for the time being. 

Tours sineenly, 

Bapu 

From a photostats S.N. 13232 


417. LETTER TO C. RANGAJ^ATHA RAO 

SATYAOItAHA AshRAM, 
Sabarmati, 
27, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

When I was in Bangalore you had sent me the charkha turn- 
ed out in the Government Workshop. You were turning out good 
spindles also if I remember rightly. Gould you please ascertain 
through your Engineering Foreman whether there is any machine 
which turns out absolutely true spindles and whether that machine 
or any such machine can straighten out absolutely correctly spin- 
dles that may become bent or crooked? At the Ashram we are 
doing it without the use of a machine. It is a laborious process and 
can be mastered only by a few and imposes a terrific strain upon 
the eyes of the mender i£ he has to correct many in a day. I ^all 
esteem any information that you can give me or procure for me 
in this matter. 

I wonder what progress the wheel is making in your Department. 

Tours sineertly, 

C. Ranoanatha Rao Sahbb, Esq,. 

Direotor of Industries 
Government Worrshofs, Banoaxore 

From a photostat: S.N. 13233 



418. LETTER TO GAJfGA PRASAD 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sasarmati, 
May 27, 1928 

DEAR FRIENI), 

I have your letter. I did read your book through. And whilst 
I could say that you had taken much trouble over it, you had 
not proved authorities to their original sources. But in this respect 
most of our authors are sinners. We are easily satisfied with proo& 
that would support our own preconceived notions or theories. 

Tours smmly, 

SjT. Ganoa Prasad 
Tehri 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13234 


419. LETTER TO BHOJRAJ KHUSHIRAM 

Satyaoraba Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
May 27, 1928 

DE AH. 

I have your letter. If you have real purity of heart and real 
love for your father and for the girl to whom you are married, 
you will % force of purity and love bear down all opposition and 
convert the girl. Whereas if it is merely a matter of your not 
liking the girl and the proposed hrakmacharya, a matter merely of 
convenience, it is your clear duty to carry your wife with you. 

Tours sirumly, 

SjT. Bhojraj Ejbcushiram 
Fish Marret 
Robri (Sind) 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13235 



420. LETTER TO MANIBEHN PATEL 


[May 28, 1928y 

CBX. MANI, 

You yourself are proving that it is not without reason that 
I think you to be a fool. I have never taken as gospel truth 
what Mirabehn tells me. That lady is pure-hearted. . . . Had you 
been here, I could have talked to you personally. As you were 
not here, I told Lakshmidasbhai. But I cherish the hope that one 
day you will stop being a fool and become wise. 

B [usings fim 
Bapu 

[From Gujarati] 

Bqpma Patn — Mastibshn Patslns, pp. 66-7 


421. DRAFT OF LETTER TO HARILAL DESAP 

[May 28, 1928} 

DEAR, 

A full wire waa sent to you under my authority from Ahmeda- 
bad.^ 1 enclose copy which speaks for itself. As probably our 
methods of work and service clash, what may be a satisfactory 
minimum to me may be an exorbitant demand in your estimation. 

What can be &e use of any inquiry if the enhancement is 
to be paid up? Government have ample security for its collec- 
tion if in the event of a decision unfavourable to the people the 
enhanced rate is not quickly paid up by them. , 

Please note that the terms of reference will also have to 
be agreed upon. Any reference will not do. 

It must be a point of honour £ot any self-respecting agent 
of the people to insist upon the release of prisoners and lands 
especially when they are illegally punished or forfeited. 

Lastly' you would best serve the cause by refraining from any 
action, if you cannot act strongly and do not feel the strength of 

1 As in the source 

2 The draft is in Gandhiji’s hand. Mahadev Desai, reproducing the letter 
with a few verbal variations in The SUny <if Bardoli, says that it was sent by 
Vallabhbhai Patel* 

3 “Tdcgram to Harilal Desai'S After 25-^-1928. 



350 


THE aOLLEQTED WORKS OF MABATHA OANDHI 


the people as I do. Whilst I want to shut no door to an honour- 
able secernent, I am in no hurry to close the struggle without 
an honourable settlement or without putting the people to the 
severest test they are capable of fillfilling. I would have a brave 
defeat rather than an ignominious compromise. 

Now you will perhaps understand that I am not anxious to 
run to M[ahabaleshwar] or Poona. You will please therefore 
not send for me uxdess you think my presence indispensable. 

From a photostat: S.N. 12705 


422. CABLE TO SOUTH AFRICAN INDIAN CONGRESS^ 


[On or after May 29, 1928] 


SAIG 

JOElANNESBtrRO 

SETTLEMENT COVERED BY CORRESPONDENCE. STHONOLY 
ADVISE PUTTINO FULL CASE BEFORE SASTRIJI AND 
THEN ACCEPT HIS OUIDANCIE. 

M. K. G. 


From a photostat: S.N. 11989 


423, LETTER TO SHANKARAN 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
May 30, 1928 

MY DEAR SELANXARAN, 

You are quite right. We must not take parcels of foreign or 
mill-cloth for the Bardoli people, nor are they in need in that 
manner. They are not starving. Hie expenses are not connected 
with feeding or clothing them. The expenses incurred are in sup- 


iThis was in reply to the cable dated May 28 received the next day. 
It read: “Your cable to Hon. Sastri on illicit entrants not explicit. Did you 
obtain protection for all entrants in Transvaal who were in possession of regis- 
tration certificates fraudulently obtained up to 19147 Gould Gong^ress be justi- 
fied in dedaring Government as having committed a breach of 1914 Settlement 
if Government now calls upon all fraudulent documents holders before Settle- 
ment to come forward for condonation? Please reply urgent” (S.N. 11989). 



LETTER TO BATIS OHAl^SRA DAS GDPTA 351 

porting the larger number of volunteers and carrying on exten- 
sive propaganda. 

Tours sincertlyf 

From a photostat: S.N. 13396 


424. LETTER TO C. RAJAGOPALACHARI 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 30, 1928 

MY DEAR 0. R., 

1 did not argue with you about the reason for not publish- 
ing your tribute to the Abhoy Ashram. About the labourers, 1 
think I gave you my reasons. About the Abhoy Ashram, your 
tribute is well deserved. But instead of benefiting them, the tri- 
bute was likely to rouse all kinds of jealousies and 1 felt that it was 
better not to rouse any jealousy.* 

From a photostat: S.N. 19397 


425. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
May 30, 1928 

MY DEAR SATIS BABU, 

I have your interesting letter. The milk diet will surely do 
you much good. I am sure that the hip-bath will benefit you. 
If Nikhil cannot bear hip-bath, try an earth bandage on the 
abdomen, six inches long and three inches in width. It might be 
good to keep Nikhil for a time on milk without sugar and dis- 
tilled water only, giving him enema regularly every 24 hours 
if the bowels do not move. He should take as much milk as he 
can comfortably, but no more. I have been trying it here in a 
rather bad case with considerable success. You may consult a 
medical fiiend about this treatment. 

* Rajagopalachari had in an article commended the efforts ojf the workers 
at Abhoy Ashram (ComiUa) in connection with the riots in late 1927. Vidt 
also "Letter to G. Rajagopalachari", 27-5-1928. 



352 THE CiOlX£CTtb WORKS OR llAitAlltA OAMOitt 

1 hope you will succeed with Mr. Birla. I am anxious that 
he should help you far more for the soundness of your lihadi 
propaganda than for the help you may render in his business. 
The latter is undoubtedly good and he shoiild have aU the assis- 
tance you can give. But khadi, if it is to succeed, can do so only 
on the strength of its merits and that of the business-like charac- 
ter of its organizations. 

Did I tell you or send you an extract from one of Mr. Birla’s 
letters in whidh, whilst he praised you much for your love of 
khadi and your immense se^-sacrifice, he was not convinced of 
the soundness of the Fratishthan or of the khadi propaganda as 
you had explained it to him? This was more than a year ago. I 
tell you this to emphasize what you say in the following sentence 
in your letter: “If he is convinced that the work as carried on by 
nie here deserves his fullest support, I do hope that he will spend 
lakhs as he spends thousands.” He is a man like that. If he is 
convinced, he is quite capable of giving unlunited help. 

With love, 

Bapu 

SjT. Satis Gh. Das Gotta 
Kbadi Fratishthan 
Sqdepur 

From a photostat: G.N. 1593 


426. LETTER TO VASUMATI PANDIT 


Sabaruatt, 

Wednesdeg^ [May 30, J92$y 

cm. VASUMATI, 

I have your letters. Talk with the Principal gently from 
timft to time about the uncleanliness and take measures to re- 
move it. Here things are going on fairly well. 

Biasings Jrom 
Bapu 

From a photostat of the Gujarati: O.W. 475. Courtesy: Vassumati Pandit 


> From the postmark 



427, BAKDOU ON TRUL 


One may hastily think that the Government is on its trial in 
Bardoli. But that would be a wrong opinion. The Gk)vemment 
has been tried and found wanting scores of times. Trightfulness’ 
is its code of conduct when its vital parts are affected. If its 
prestige or its revenue is in danger, it seeks to sustain it either 
by means fair or foul. It does not hesitate to resort to terrorism 
and cover it with unblushing untruths. The latest information 
that Pathans are now being posted in villages with instructions 
to surround the houses of the villagers day and night need not 
cause either surprise or anger. The surprise is that they have 
not yet let loose in Bardoli a punitive police and declared martial 
law. We ought by this time to know what a pimitive police or 
martial law means. It is evident that by the latest form of 
‘frightfulness’ the Government is seeking to goad people into 
some act of violence, be it ever so slight, to justify their enactment 
of the last act in the tragedy. 

Will the people of Bardoli stand this last trial? They have 
already staggered Indian humanity. They have shown heroic 
patience in the midst of great provocation. WUl they stand the 
greatest provocation that can be offered? If they wiU, they will 
have gained everything. Imprisonments, forfeitures, deportations, 
death, must all be taken in the ordinary course by those who count 
honour before everything else. When the terror becomes unbear- 
able, let the people leave the land they have hitherto beUeved to 
be theirs. It is wisdom to vacate houses or places that are plague- 
infected. Tyranny is a kind of plague and when it is likely to 
make us angry or weak, it is wisdom to leave the scene of such 
temptation. History is full of instances of brave people having 
sought exile in preference to surrender to zflolum. 

Let me hope however that such a step will not be necessary. 
One hears rumours of intercessions by well-meaning friends. 
They have the right, it may be even their duty, to intercede. But 
let &ese friends realize the significance of the movement. They 
axt not to represent a weak cause or a weak people. Hie people 
of Bardoli stand for an absolutely just cause. They ask no favour, 
they seek only justice. They do not ask anyone to consider their 
case to be true. Their cause is to seek an independent, open, 
judicial inquiry and they undertake to abide by the vei^ct of 


XXXVI-23 



354 THE COLLEOTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI 

such a tribimal. To deny tbe tribunal is to deny justice which 
the Gk)veniment have hitherto done. The means at the disposal 
of the people are self-sufiering. In such a cause then miTiinmiTn 
and maximum are almost convertible terms. Those who rely 
upon self-suSering for redress of a grievance cannot afford to rate 
it higher than it actually is. Those, therefore, who will intervene 
will harm the people and their cause, if they do not appreciate 
the implications of the struggle which cannot be lightly given up 
or compromised. 

The public have a duty to perform by the satyagrahis. The 
response is already being made to Vallabhbhai’s appeal for funds. 
It will be remembered that he refused to make the appeal as long 
as it was possible to refrain. The imprisonments have made the 
appeal imperative. I have no doubt that the response wiU be 
quick and generous. Equally necessary is the expression of en- 
lightened public opinion. Let the public study the facts carefully 
and then cover the whole of the land with public meetings. I 
like the suggestion made by Sjt. Jairamdas that June 12th or 
any other suitable day should be proclaimed as Bardoli Day when 
meetings representing all parties may be held to pass resolutions 
and make collections in aid of the sufferers of Bardoli. 

roung Mia, 31-5-1928 


42S. mrOUCHABIUTT /JV THE SOUTH 

Though untouchability appears in its worst and crudest 
form in the extreme south, that is Kerala, not much, at least not 
enough is being done by the reformers in the south to stamp 
out the eviL They will not even finance the movement to the 
extent that is necessary and possible for them. When, therefore, 
I started collections during my visit to GaUcut amongst the people 
locally, I was glad to find that the South Indian colony in Bom- 
bay signified their mtention of making a much more substantial 
collection than was made in Calicut and giving it to me when I 
passed through Bombay. In continuation of their promise a depu- 
tation came to me in Bombay during my recent visit and 
assured me that they had not forgotten it but that they were 
. waiting for a favourable season for making the collections. One 
of them now writes; 

Mwy a young man with meagre salary is wasting his money in 
races and other dty inducementt, and if only we could wean them from 



LETTER TO 8. N. MITRA 355 

their preaeat tendencies, much could be expected of them for their own 

benefit as well as for the benefit of the city of Bombay. 

1 hope that this reform movement will take deep root amongst 
the South Indian young men. I would advise them not to wait 
for a “favourable season”. For any time is a favourable season 
for doing good work or begging or giving in a good cause. No 
cause can be better than the cause of the untouchables, the “un> 
approachables” and the “invisibles”. If the young men from the 
south living in Bombay will only deny themselves some of the 
costly luxuries such as smoking, races, visits to teashops, etc., 
there wiU be a fat collection. Every religion enjoins the setting 
apart of a certain portion of one’s income for charitable purpo- 
ses. Unfortunately yoimg men nowadays in most cases have given 
the go-by to religion. But if the practice of invariably allocating 
a certain portion of one’s income to charitable purposes can be 
revived, causes such as those of the imtouchables need never wait 
for a “favourable season”. 

Young India, 31-5-1928 


429. LETTER TO S. JV. MITRA. 

Satvaoraea Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
May 31, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter. In my opinion, I have solved the question 
put by you through the suggestion I have made if it can be ac- 
cepted because students while they are studymg cannot do more 
or better than personally spinning and adopting khaddar for their 
use and wear. And if they caimot do this much, they are not 
likely to do anything else that may be of substantial benefit to 
the country. 

Tows sineenfj), 


From a microfilm: S.N. 13612 



430, LETTER TO G. JV. KANITKAR 


Satyaoraba Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
3U 1928 

MY HEAR EANTTEAR, 

I had your letter. I am surprised that you have fixed a date 
for the meeting without consultation with Jamnalalji and then 
you expect him to attend the meeting. Surely it was due to him 
as President lhat you should have first conferred with him as to 
the date and the agenda and then issued your circular. Jamnalal- 
ji is now telegraphing to you to appoint another date when he will 
certainly attend. 

With reference to the dispensary, all I told you was that there 
should be no difficulty in giving the Rashtriya Shikshan Mandal a 
le’ase of the premises, if the Council of the Association approved 
of the terms, etc. And this could happen only after an uncondi- 
tional transfer of all the rights of the Swavalamban Fathashala in 
connection with the property and the Charkha Sangh. 

Tours sinemly, 

SjT. G. N. Kantirar 
341 Sadashiv Feth 
Poona Grry 

From a photostat: S.N. 13613 



431. LETTER TO A. T. GIDWANI 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 

SABARMAn, 

May 31, 1928 

ItV DEAR OIDWANI, 

1 was wondering when I should hear from you. I was 
therefore delighted when Girdhari handed me your letter. 

The personal things you call petty are of as much interest to 
me as Bardoli, for 1 love to know all about co-workers. I Tinder- 
stand your desire to throw up everything and rush to Bardoli, but 
there is no occasion for it as yet. When it does arrive, you will 
find me summoning you without the slightest hesitation. I know 
that like a good soldier that you are you will promptly respond 
to the summons. As it is, Vallabhbhai has enough workers. 

I am glad that you are keeping much better health and I 
know that Gangabehn has shed aU her moroseness. But tell her 
she must not forget her Gujarati. And if she is not doing so al- 
ready she must help you in your work. She can do a great 
deal in going to girls’ schools, organizing them and teaching them 
takli, etc. 

' The commimal trouble is always and everywhere with us. I 
hope that it will not prove beyond yoTir strength to cope with. 

Tours sineerslj. 


From a photostat: S.N. 14475 



432. LETTER TO MANAGER, IMPERIAL BANK OF INDIA, 

AHMEDABAD 


Satyaosaha. Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 1, 1928 

The Manager, 

Imperial Bane of India 
Ahmedarad 

DEAR SIR, 

Please hand to the beeirer the sum of Rs. 65-1-8 in accord- 
ance with the receipt duly signed and enclosed herewith. 

Tours 

End. 1 receipt 

From a photostat: S.N. 13400 


433. LETTER TO MATHURADAS TRJKUMJI 

June 1, 1928 

Do keep writing to me without e:^ecting a letter from me* 
[From Gujarati] 

Bapimi Prasadi, p. 90 


434. LETTER TO 7. J. PATEL 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
B. B. G. I. Rly., 
June 1, 1928 

BHAISERI VTTHAIBHAt, 

I have your letter. I have not yet actually received that 
letter of yours but I read it in the newspapers. It will produce a 
good impression. What shall we say or do about Harilal Desai? 
I am writing to Mahadev at BardoU to send you a copy of 



LETTER TO KEVALRAM 359 

Vallabhbhai’s letter. We must keep on doing our work. You are 
doiug your part very well. Is not God Himself Karta^hartaK 

Vandmataram fiom 
Mohandas 


From a microfilm of the Giyarati: S.N. 14436 


435. LETTER TO KEVALRAM 

Saturday f before 4 a.m., June 2, 1928 

BHAISHRJ KEVALRAM, 

I have your letter. I wanted to reply earlier but owing to 
lack of time I could not write till today. I hope your health 
has improved by now. You should take great pains to regain your 
health completdy. 

Knowing your nature, I fear that you will not be able to put 
up with the changes already made and the changes yet to be 
made in the Ashram. 

To all those who take responsibility, both men and women, 
brakmachaiya is essential. 

Gradually everyone has started coming to the common 
kitchen. At present 90 dine there. 

Labourers are gradually being reduced. Therefore everyone 
has to put in more manual labour. 

There is talk about giving up buffalo milk and ghee and of 
living only on cow’s milk produced at the Ashram. 

If at aU you come bade you ought to be ready to do weaving. 

The Myamaoali?' is almost ready. I shall send you a copy as 
soon as it is. 

Harihar and Taranath have left [the Ashram] because of the 
hrahmachaiya clause. 

Both of you should think deeply before deciding to come and 
stay in the Ashram and I would be very happy if you could fully 
observe the rules. 

Bkssmgs ftom 
Baph 

From a microfilm of the Oujarati: S.N. 11803 


* He who does and undoes 

2 Book of Rules; vida *‘Sat/agraha Ashram”, 14'6-1926. 



m. IMBORTANCE OF BARDOU 


The lustre of the Bardoli Satyagraha increases day by day. 
Whose heart would not jump for joy at seeing Shii Vithalbhai 
Patel’s letter which I have just received? A translation of it is 
published in this very issue. However, the fulfilment of the expec- 
tations with which he has written that letter lies in the hands of 
the Bardoli satyagrahis themselves. The Gk>vemment’s notice 
too has been published along with Shri Vithalbhai’s letter. The 
gist of the note is that the so-caUed satyagrahis are no satya- 
grahis but cowards, and, because they are cowards, they secretly 
go and pay up their revenue dues. There are other such points 
mentioned in the note, which deserves to be considered by the 
satyagrahis. The Government has built its castle of hopes on 
the people’s weaknesses, whereas the Himalayas of the hopes of 
the sat^grahis and their well-wishers like Vithalbhai rest on 
the satyagrahis’ courage and determination. Being built by man, 
a castle crumbles. The Himalayas being a gift of Gk>d, will stand 
firm and if they should fall it would be the end of everything. 
It is indeed true that man forges his own fetters and he himself 
can break them. Thsyajna at Bardoli is intended to prove this. 

[From Gujarati] 

Namjivan, 3-6-1928 


437. QUESTIONS ON EDUCATION-I 

Having written the three articles on primary education, it is 
now easy for me to answer the following questions: 

ft. 1. You once said reducing the burden imposed by 
English on students would amount to saving so many years of their 
life. If we interpret natioiud education to mean nation-wide edu- 
cation, how much would be the burden imposed upon society? 
How much, that is, in terms of years? 

A. Let me first explain the meaning of the phrase “reducing 
the burden imposed by English”. It is not my contention that 
students should not be taught English at all. But let us learn 
English as a foreign language in the same way that a Frenchman 
learns it. If we learn English only to that extent, we shall not have 
to carry the burden of thinking in Engird, speaking or writing it 



361 


QIDESnONS ON EDUQATION-I 

with correctness. In my opinion, at least five years of the stu- 
dent’s life are wasted in carrying this burden. Not only this. 
Because of the strain caused during these five years, his capacity to 
think is affected, he becomes enfeebled in the body and, like 
blotting-paper absorbing ink, he starts merely imitating in a super- 
ficial manner. How much a person would learn if he spent five 
years in getting the knowledge he needs through his mother- 
tongue! How much time he would save thereby! He would 
readily learn the best thoughts in his own language and be spared 
the burden of learning the diGBlcult pronunciation of a foreign 
language. 

Q,. % Child education at one end and university education 
at the other are very expensive. Gan these both be included in na- 
tional education? Alternatively, do you have any scheme for 
providing equally solid education at a lower cost? 

A. 1 have tried to show in those three articles how child edu- 
cation could become inexpensive, almost self-supporting. If we 
can fashion a university education which will aid primary educa- 
tion, it can be made inexpensive and students can acquire the 
necessary knowledge useful to the nation. If the phrase ‘‘solid 
education” implies education similar to that provided by Gov- 
ernment schools, the question is irrelevant, as I do not regard 
that education as solid. Hie education given in the national uni- 
versity or primary schools is distinct from that provided by Gov- 
ernment spools and is very often of a novel and original kind. 
It is therefore solid in its own way. 

q. 3. Advocates of tradition try to inculcate in pupils devo- 
tion for the guru. They tell the pupils that learning can be ac- 
quired only by pleasing the guru and in no other manner; that 
if one does not please the guru, does not serve him and attend 
on him he may out of slyness withhold knowledge; that one 
should always be flattering him to keep him firom being wicked 
in this way. Is this a defurition of gurubhakti? 

A. I am a believer m gambhakH, However, every teacher can- 
not become a g^ru. The guru-disciple relation^ip is spiritual and 
spontaneous, it is not artificial, it caimot be created through 
external pressure. Such gurus are still to be found in India. (It 
should not be necessary to warn that I am not speaking here of 
gurus who give mhsha.) The question of flattering such a guru 
just does not arise. The respect towards sudb a guru can only 
be natural, the guru’s love is also of the same Idnd. Hence the 
one is always ready to give and the other is always ready to 
receive. Common knowledge, on the other hand, is something 



362 


THB aOLLEOTED WORKS OF MAHATMA OAlHtHI 


which we can accept from anyone. I can leam a lot from a c 
penter with whom I have no connection and of whose faults I i 
aware; I can acquire a knowledge of carpentry from him just 
I purchase goods from a shopkeeper. Of course, a certain type 
faith is required even here. I cannot leam carpentry fron 
carpenter if I do not have faith in his knowledge of that subjt 
Gurubhakti is an altogether different matter. In character-buildi 
which is the object of education, the relationship between ' 
guru and his disciples is of utmost importance and where th 
is no gurubhakti in its pure form, there can be no character-buildii 
[Prom Gujarati] 

Nasajivan, 3-6-1928 


438. LETTER TO VALLABHBHAl PATEL 

Satyaoraha Ashr 

SABARMi 
June 3, 1. 

BHAISBIRI VALLABHBHAl, 

I am enclosing herewith a draft of the reply to the Go-' 
nor. [The struggle] is developing well. May you live Ic 
Write or wire when you need me. There are constant reports t 
you may be arrested. You will get some rest if you are. If • 
are not, haven’t we taken a vow never to rest? 

B. 

Vallabhbhai Patel 
Swaraj Ashram 
Barholi 

[From Gujarati] 

Bapuna Patro — Sardar Vallabhbhaine, p. 13 


439. LETTER TO VASUMATI PANDIT 


SABAKUA.'n, 
Silence Dtff [June 4^ 192S\^ 

am. VAsxnti^'n, 

I receive your letters regularly. You should acknowledge 
receipt of mine. I am just not able to write regularly. I am 
writing this at fom o’clock in the morning. The bell has started 
ringing now. 

There is scope enough yet to improve your handwriting. I 
read out one of your letters to the sisters here. As far as possible 
go to bed before 9 and get up at 4. Do you take exercise or not? 
Use some insecticide for killing bugs. If you can make any 
suggestions about keeping things clean, do so. How many Gujarati 
girls are there? Now 90 people dine in the kitchen. The number 
keeps on increasing, but others must be writing to you about 
all this. 

Blessings fiom 
BaPTJ 

From a photostat of the Gujarati: G.W> 476. Courtesy : Vasumati Pandit 


440. LETTER TO V. S. SRINIVASA SASTRI 

Sabakuati, 
June 4, 1928 

MY DEAR 3raUI!ND AND BROTHER, 

You are posting me regularly with the events on your side. 
They help me much. 

I am writing this week a cautious article^ in Toung India on 
the two judgments. If possible, I shall send you an advance copy. 

Pragji has written a long letter to me. He is a good man. I 
have acted upon your cablegram and cabled^ to oiur friends there 
that they should rely on you for guidance. 

I do hope you are keeping well. 

Yours sineerty. 

From a photostat: S.N. 8815 

* From the postmark 

* Vide "Indisuu in South AEcica”. 7-6-1928. 

3 Yidt “Gable to South Afticaa Indian Congress”, On or after 29-5-1928. 



441. BABDOU DAY 


Sababkati, 
June 5, 1928^ 

I hope that the Bardoli Day, that is, 12th June next, will be 
observed throughout India in an earnest and becoming manner. 
The best way to do so is wherever it is possible to suspend all 
work and devote the day to collection of funds for the satyagrahi 
sufferers and for helping Sjt. VaUabhbhai Patel and his band of 
workers in carrying on the struggle, and have mass meetings 
where further collections should be made and resolutions passed 
supporting the demand of the satyagrahis and condemning the 
coercive measures of the Gkivemment. I do not think that there 
should be a call for volunteers, because Sjt. VaUabhbhai Patel has 
already enough for his requirements. Offers have been received 
from aU parts of the country. And if more are required, I have 
no doubt that there are volunteers ready aU over the country. 
Friends from Maharashtra, Sind and elsewhere have already sent 
me messages that VaUabhbhai could rely upon almost an un- 
limited number. There may be unwarrantable optimism in 
this language, but after due allowance is made, there is no doubt 
that enough men and women, if necessary, wUl be forthcoming 
when and if the caU comes. 

Toung India, 7-6-1928 


1 The date la from 71b Bombtff ChromeU, 6-6-1928, which carried a brieT 
report of this item. 



442. LETTER TO SHANTIKUMAR MORARJI 

Tuesdcff {June 5, 192S\^ 

OHL SHANTIKnUAR, 

Enclosed herewith is Sumant’s .letter. Now I do not know 
what to do. I see there is need to reply to his charge. I shall call 
him here if you wish. But it would be better if you yourself talked 
it out with him if he has not altogether lost good sense. 

Blessings from 

Bapu 

From a photostat of the Gujarati: G.W. 4705. Courtesy: Shantikumar 
Moraiji 


443. LETTER TO V. J. PATEL 


Ashram, 

Wednesdqjft Jeth Vad 4 \June 6, 1928]^ 

BHAISHRI VITHALBHAI, 

1 have received Swami’s letter. I feel that we certainly cannot 
agree to the condition that the farmers should from today put 
into the bank the money which they will have to pay if the 
decision of the committee to be appointed goes against them. 
1 see Vallabhbhai’s as well as the farmers’ lack of trust in 
it. At present the farmers are putting up a fight saying that the 
enhanced revenue is unjustifiable. The Grovemment has no reason 
to believe that they would not pay or Vallabhbhai would not help 
them even if the decision of the committee by which they would 
themselves agree to abide went against them. Therefore, at least 
for the sake of our self-respect, we cannot agree to the condition 
that we deposit the money in the bank. All the terms of agreement 
will be made in public. Even Vallabhbhai’s terms of agreement 
will be made in public. The people will certainly pay. up the 
revenue without the additional amount, that is, nearly five lakhs. 
To collect the remaining money should be very easy for the Gov- 
ernment. 1 smell a rat in the talk of somehow recovering the addi- 
tional amount first. It will never satisfy us if they appoint a 

1 From tire postmark 

^Jeth Vad 4 seems to be an error for J$(h Vai 3 which was a Wednesday 
and ooneqKmded to June 6. 



366 


THB OOLLEOTED WORKS OF MAHATUA GANDHI 


coimnittee in name only. The committee should be impartial and 
open. We have not the slightest right to be so spiritless after the 
people have shown so much strength. If ultimately the people are to 
lose, they will do so. We should have no hand in their discomfiture. 

You can judge better than I when and at whose invitation 
you should go to Mahabaleshwar. I do not think that now I have 
left any part of Swami’s letter tmanswered. 

Bapu 

[From Gujarati] 

From th.e manuscript of Maliadev Dcsai’s Diary. Ck)urtesy: Narayan Dcsai 

444. LETTER TO BECHAR PARMAR 


Wednesday t Jeth Vad 4 [Jans S’, 1928^ 

BHAOHRI BEOHAR, 

I have your letter. One reply to it is that if any occupation 
goes against morality, it must be given up. The other is that there 
are only four vamas and there is nothing wrong with any of them. 
Therefore one should stick to one’s own varna and give up what- 
ever immoral practices one’s parents might have adopted, so that 
one could take up some other occupation whilst yet belonging 
to one’s own vama. 

Blessings from 
Moecandas 

From a photostat of the Gujarati: G.N. 5572 

445. LETTER TO VASUMATI PAfTDIT 


Ashram 

Wednesday, Jeth Vad 4 6, 1928^ 

OHIs VASUMATI, 

I do get your letters. You must have got mine.^ Ganga- 
behn and Manibehn have gone to Bombay. At present more than 
90 people dine in the common kitchen. Lilabehn too has come 

1 From the ductission regarding the vamas, continued in hia letter to the 
addressee dated 23-6-1928, it would seem that this letter too was written in 
1928, in which year Jeth Vad 4 corresponded to June 6. Wednesday however 
was Jeth Vad 3- 

^ From the postmark 

3 Vide “Letter to Vasumati Pandit**, 4-6-1928. 



LETTER TO OHniANLAL VORA 


367 


here for 15 days. Bhai Ghimanlal also dines there. The work is 
proceeding well. Balkrishna is here at present. Chhaganlal and 
Prabhudas paid me a visit yesterday. We get buffalo’s milk and 
mostly buffalo’s ghee only; therefore the question of giving up ghee 
in the Ashram is under discussion. You should find some simple 
way to overcome the problem of latrines. In any case eairth 
must be used at the end. 

Blessings film 
Baftj 

From a photostat of the Guj arati : G.W. 578. Courtesy: Vasumati Pandit 


446. LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA 


June 6, 1928 

BHAISimi OKANSHYAMDASJI, 

I got your letter. I too hold that asanas are beneficial. But 
my experience is that specific knowledge is needed to choose the 
asanas. 

It now seems that I shall remain in the Ashram during 
August. Do come. 

Tours, 

Mohandas 

Shriydt Ghanshyamdas Birla 

Birla Park 

Ballyoxjhoe 

Galoutta 

From Hindi: G.W. 6159. Courtesy: O.D. Birla 


447. LETTER TO GHIMANLAL VORA 

Jyaishtha Krishna 3 \Jme 6, 192 

BHAl QHDIAHIALJI, 

Your letter. Five articles mean just five and no more. If 
two articles are taken as medicine they have to be counted as 
two. Salt is not a separate article. My present diet consists of 
goat’s nulk, vegetable, wheat, lemon and almonds. Turmeric is 
counted separately. If something is added to quinine even that 
would malm two items, and so forth. 

I From the postmark 



36d TBB GOLLEOTSD WOSXS Of UABA'mA OAKBfit 

My belief is that by human effort one can within limits 
lengthen or shorten one’s hfe. Ultimately it is God who does every- 
thing but He uses someone as His instrument. 

Tours, 

Mohandas Gandhi 

SHRI GHOfANLAI. GUDABOHAND VORA 

Shrimau Mohalla 

Ratlah 

From a photostat of the Hindi: G.N. 6300 


448. THE TWO SIDES 

The communique of the Government of Bombay on the 
Bardoli Satyagraha is in keeping with the letter of the Commis- 
sioner, Northern Division, which I had the painful duty of 
criticizing only the other day.* This communique opens with a 
repetition of the insult that Sjt. Vallabhbhai and his co-workers 
are outsiders. Instead of being described as such they are describ- 
ed as “persons who do not reside there” (in Bardoli). The com- 
munique then shamelessly refers to the fact that when the attempt 
at distraint had failed, the Government resorted to an “organized 
attachment of bufiabes and movable property”. Sjt. VaUabhbhai’s 
publicity department has shown what the attachment of buffa- 
loes has meant. The communique further triumphantly refers to 
the fact that “forty Pathans were obtained to assist the Mam- 
latdar and Mahalka^ in the work of attacliment and the care of 
animals attached”. The publicity department has again shown 
us what the introduction of Pathans has meant. Even without the 
assistance of that department, we could have guessed the meaning 
of this introduction. Whether it is the Government or private people 
who employ Pathans, people know why the services of these friends 
are enlisted. Lest, however, the accepted meaning might be at- 
tached to the enlistment of Pathans, the communique proceeds: 
“Unfounded allegations have been made against these Pathans. 
Government are satisfied that their conduct has been exemplary 
in every respect”. Who does not laugh at this explanation? If, 
as the Government contend, the Pathans have be'en employed 
in order to replace the Vethias who are alleged to be under tlireat 
of excommunication, it is relevant to ask why Pathans have been 


* Vids “Tlie Only Ibuc”, 17-5-1928. 



THE TWO SIDES 


369 


chosen instead of Vethias from other places or some other mild- 
mannered men. The Gk>vemment pooh-pooh the notion as 
incredible that “five parties, each of five Pathans, working under 
the eye of a responsible officer of Government, can terrorize a popu- 
lation of 90,000 persons”. Again experience of the people of 
India shows what one Pathan armed with authority can do in a 
whole village. It is no doubt humiliating to think that Pathans 
or anybody else can terrorize large masses of men, but unfortu- 
nately it is a fact of daily occurrence in this fear-ridden, terror- 
stricken India. And I would consider the Bardoli struggle to be 
well fought, even without any further result, if the people of Bardoli 
shed their fear of men and authority and turn the Pathans into 
fidends. 

But the communique is not satisfied with a recital of the 
coercive measures taken in respect of movable property; it refers 
to forfeiture of lands. The Government are not adbiamed to own that 
“up to date of the communique 1,400 acres of such land have 
been disposed of imder forfeiture notices and that about 5,000 
acres more will be disposed of in due course unless the arrears 
due thereon be sooner paid,” and unnecessarily add that “such 
lands once disposed of would never be returned”. There are seve- 
ral other statements in the communique which are open to criti- 
cism, but I forbear. 

The communique announces some insulting accommodation 
for those who would pay the assessment on or before the 19th in- 
stant. It is for the people of Bardoli to return the only answer 
open to self-respecting men and women. When they embarked 
upon this struggle, they knew the cost of resistance. I have little 
doubt that they will not fail to render a good accotmt of 
themselves when the last heat of the struggle commences as they 
did during the opening stages. 

In marked contrast to the communique comes the letter ad- 
dressed to me by Sjt. Vithalbhai Patel announcing a handsome 
monthly donation of Us. 1,000 so long as the struggle lasts. 
Throughout his brilliant career as the Speaker of the Assembly 
Sjt. Vithalbhai Patel has upheld the rights of the people. Occu- 
pancy of office has not in the sli^test degree made him lose his 
head or compromise the honour of his country. Whilst he has acted 
with strict impartiality, he has neither hesitated nor been afiraid 
to act on behalf of the people wherever the holding of his office 
has permitted him to do so. The alien rulers have established a 
slavi^ tradition that those who are in the pay of the Government 
must in all circumstances refrain from showing their sympathy 
XXXVl-24 



370 


TBB GOIXECTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDSI 


for the people when the latter engage in any fight with the Gover 
ment, and thia even when the Government act in a mann 
contrary to laws promulgated by themselves. Sjt. Vithalbhai Pa 
has broken through that unhealthy and slavish tradition and 1; 
been able to do so because he has accepted his office not for 
honour,, not for the salary it brings him, but, as he puts it in ! 
letter, as a trust on behalf of those who have elected him to t 
office. It must be remembered that the Speaker is not a statute 
servant of the Grown. He is a popular representative and withe 
taking an active part in political controversies and the like, 
has a perfect right to show his sympathy for the people. Havi 
been elected as the Speaker, Sjt. Vithalbhai ceased to be a pa 
man; but he did not 2 md could not cease to be a representat 
of the combined parties who called him to preside over th 
deliberations. I therefore tender him my congratulations for 
manly stand he has taken up on behalf of the people. If en 
into legislative bodies created by the alien Government can 
held at all justifiable, he has shown to those who may enter th 
bodies and accept office the way to act nobly and fearlessly. 

Toimg India, 7-6-1928 


449, GASH v. CREDIT 

The Secretary, All-India Spinners’ Association, writes 
follows: 

The credit sales of the provincial branches of the Association am> 
to Rs. 1,54,486-13-8^ representing 15 per cent of the capital invi 
in these branches, and this is in spite of the resolution passed by 
Council patting a ban generally on credit sales. This is largely dt 
the misgiviiigs of our workers. They fear that the sales will go dov 
credits are completely stopped. The fear is groundless. The Tatni 
has done away with all credit sales, and it after all shows the la 
sales amongst all the khadi depots throughout India. You may in 
your various branches and the public that past experience shows 
khadi work loses through these credit sales as well by reason of the 
chasers making default as by reason of the locking up of capitsd w 
is none too large. 

I entirely endorse the wanting uttered in the foregoing le 
So long as khadi remains an infant national industry retjui 
delitate nur^ and protection firom the public, there should b< 
credit sales in khadi depots. We must simply rely upon the 


INDIANS IN SOOTH AfSIQA 


371 


port of a patriotic public and if we cannot command cash sales, 
we may regard the disinclination to pay cash as a sign that khadi 
does not enjoy the benefit of public protection. But my own per- 
sonal experience throughout my extensive wanderings has shown 
that people gladly pay cash for khadi when they require and 
receive credit in respect of their other purchases. To pay raah 
for khadi that the people want is the least protection that khadi 
is entitled to. Managers of sale depots must not be afiraid of losing 
custom if they do not give credit. They must rely upon their 
ability to carry on propaganda in their neighbourhood in favour 
of khadi for commanding cash sales. And in no case are they 
warranted in giving credits in spite of instructions from head- 
quarters to the contrary. Discipline demands that if they have no 
confidence in themselves to carry on khadi depots successfully 
without being able to give credit, they should give such notice 
to the head office and ask to be relieved of their charge. The head 
office should be trusted to know what is best on the whole for 
turning khadi into a business proposition as quickly as possible. 

Toung India, 7-6-1928 


450. INDIANS IN SOUTH AFRICA 

Two very important cases have been decided recently by the 
Transvaal ftovincial Division of the Supreme Court of South 
Africa. One of them, S. B. Mtdh v. Immigrants Appeal Board, 
though important in itself, affects only a few special cases of 
Indians who received exemption certificates under the Smuts- 
Gandhi Settlement as being educated Indians. It was contended 
by the Union Government that the exemptions were not comp- 
lete. I need not go into greater detail. The Court has now 
found that the exemptions were complete in the sense submitted 
on behalf of the appellant. 

The other case, Daya Purshottam v. Immigrants Appeal Board, 
has far-reaching consequences for the Indian settlers. The judg- 
ment in this case lays down that section 5 of Act 37 of 1927 
does not possess retrospective effect. Hence certificates obtained 
by fraudiilent means do not become cancellable at the will of 
the Immigration Board or the Immigration Officer. If this 
judgment stands, holders of certificates even thougli they were 
originally tainted will remain undisturbed. This is a great victory 
for the settlers. I have ho desire to see fraud in any shape or 
form protected. But the case of these settlers is not one of ordi- 



372 THE aOLLBGTED WORKS OF UABATUA OANDBI 

nary fraud. In many cases, at least up to 1914 the Asiatic Office 
was a corrupt departooent and it made it practically impossible 
for bonorjide entrants to enter unless they resorted to some crooked 
means so as to satisfy the greed of the Atiatic officers. Where Gov- 
ernment officials are privy to fraud, it ill becomes that Govern- 
ment to punish the helpless victims. 

Gables from the South African settlers tell me that the Gov- 
ernment are appealiag against the two decisions. I venture to sug- 
gest to the Union Government that it would be more in keeping 
with their conciliatory attitude and the spirit of the new under- 
standing that they do not seek to deprive the Indians of the advan- 
tage the two appeals give them. The judgment in the first appeal 
protects only a few individuals. And in their case there is no 
question of fraud. The judgment in the second appeal protects a 
fair number of those who are already in the Union. It will be no 
serious calamity for the Union to have to absorb a few more 
Indians than the Government had counted upon. The Union 
Government should remember that these appeals are very expen- 
sive afiairs especially for the poor Indians. It is hardly fair for 
an organiaed powerful Government to take successful citizens 
through appellate courts and thus exhaust them into submission 
or worse. It may be well to possess a giant’s strength, but it is 
admittedly wrong to use it against dwarfr. 

The settlers wfil do well not to set much store by their suc- 
cess in these two appeals. Tbey have in Sjt. Sastri a great friend 
and adviser. Let them press their suit as much as ever before 
him but having done so let them abide by his advice. He will 
use m their behalf all the influence he has acquired with the 
Union Government. I welcome their cables. I appreciate the 
trust they repose in me. But my power to help them from 
this distance and in the changed circumstances I found myself in 
1920 is much too limited to be of value. Their strength therefore 
lies in their unity, moderation and reliance upon one who is not 
merely Agent Gmeral for the Government of India but is their 
true and powerful £dend and guide. 

Xorng India, 7-6-1928 



451, LETTER TO SIR KISHUK PARSHAD 


Satyagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
JuM 7, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

It gave me joy to hear fi^m the lips of Babu Rup Narayan 
of the great interest you have been taking in the khadi movement 
and of the fact that you had already commenced spinning your- 
self. 1 commend to your attention the manner in which the 
movement is being handled by the Mysore State. I have no 
doubt that if it is properly taken up it will be a blessing to the 
poor agriculturists in the Nizam’s Donoinion. 

Babu Rup Narayan teUs me that I am to expect a sample 
of your yam and your eldest son’s. I am looking forward to the 
receipt of the samples. And if you will permit me, they will go 
to our Museum where samples of yam spun by distinguished 
persons are collected. 

Tours sinsmly, 

H. E. Maharajah Sir Kjshun Farshad 

Yaminds-Sultanath 

Orry Palaqe 

Hydbrarad (Decoan) 

From a microfilm: S.N. .13614 


452. DRAFT OF LETTER TO SIR LESLIE WILSOJf 

\3um 7, 192S\^ 

I thank you for your prompt reply to my letter of the 4th 
instant 

It is evident &om your letter that we are working at cross 
purposes. I fell to see why because I hold an important public 
position, I might not write to another holding an equally important 
public position a friendly letter drawing bis attention to what 
I might consider to be a serious breach of law or official duty 
pn the part of his officials. The fact that the holding of the position 

1 TWi with the following item. 



374 THE aOLLEOTED WORKS OF MAHATMA OANDBI 

I occupy prevents me &om entering into proofs of statements I 
might make does not mean that I have no warrant for makLag 
such statements or that I might not make them confidentially to 
a fellow official and that in the public interest. 

If you wiU re-read my letter of the 4th instant, you Will 
find therein thht I have not said that I have no proof of the 
statements I have made; on the contrary, I have given you the 
sources of my information. Is it not up to you now to adopt the 
only possible course, if you really want to have those statements 
proved, namely, to appoint a committee of enquiry? Tell me how 
offierwise you are to be satisfied about the correctness or otherwise 
of the statements I have made to you. 

With reference to the third paragraph of your letter, there is 
no question of my not believing you. I simply quoted your own 
letter to show that at the time you wrote to me that letter, you 
had made no enquiry. You evidently seem to think that the 
letter of the Commissioner is not open to objection, whereas I 
venture to suggest diat it is highly offensive and if it does not set at 
nought aU law, it does set at nought all order and decency and is 
bereft of aU official responsibility. And the last paragraph of your 
letter of the 17th ultimo, which is clear, shows that you had made 
no enquiry at the time you wrote that letter into the aUegations 
made by me. 

As to the fo\irth paragraph of your letter, let me assure you 
that my letter was in no way written in haste. It was a deliberate 
statement made by me wilh the fuU sense of my responsibility. 

In conclusion, let me ask you these two questions: 

Do you propose to take any notice of the letter of the Com- 
missioner, Norffiem Division, to which I have drawn your 
attention ? 

Do you propose to make any enquiry into the aUegations to 
which I have drawn your attention? 

Statements which I beUeve and for whidi ample proof can be 
given if the committee of enquiry is appointed are as foUows: 

(1) In many cases of attachment no panchnamas were prepar- 
ed, no receipts given and no account was rendered of the property 
attached. 

(2) Buffiiloes were attached without identifying the owners. 

(3) Property exempted firom attachment under Civil Proce- 
dure Code has also been attached. 

(4) Attachment during night. 

(5) House-breaking by breaking through hedges, removing 
doors off their hinges, etc. 



LETTER TO V. J, PATEL 375 

(6) Torturing of milch cattle and selling them for a trifle. 
Buffaloes valued at Rs. 1,200 were sold for Rs. 216. 

(7) A Pathan caught in the act of stealing. 

(8) Fathans molesting and acting indecently before women. 

(9) Fathans otherwise wounding the susceptibilities of the 
people. 

(10) Arbitrary notifications by the Collector or the District 
Superintendent. 

(11) Irregular procedure of the trials of satyagrahis. 

I have taken only a few samples out of many supplied to me. 
I need hardly say that whilst my letters being purely of a 
friendly nature have been meant to be confidential, you think 
that the correspondence between us may be made public, I have 
'on my part no objection whatsoever thereto. 

H. E. Sir Leslie Wilson 
Governor op Bombay 

From a photostat: S.N. 11447 


453. LETTER TO V. J. PATEL 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
Jun$ 7, 1928 

BHAISHRI VITHALBHAI, 

Herewith a draft of the reply to be sent to the Governor. 
You may make any change in it you want to. I see no need to 
send everything that Swami has put down. I have taken some 
of the points from it. I very much wish that the entire corres- 
pondence is published; but how is that to be done? The Gov- 
ernor seems to be binding himself more and more with every 
letter that he writes. 

Vandmatarm from 
Mohandas 

From a microfilm of ^ Otqarati: S.N. 14441 



m. LETTER TO MAHADEV DESAI 


[After 3im 7, 1928^ 

CEBO. MAHADEV, 

I have your wire. I have taken whatever was good. Lack of 
humility would be the least reason. I did not at all like the 
style of the article. I shall analyse it when you come. This article 
has almost the same drawback which disqualified Swami’s. But I 
do not know if you have a different opinion or expectation about 
yoxjT article; therefore if I have erred in my estimate, we shall 
both have to put up with it. 

Vallabhbhai will be pleased to see Rameshwar Birla’s letter. 
I enclose herewith the Governor’s letter to Vithalbhai along 
with the draft of a reply. 

Blessings from 

Bapu 

[PS.] 

I have destroyed those of your letters which were fit to be 
destroyed. You will see them all here. 

Ftodi a photostat of the Giyarati: S.N. 11447 


455, LETTER TO J, B. PE^mJfGTON 

Satvagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June S, im 

DEAR. RRIEND, 

I have your letter. I know that however much we may differ, 
if I am ever able to come to England, I am sure of a hearty greet- 
ing fix>m you. 

A fiiend did write to me saying that I should not reject thq 
advances of Sir John Simon if he wanted to see me, that he was 
a simple-minded, honest Englishman, who never stood on cere- 
monies and was likely to seek me out. If he had done so, 1 


^.Froni the reference to the draft VtoW to Qov^nor's letter, if is. dCM 
that th« was tyritten ^ftcr June 7, 



LETTER TO T. DE UANZIARLY 


377 


would certainly have gladly greeted him at the Ashram. I was 
uninterested, as I still am, in the Gommisaion. And, therefore, 1 
did not feel called upon to seek an interview with him. You know 
the geography of Western India. Ahmedabad is in an out-of- 
the-way comer, and therefore I may not expect busy people like 
Sir John Simon to go out of their beat to see individuals like me 
who can be of no assistance to them in their work. 

tows sincsnly, 

From a photostat: S.N. 14325 


456. LETTER TO SVEJfSKA KTRKANS 

Satyaoraha Asiiram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 8, 1928 

Messrs Svensea Kyreans 
Diaeonistyrelses Boeforlao 
Stooeholm 7 

GENTLEMEN, 

With reference to your letter of the 8th February, you are 
at liberty to publish an unabridged Swedish translation of the 
first volume of the “Story of My Experiments with Truth”. 

Any payment you make will be utilized for the furtherance of 
some of my public activities. 

Tows 

From a photostat: S.N. 15034 


457. LETTER TO T. DE MAN2J[ARLY 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 8, 192 8 

DEAR FRIEND, 

1 have your letter and the magazines for which I thank you. 
I take you at your word and send you this “very short” 
furticle if you will call it so. 

“My belief in the possibility of Hindu-Muslim union is un« 



378 


THE GOLLEOTED WORES OF MAHATllA OANDHI 


changeable in spite of the fact that if anyone were to ask for 
my reasons for that belief I should not be able to give them.” 

Tours sincerely, 

Madame T. de Manziarly 
21 Kub DU Ghemin Vert 
Gourbevoie 
Seine 

Fiom a photostat: S.N. 14324 


458. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 

SaTYAORAHA AsHRAM) 
Sabarmati, 
June 5, 1928 

DEAR SATIS :BABU, 

I have your letter. Our course is clear. If the Congress Exhi- 
bition is to be a replica of the Madras Exhibition, there ^ould 
be no khadi exhibition at the time of the Congress.^ I have not 
yet heard from Mr. Sen Gupta. 

I am anxious to know the medical report about Nikhil. He 
ought to pull through under the hip-bath treatment, perfect rest 
and milk diet. 

I send herewith an extract from Sir Daniel Hamilton’s letter. 
Do you know anything of the property in Sunderbans?^ And if 
you do, what is the condition of the people there and how many 
inhabit the property? 

With love, 

Bapu 

From a photostat: G.N. 8916 


* For Gandhiji's views on the Madras Exhibition, uub Vol. XXXV, pp. 
439-41. 

* In his letter dated May 16, 1928, Sir Daniel had written: '*On my pro- 
perty in Sunderbans of Bengal I want to make handicraft compulsory as well as 
book-lea rni ng. I want the children to be taught spinning, weaving, carpentry 
and improved agriculture.” 



459, LETTER TO MRS. RACHEL M. RUTTERS 


Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 8, 1928 

DRAR FRIEND, 

I thank you for your letter. What you say about Miss Mayo 
is only too true. There are people who will not stop at anything 
however untruthful it may be. 

I am taking the liberty of quoting in Tmr^ India that part^ of 
your letter which refers to Miss Mayo. 1 am not making use 
of your name. 

Mr. Andrews is just now in Colombo, nursing the Poet who 
on his way to Europe had to disembark owing to sudden Utness. 

Tours sinesrelj/, 

Mrs. Rachel M. Rutter 
Ireson Lane 
W mCANTON 
Somerset, England 

From a photostat: S.N. 14323 


460. LETTER TO RAMESHWARDAS PODDAR 

Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 8, 1928 

BHAI RAMESHWARDAS, 

Jamnalalji has passed on your letter to me. What shall I 
write to you! Do not lose patience, be calm and do not insist 
on doing anything that is beyond your capacity. We still have 
a saintly man like Shankerrao, consult him and act or if you stay 
in Wardha do what Jajuji advises. 

Blessings from 
Bapu 


From a photostat of the Gigarati: G.N. 195 

^ English missionary who had visited Gandhiji when he was convales- 
at Juhu, Bombay, in 1924 

2 This was publisbed in Toung India, 28-6-1928, under the title “An Im- 
pertinence’'. 



461. LETTER TO VASUMATI PANDIT 


June 9, 1928 

OHI. VASmiATI, 

I am getting all your letters. If no other arrangement can be 
made about a latrine and if there is difficulty in taking an enema, 
use a commode and clean it yourself. It would be cheaper to get 
one made there than going in for an English article. Commodes 
are used in many houses iu Dehra Dun. Make whatever improve- 
ments you can without creating any iU will. 

Chi. Kamala did not open your trunk. It was Gangabehn 
who had it opened for something and at that time she asked 
Prabhavati to see if there was a ihali^ in it. Gangabehn had en- 
trusted to Prabhavati the job of opening the trunk. I don’t see in 
this any cause for you to feel unhappy.. Kamala says that she never 
ransacked the trunk. She has told me to inquire of Prabhavati 
and further to confirm it and I intend to do so. But 1 do not 
t h in k that Kamala has hidden anything. I shall question Prabha- 
vati too for your satisfaction. 

The work here goes on satisfiictorily. Now it is three o’clock 
in the morning. 

Blessings fim 
Bapu 

[PS.] 

Improve your Hindi a great deal. 

From a photostat of the Gm'arati: G.W. 477. Ciourtesy: Vasuxoati Pandit 


1 Metal plate 



462. LETTER TO TAITABALI 


Ashrak, 
Sabasmati, 
JUM 9, 1928 

BHAISHRI TAIYABALI, 

I have your letter. I congratulate you on your resigning your 
job for the sake of your self-respect. 

Articles on khadi are published in Naoajivan from time to 
time. But it would not be proper to write articles bearing on indi- 
vidual communities. 

Put up with criticism from your relatives. What profession 
have you taken up now? 

Vandmataram fiom 
Mohandas Gandhi 

From Gujarati: C. W. 7758. Gourtes/: Lalchand Jeychand Vora 


463. LETTER TO HEMPRABHA DAS GUPTA . 

Ashram, 
June 9, 1928 

DEAR sister, 

I have your letter. Nikhil has come to Sodepur; in a way 
I am glad. I am inclined to believe that a milk diet, hip-baths, 
fresh air and perfect rest will cure him. In any case, don’t 
worry. What God has given He can take away when it pleases 
Him. How is Tarini? Other patients suffering from tuberculosis 
should, if they can afford it, be sent to a hiU-station. 

■ Blessittgs fim 

Bapu 


From a photostat of the Hixidi: G.N. 1657 



464. LETTER TO KEDARNATH BANNERJEE 

[After Jim 9, 1928^ 


I have your letter. 

I have no doubt that even if it should cause temporary pain 
to your father you should leave him and go where you can earn 
a decent livelihood so as to help your people. 

Tours sincerdy, 

Kedaknath Bamnbrjbe 
Naya Ganj 
Gawnfokb 

From a microfilm: S.N. 14056 


465. QUESTIONS ON EDUCATION-II 

0 ,. 4. Nowadays the teacher’s task has in fact been reduced 
to that of a postman or a foreman. It consists only of placing 
books written by educationists in the hands of pupils and of 
supervising whether they make use of these or not. In addi- 
tion to this, what other skill do you expect the teachers to possess ? 

The science of education has been developed to the extent 
where the term ‘teacher’ may be defined as one who can clarify 
the meaning of difBcult passages and prepare abstracts of long 
chapters. Why should we not now accept this ideal? 

A. 1 keep on feeling that teachers in the true sense of the word 
are essential, no matter how good the text-books are. A good 
teacher would never content himself with summarizing or ex- 
plaiaing the iheaning of difficult passages. Time and again, he 
would go beyond the text-books and present his subject to the 
pupil in a vivid manner in the same way as an artist does. The 
best text-book may be compared to the best photograph. How- 
ever, just as a painting by an artist although second rate is in- 
variably superior to a photograph, similar is the case with a real 
teacher. A true teacher introduces the pupil to his subject, 
creates in him interest for the subject and enables him to under- 

1 This was in reply to the addressee’s letter dated June 9, 1928. 



383 


QUESTIONS ON EDUOATION-U 

Stand it independently. In my opinion, one who explains difficult 
passages and prepares abstracts can never be regarded a good 
teacher. Our endeavours should be to turn out true teachers who 
could be infused with a spirit of service. It is not that stray 
instances of such teachers are not to be found even today. 

0,. 5. At the time of the educational conference at Broach you 
said although primary education might be free, it should not be 
compulsory and that even a good thing should not be compulsorily 
enforced on a nation which was not independent. If today the 
educational structure were to come within your control, would 
you or would you not see that your educational system in which 
khadi and other national crafts have a place of primary importance 
was made compulsory? 

A. I don’t think I have as yet the courage to make compulsory 
the educational system that I have conceived. I think our coun- 
try has no need of it for many years to come, because although 
primary education ought to be made compulsory, many condi- 
tions that go before it remain to be fulfilled. I feel that if we put 
before the people the type of education that will further their 
growth and also meet with their approval, they will readily wel- 
come it without any effort on our part. 

0 ,. 6. Do you believe that teachers have a right to give any 
kind of religious instruction which is in accordance with their 
viewpoint? 

A. Teachers who teach under a common administrative system 
have no right to impart religious instruction according to their 
own viewpoint. 

As in the case of other subjects, religious instruction too must 
be given in accordance with the scheme provided by the ad- 
ministrative authorities. Every teacher will have his own method 
of teaching within that framework; however,, such instruction may 
be imparted only in accordance with the ideals that have been 
laid down by the authorities with regard to religion. 
It is true that instruction in other subjects can be imparted by 
one who has read certain books on these subjects. That is not the 
case of religious instruction. It is never given through books. 
The method of imparting this instruction is quite different from 
that followed in the case of other subjects. Whereas the latter is 
communicated through the intellect, the former can proceed 
from one’s heart alone. Hence so long as the teacher is not steep- 
ed in religion, he should not impart religious instruction. Al- 
though in this manner the means of imparting religious instruction 
are different, nevertheless it is necessary to have a certain amount 



384 


THS aOLLSOrfED VfdK&a Ot tCAHAll^ OANfim 


of understandiag about the way in which it is to be done. In other 
words, one cannot impai't education which would encourage vio- 
lence where non-violence has been accepted as the supreme dharma. 
Or, instruction antagonistic to other religions cannot be imparted 
where the ideal of love, tolerance and compassion towards all re- 
ligions has been accepted as the ideal. In short, there can be no 
place for a state of anarchy with regard to religious instruction 
where its necessity has already been accepted. 

[From Gujarati] 

MaDajivan, 10-6-1928 


466. THE TAJNA AT BARDOU 

The satya^aha being offered at Bardoli is certainly a kind of 
yajna. AU altruistic work is directed towards the welfare of others. 
Since the peasants of Bardoli are fighting not for their individual 
interest but for the benefit of society and for their self-respect, it 
is a yajm. Offerings are made every day. The news of the latest 
of these has just come in. It is as follows:^ 

This can be regarded as a fitting rejoinder to the Govern- 
ment’s notification. I congratulate the patels and the talatis 
on showing courage in this manner. I hope that they will remain 
steadfast in this decision and will never repent of it. 

It is imperative that people get over the glamour of Govern- 
ment service. Anyone whose limbs are intact and who is indus- 
trious finds no difficulty in earning his bread honestly. If instead 
of welcoming the opportunity to rob people which a Govern- 
ment employee gets, if we considered it as something wrong and 
avoided it, the limbs of the Government would be weakened. 
Our own people are the limbs of the Government. If they get 
out, its am mun ition and aeroplanes would be rendered useless. 

The Government’s notification is fiill of untruth, arrogance and 
contempt for the people. I hope no peasant of Bardoli will be 
lured by the temptations it holds out. 

The Government has fully exploited and is still exploiting the 
fourfold method of sama, dama, danda, bkeda.^ Amongst these, punish- 

‘Thu is not translated here. It stated that about 40 patels and wi gb t 
talatis had resigned in the two preceding months as a protest against Govern- 
ment’s policy of rqiression. In their latest notification the Government threaten- 
ed to take stricter action. 

^Appeasement bribery, (threat of) punishment and divisiveness ' 



rtME VAjkA At ^Asbbii 33S 

fiient is the least blameworthy since we can recognize it. Having 
endured it, we can spare ourselves its dread. 

The other three are subtle. These involve temptations. Just as 
a fish while trying to lick the bait on the hook gets caught in it, 
unsuspecting and tinud people get caught up in these poi- 
sonous triple strands. The temptation offered to people who 
would pay up their revenue before the 19th of June constitute the 
policy of bribery. The people have a right to expect that not 
one peasant will break his pledge by succumbing to this bribe. 
Let Bardoli ensure that the stamp of courage and forbearance 
which it has impressed upon the whole of India is never erased. 
The policy of bfuda is even more hateful than bribery. 

Many kinds of rumours are afloat. Some say the Govern- 
ment desires a settlement, others claim that the people are weaken- 
ing; yet others say that people have started secretly paying up 
revenue dues; some others say that but for fear of ostracism, 
people are prepared to pay up Aeir dues; some assert that people 
refrain firom paying up ^eir dues for fear of the outsiders like 
Vallabhbhai and his colleagues, and that these poor people would 
like to pay up their revenue and live in peace. 

AH this amounts to a policy of bheda. I do not mean to say 
that anyone specifically plans this so. But a policy based on 
these four tactics operates by itself. All those who are in the Gov- 
ernment’s service know that rise in their salaries and their position 
is implicit in their being amenable to the policy of the Government. 
Bhishma, Drona and others too had to point to their stomach 
before Yudhishthira. 

Hence, as the movement gathers momentum, the policy of 
alienation will be intensified. AH satyagrahis should avoid this 
snare. They should give credence to no rumour. They should put 
before Sardar whatever they come to hear and should then for- 
get aH about it. A satyagrahi diould have only one consolation. 
His task is accomplished when his pledge is fulfiHed. More he 
should not ask for and with less he sho^d not be satisfied. He 
should be resolved to sacrifice what is dearest to him at the 
altar of his pledge. What could such an individual have to do 
with rumours? Moreover, need he be misled or tempted by the 
words of anyone who hsis the audacity to make an outsider of 
their beloved Sardar? Sardar wiH teH them when a settlement is 
about to be made. 

And he ^ould not be misled by the talk of people secretly 
paying up their dues. A few weak individuals are to be found in 
every community. It has been my experience that although only 
XXXVI-25 



386 Tdz aOLLBdl^D WOR^ of ItA^AitlA OANDdi 

a few give in secretly, their. number is exaggerated. It therefore 
befits a satyagrahi not to believe this talk of secret paying-up. He 
should believe that others also have the same strength that he 
himself has. But he should not feel despondent if after aU some 
people do give in secretly. Dharma is for them who observe it. 

God’s way is for the brave; it has no room for the coward.^ 

✓ 

[From Gujarati] 

Jfasajivan, 10-6-1928 


467, BARDOU DAT 

The 12th of June has been fixed for expressing sympathy with 
the satyagrahis of Bardoli and helping them in other ways. How 
should we observe this day? All struggles involving satya- 
graha call for self-purification. A satyagrahi tries to make his 
truth triumph through his own purity and through his penance 
and he has faith in his endeavours. Hence let us attain the ut- 
most degree of purity on the 12th of Jime and ask God to give 
us the strength to bear any sufierings so that truth may triumph. 
This can be regarded as first-class help. Moreover, since Bardoli 
is in Gujarat, that province, realizing that it has a special responsi- 
bility towards it, should start on the 12th of June a yajm for self- 
purification. If possible, on that day everywhere people should 
absolutely voluntarily stop their routine business — ^their means of 
livelihood — and collect funds to help the struggle in Bardoli. Huge 
meetings should be held at various places in the evening and 
resolutions should be passed expressing sympathy with the strag- 
gle and condemning the Government’s anarchical policy. Fur- 
ther, at all such meetings contributions should be collected firom 
those who have not been approached for such contributions during 
the course of the day, and have come to attend the meeting. 

[From Gujarati] 

Najajioan, 10-6-1928 


1 The fint line of a song by Pritam, a Oujaiad poet 



468. GOD OR GURU— WHO IS GREATER} 


Under the above heading a gentleman has sent me the £}1> 
lowing article:* 

I have no knowledge of what the writer has said about the 
Marwari devotee. I am not acquainted with the three verses from 
Siddhanta Raha^a^ whose purport he has given. But there is no 
doubt that a belief of the kind he has discussed does exist in 
Hinduism. 1 myself sing the following verse every morning: 

Guru is Brahma, Guni is Vishnu, Guru is God Siva, 

Guru verily is the Supreme Brahman; to that Guru I bow. 

I am convinced there are strong reasons for the Hindu 
belief concerning the greatness of the guru. That is why I have 
been looking for the true meaning of the word ‘g^uru’ and say- 
ing time and again that I am in quest of a guru. The guru in 
whom Brahma, Vishnu and Siva merge and who is the Supreme 
Brahman Himself cannot be an embodied man with his humours 
and diseases. He will possess the powers of Brahma, Vishnu and 
Shiva. In other words. He can only be an ideal being. This guru, 
our desired god, can only be Giod who is the embodiment of Truth. 
Hence the quest for such a guru is the quest for God. If we look 
at the matter thus, the meaning of all that the writer has said is 
easily understood. One who can show us God is certainly fit to be 
guru and may be said to be greater than God. We see God’s 
creatures sufiermg in many ways. Anyone who can free us from 
this web would deserve a place superior to God’s. This is also the 
meaning of the saying: “The servant of Rama is greater than 
Rama.” The meaning of all these great utterances is so simple 
that if we examine them with a pure heart we shall not be led as- 
tray. Every such great utterance has an indispensable condition 
attached to it. One who frees us from desire, anger and so on, ini- 
tiates us into the religion of love, frees us from fear, teaches us 

1 This is not translated here. The writer had referred approvingly to 
Gandhiji’s view that no living being should be worshipped and no man could 
be called good while yet alive {yide "Indulgence in the Name of Devotion", 
6-5-1928.), but had pointed out that, according to Hindu tradition, God could 
be reach^ only by the grace of the guru and therefore one could worship the 
guru. He gave the instance of a Marwari devotee from Calcutta being received 
by the crowds in Bombay with drums and cymbals. 

2 A work of Vallabhacharya 



388 TEiB QOLLfOrfiD WO&IU OF llAltA'mA OANb^ 

simplicity, gives us not only the intelligence to establish identity 
with the poorest of the poor but also the heart to feel sudb iden- 
tity, is certainly, for us, more than Gk>d. This does not mean that 
such a servant of God by himself is greater than God. If we fall 
into tlic sea we shall be drowned. However, if we drink, when we 
are thirsty, a jugful of water from the Ganga which flows into the 
sea, taking it from near tlie source, tliat Ganga water is more to us 
than the sea. But the same Ganga water is like poison if taken at 
the point where the Ganga meets the sea. The same is true 
witlr regard to the guru. To accept as guru one who is full of con- 
ceit uud arrogance and hungering to be served is like drinking 
tiro poisonous water of the Ganga that carries all manner of filth 
into tire sea. 

Today we practise adharma in the name of dharma. We cherish 
hypoa'isy in the name of truth and degrade ourselves as well as 
otlxcra by pretending to be possessed of spiritual knowledge and 
usurping all lands of worship. At such a time dharma consists 
in reusing to accept anyone as guru. It is doubly sinflil, when a 
true guru cannot be found, to set up a clay figme and make a 
guru of it. But so long as a true guru is not found there is merit 
in going on saying "Not this. Not this.*’, and it may one day lead 
to our finding a true guru. 

There are many hazards in trying to go against the current. 
I liave had, as I continue to have, many expericnces—bi^ and 
sweet— of this. I have learnt but one thing from these, viz., that 
whatever is immoral and must be opposed should be opposed, 
even if one is all alone in opposing it. And one should have the 
faitli that if the opposition is truthful it will one day surely bear 
fruit. 

A devotee who is after eulogy or worship, who is offended if 
not given honour, is no devotee. The true service of a devotee is 
to become a devotee oneself. Hence I oppose, wherever possible, 
the worship of human beings which is in vogue nowadays and 
urge others to do likewise. 

[From Giyarati] 

J^avcffioan, 10 - 6-1928 



469. WHAT DOES SELF-CONTROL REQJJIRE? 

A gentleman who wishes to enter into an argument writes to 
say:* 

It is my experience that self-control which requires another’s 
consent cannot last for any length of time. Self-restraint needs 
only the consent of one’s own inner voice. It owes its streng^ 
to soul-force. And that self-control which has its roots in know- 
ledge and love cannot but leave its impress on its surroundings. 
Ultimately the other party too becomes agreeable to it. This is 
true also of husband and wife. If the husband has to wait 
till the wife is ready or vice versa, most probably neither will 
be able to shake off the desire. In many instances where one 
partner relies on the other for practising self-control, it finally 
breaks down because of this lukewarm attitude. If we go deeper 
into the matter we shall find that when one partner waits for the 
other’s consent, he is not really prepared for self-control or is not 
truly keen. It is for this very reason that Nishkulanand has said: 
"Unless attachment goes renunciation cannot stay.” If the latter 
requires attachment to go along with it, one who wishes to practise 
self-control may require the consent of the other who does not. 

The above correspondent has a straight path before him. He 
is yet unmarried, and if he is really determined to practise 
brahmachaiya why should he marry at all? His parents and other 
relatives will of course say firom their own experience that for a 
youth to talk of brahmachaiya is like churning the ocean and, say- 
ing so, holding out threats, displaying anger and meting out 
p unishm ent, they would try to dModge him from his pious resolve 
to practise brahmachaiya. However, one to whom breach of 
brahnachaiya is the highest punishment and who would not do it 
even to seciue an empire, how can sudb a one get married, giving 
in to anyone’s threats? My article from which the above passage 
has been quoted was not meant for those who arc not so firmly 
determined and who have not set such great store by brahma- 
chaiya. 

[From Gujarati] 

Naoc^van, 10-6-1928 

* Tlie letter is not translated here. Hie correspondent had adced whether 
a spouse wishiog to observe brahmaehaya shovild Ufft fint (eck (opcurrepcQ 
of the other party. 



470. LETTER TO JV. R. MALKAJfl 


Sattaoraha. Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 10, 1928 

UY DEAR MALEANI, 

I have your letter. Don’t expect anything long from me just 
now. 

I am glad Mathuradas’s work was as sound as you describe 
it to have been. I had no doubt about his ability in the direc- 
tion. He is a fine worker. 

I am glad too that you are discovering potency of khadi in 
more directions than one. But of course your chief work is to 
make flood relief thoroughly businesslike. If you need any 
help from here in the ^ape of workers, you will not hesitate to 
tell me. 1 may not be able to cope with your demand, but at least 
let me have &e option of saying no. 

Ignore the Hindu-Muslim question. Let experts devote them- 
selves to it. 

Tours sintmfy, 

SjT. Narayandas Malkani 
Oentrax. Flood Belief GoMMrrrEE 
Hyderabad, Sind 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13410 


471. LETTER TO JAJfAKDHARI PRASAD 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Jme 10, 1928 

DEAR JAKAEDHARI BABU, 

I have your letter. The word ‘labour* covers the work of 
service such as you are doing. ‘ But it cannot cover artistic, lite- 
rary or other pursuits for pleasure. 

I Hie addressee had asked: ‘'What is the meaning of ‘honest labourers’. 
Do you use it in the sense of manual labourers or in the wider sense? Is there 
any room for literary, artistic, aesthetic pursuits?” 



LETTER TO ARTHUR MOORE 391 

I see that your reference was to the eldest son of Vindheshwari 
Babu. 1 am sorry for the mistake. 

Of course I do not anticipate any difficulty about your wife.* 

Tours sincerely, 

M. K. Gandhi 


From a photostat: G.N. 52 


472. LETTER TO ARTHUR MOORE 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 10, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I must apologize to you for not having acknowledged your 
telegram. And meanwhile I have your letter* before me. Since 
receiving your telegram, I have been having cuttings from The 
Statesman, which I am keeping on my desk. I have read the first 
two articles with interest. I have not yet reached the rest. The 
fact is I hardly get any time to attend to anydiing outside my 
beat. 

If I can usefully take part in the discussion that you have 
inaugurated, I shall not fail to do so. But 1 confess to you that 
neither the Statutory Commission nor constitution-making inte- 
rests me much. I am concentrating my attention upon the means 
of attainment of swaraj. Neither the Statutory Commission nor 
constitution-making appeals to me as part of die means. 

Tours sincerely, 

Arthur Moore, Es{^. 

Editor, 

“The Statesman” 

6 Chowrinohbe 
Caloutta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13411 

* The addressee had written: “I shall certainly write to you before I think 
of sending wife to the Ashram.” 

*The addressee had written: “Is it not possible that we could collectively 
clarify our ideas by a friendly discussion during the course of this summer, 
and, perhaps, arrive at some agreement, or approach to agreement, as to the 
lines of a future constitudoh? My idea is that this discussion should be con- 
ducted without regard to the Statutory Commission, so as to bring into it both 
those who are willing to co-operate with the Commission and those who are not.’* 



473. LETTER TO SADANAND 


SATyAORAHA AsHRAM, 
Sabaricati, 
June 10, 1928 

MV DEAR SADANAND, 

I have your letter with a copy of my so-called contribution 
to the Anglo-American Newspaper Service. 

i have sent nothing to this Service or any other Service on the 
topic mentioned in this copy. But on going through the copy 
sent by you, I observe that it is an indifierendy-taken newspaper 
report of a speech I delivered in Colombo during my Ceylon 
visit.i A fairly good report of that speech appears in Mahadev’s 
booklet on the Ceylon tour. I am glad you did not publish it 
and referred the copy to me for confirmation. 

Tours sineortly. 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13413 


474. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 

' Jtmt 10, 1928 

DEAR satis BABU, 

If your interpretation of the Pabna setdement is correct, what 
a great tragedy? And yet 1 must remain dumb. I thought that we 
had outlived this dread of imprisonment. Evidendy we have 
not. How is Nikhil? Hemprabhadevi must give me a weekly 
letter. Did [I tell]® you I wrote to Dr. Ray? 

With love, 

Toms, 

Bapu 

From a photostat: O.N. 1534 


iQaadhiji visited Oeylon in November 1927; oids Vol. XXXV. 
3 With Gaidhyi in 
3 The p^:er here U ducoloured< 



475. SPEECH AT GUJARAT VIDTAPITH, AHMEDABAD 


Jim 11, 1928 

At present you students are perhaps in a disturbed' mood. You 
invited me to stay here so that your state of suspense may end 
or for some other reason, and I agreed, hoping to ease or to end 
this state. But all or most of those who extended the invitation 
have proved to be cowards. Having invited me they turned me 
out. The conditions laid down when I was called again were sudh 
as would not be acceptable to a self-respecting man like me. By 
breaking them, you let sHp a good opportunity to come closer 
to me. But we are not separated. The aims of the Vidyapith form 
a bond between you and me. I wanted you to assimilate these 
ideals, but then I could not succeed. 

You might have gone through these aims during the vacation. 
If you had thought over them, you must have understood quite 
a few things. If you did not utilize your holidays in that way you 
must have come back as you went home. I have often said in 
the Vidyapith that you should never strive to increase your num- 
bers. I do not mean to say that we would not like large num- 
bers, but their absence need cause no disappointment to us, it 
miist not give rise to a feeling that it is aU over or that we have 
lost the game. We may be fewer number or more, but our 
real strength lies in the acceptance of these ideals and in practi- 
sing them to the extent it is humanly possible. Even if there are 
few such students, we can surely accomplish what we want to 
through the Vidyapith, that is to say, fi'eedom, not final deli- 
verance, but deliverance in the form of swaraj; the fireedom for 
which the Vidyapith has been established will be surely won. If 
we are false we shall not get swaraj. You will see that the chan- 
ges which have taken place and which you wiU find taking place 
hereafter had to be introduced with -some hesitation lest they 
prove burdensome to you. What a pitiable condition this is! 
This is worthy neither of you nor of us. What is needed is a 
categorical assurance fi:om you to the teachers and the manage- 
ment that you will not hesitate in the least to implement these 
principles; you will never swerve firom the path of duty. There has 
been no such assurance and I have come to ask for it. The work 
will shine forth if from "the '’’very ’beginning of -the term you fi-ee 
your teachers firom worry. There should not be even' an iota of 



394 THE aOLLEOTBD WOEES OF MAHATHA. OAinSHI 

falsehood in your work. You will bring credit to the Vidyapith 
only if you do not deceive yourselves, your teachers, your elders 
and your country. You can ask your teachers for an explanation 
for every single matter. It is their duty to solve your problems. 
If you fail to do it and just mark time, then the administration of the 
Vidyapith will be out of tune. The functioning of the Vidyapith 
should be as smooth as music. The ground note of the tempura 
produces only gross music. It is only one whose life is full of 
miisic who can be said to know music in the true sense. Even a 
child would know this music of life, if its parents have guided 
him correctly. Crying is the only speech known to the child, even 
that, if harmonious, sounds well. The students should have the 
sweetness of a child. It is easy to obtain this state if you are 
truthful. India’s swaraj can be won through the students if they 
are truthful in their conduct. There is no need to prove that 
swaraj is to be achieved only through the way of truth and non- 
violence, as this is inherent in the principles of the Vidyapith. One 
who doubts it has no place here; or if he docs he ^ould have 
his doubt cleared at the earliest opportunity. 

The difference between a Government school and our school 
should be understood. Some of oiu* students have gone to jail 
and more will follow. That is a credit to the Vidyapith. Gan the 
students of a Government school dare help Vallabhbhai? Or after 
helping him, can they remain in the college without deceiving their 
teachers? Then, whatever their education, what use is it? What use 
is education stripped of its essence? What is a counterfeit rupee 
worth? The man who cheats by circulating it deserves to be 
punished. The position of the students of a Government school is 
like that of this counterfeit rupee. Our school certainly has pre- 
served that essence; besides, it is going to increase. 

Another difference ^ould also be borne in mind. I have 
pointed out many times that there can be no comparison between 
the education imparted in a Government college and that given to 
you. You will be lost if you enter that maze. We shall not be 
, equal to them. We do not want to teach English the way it is 
taught there. But we want to give the students a defcp under- 
standing of literature through the Gujarati language. We want 
to ensure the spread of the Gujarati language, to see that it shines 
forth, that it is able to express our deepest tiioughts. To have to 
use Englitii words while tal]^g in Gujarati is a perverse and utter- 
ly shameful state. In no other country do we find such a state 
of things. We shall later impart sudi knowledge of the English 



SPBEQH AT GUJARAT VIDYAPITH, AHUEDABAD 395 

literature as would be necessary. Whatever knowledge we acquire 
at present will be obtained through Gujarati only. We shall learn 
science also through our own language. If we cannot coin new 
technical terms, we shall adopt English words but their explanation 
will be in Gujarati only; thus our language will acquire force and 
whatever adornments we want to use would come naturally to 
our tongue and pen. We ought to get out of this ludicrous state 
as soon as we can. Wliat I have written about this in J{avajivm you 
may take as the last word. How much has the nation to suffer 
because knowledge is imparted through Englidit This is one 
iiutance of the fact that we have failed in our dharma, and in 
our conduct too. 

The second instance relates to economics. The economics 
taught there is inadequate. If you are inquisitive, you will find 
that the economics taught in German, American or French lan- 
guages differs firom one another. From the talk that I liad with a 
Hungarian visitor, I gathered that the economics of his country 
must be quite different. Each country has its own science of eco- 
nomics, based on the local conditions. It is not right to assume 
that one country’s economics is true for the whole world. Why 
are the economics taught today ruining India? We do not know 
Indian economics, we have to discover it. 

The same is true of history. The teachers should consider 
what the history of India could be. A Frenchman writing a history 
of India will write it in a different way; so would an Englishman. 
An Indian looking into original records and studying Indian condi- 
tions would certainly write it differently. Do you believe as abso- 
lutely true the English accounts of the Anglo-French conflicts? Who- 
ever wrote them might have written them correctly, yet they are 
written firom his own point of view. He would narrate only those 
incidents wherein the English won. W6 too would do the same. 
The French too would do the same. In fact we would write an 
altogether different history of India. An English scholar would 
interpret the Mahabharata in one way, an Indian in another, and in 
a still different way if he sincerely followed it. Vincent Smith has 
a style and erudition, what he writes therefore looks well, but it is 
not correct. English scholars themselves point out that there is in 
it much that is not true and that much has been left out. The same 
can be said about William Wilson Hunter. Here history would 
not be taught fi'om books. If the teacher has made an extensive 
study of India and has observed for himself, if he is a patriot, he 
will teach history in a particular way. But if he has stuffed his 
mind with histories written by Englishmen he is going to take 



396 THE aOLLEOTBD WORKS OR MAHATMA GANDHI 

you nowhere; nor has he himself found a way. He is under the 
malignant influence of Saturn! 

In our institution, everything will be taught in a way oppo* 
site to that in a Government school. Our teacher wfll solve mathe- 
matical problems in a different way. Gregg is composing a novel 
science of mathematics for the Indian children whom he teaches. 
Our teacher should not teach with the help of the distance be- 
tween Manchester and Liverpool. He should flame his examples 
from conditions here, so that our history and geography too may 
be learnt flom this. We have to reconstruct everything, mathe- 
matics, history, economics, geography. If you students do not 
help in this, what can the teachers do? And if the teachers 
themselves are immature it is obvious that the principles will 
crumble. 

Do not give up your faith, patience and perseverance. If you 
have faith in the teachers and the principles, you would not be 
faint of heeirt, nor even if your strength is sinaU, and you will 
bring glory to the Vidyapith. You wfll compel your teachers to 
give you all that they have. If you are studious, you will be able 
to pester your teachers with questions about what I have spoken. 
If you take enough interest here is plenty of interesting work, 
you will have vigorous bodies, vigorous minds and vigorous souls. 

You come here to enlighten your souls. Hence if you take 
interest in vocational training that is provided here, even if you 
have no flair for vocations, you will acquire one. But it will not 
be possible if you go about your work mechanically. If you take 
interest you will see that it also is a science by itself. If you work 
intelligently, you will find that there is a lot of interest in it. 
You wfll be able to prove that there is a science behind it. Resolve 
that you want to become a weaver, a carpenter, and win freedom 
for India; that you do not want to take up a job nor be a tea- 
cher. Determine to live by labour, by weaving khadi, by becom- 
ing a khadi worker. 

[From Gujarati] 

J^taajivan, 17-6-1928 



47$. LETTER TO PREMLILA THACKERSEY 


JuM 11, 1928 

DEAR BISTBR, 

I received Rs. 100 from you two days ago. I got your letter 
only today. If we can stiU see to it that your name is not pub- 
lished, we shall do so. This will be possible only if it has not 
yet been published. 

I am keeping well. When will you come again? 

Vandmaiaram from 
Mohandas 

From a photostat of the Gnjarati: Q.W. 4812. Courtesy: Fremlila 
Tbackeney 


477. LETTER TO S. MURATORI 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmaii^ 
June 13, 1928 

DEAR ESIEND, 

With reference to your letter of 15th May, I have no objection 
to your publishing an Italian translation unabridged of the firs 
volume of “The Story of My Experiments with Truth”. 

I do not make any special conditions, but anything you may 
care to give will be utilized for the furtherance of my public acti- 
vities. 

Tottrs sineenljf, 

S. Mdratori, Esq,. 

G/o Italian Constilate 
BJ a.LARD Estate 
Bombay 


From a microfilm: S.N. 14747 



478. SATYAGRAHA ASHRAM 


This Ashram was opened on 25th May, 1915. A constitution 
was drawn up when it was founded. It underwent a revision during 
my incarceration. The copies were exhausted long ago. My col- 
leagues and I found it desirable to recast the constitution in view 
of the many changes and ups and downs that the Ashram had 
undergone. Its unexpected expansion too made the old constitution 
out of date. The burden of preparing the first draft fell on my 
shoulders. Though pressure of work was ample excuse for the delay, 
I know that my subconscious self shirked the task. I was not 
clear as to the changes that were to be made. But my colleagues 
would give me no peace and Maganlal’s death hastened the com- 
pletion. The following constitution is the result of the joint 
labours of the main workers. It is published purely as a draft, 
though pending revision it is to be accepted as a brnding consti- 
tution by the Managing Committee. It is published in order to 
secure the opinion of fiiends and critics known and unknown of 
the Ashram. Any criticism or suggestions that may be sent will 
be thankfully received. I may be permitted to mention that the 
Ashram represents a prayerful and scientific experiment. The 
observances are many but they have been tested for the past 13 
years of the existence of the Ashram. Whilst it is impossible to 
rlaiw their perfect fulfilment by any one of us, the workers have 
in all humility tried to enforce them in their lives to the best of 
their ability and with more or less success. The curious will find 
that the new draft bears very close resemblance to the original 
constitution as it was drawn up in 1915. 

Founded on Vaiskakh Sud 11th, Samvat iP7i,— May 25th, 
1915, — at Kochrab, and since removed to Sabarmati. 

Objeot 

The object of this Ashram is that its members should qualify 
themselves for, and make a constant endeavour towards, the ser- 
vice of the coxmtry, not inconsistent with the universal welfare. 

Obsbrvanobs 

The following observances are essential for the fulfilment of 
the above object: 

I. Truth 

Truth is not fulfilled by mere abstinence firom telling or practi- 



ftAtVAORAHA. ASkSAk 


m 

sing an untruth in ordinary relations with fellow-men. But Truth 
is God, the one and only Reality. AH other observances take 
their rise from the quest for and the worship of Truth. Worship- 
pers of Truth must not resort to untruth, even for what they may 
believe to be the good of the country, and they may be required, 
like Prahlad, civilly to disobey even the orders of parents and 
elders in virtue of their paramount loyalty to Truth. 

II. Non-violsnoz OB. Love 

Mere non-killing is not enough. The active part of Non- 
violence is love. The law of Love requires equal consideration for all 
life from the tiniest insect to the highest man. One who follows this 
law must not be angry even with the perpetrator of the greatest 
imaginable wrong, but must love him, wish him well and serve 
him. Although he must thus love the wrongdoer, he must never 
submit to bis wrong or his injustice, but must oppose it with all 
his might, and must patiently and without resentment suffer 
all the hardships to which the wrongdoer may subject him in 
punishment for his opposition. 

III. CEAsirTY {Brakmachatya) 

Observance of the foregoing principles is impossible without 
the observance of celibacy. It is not enough that one should not 
look upon any woman or man with a lustful eye; animal passion 
must be so controlled as to be excluded even from the mind. If mar- 
ried, one must not have a carnal mind regarding one’s wife or 
husband, but must consider her or him as one’s lifelong friend, 
and establish relationship of perfect purity. A sinful touch, gesture 
or word is a direct breach of this principle. 

IV. Control of the Palate 

The observance of hrahmacharya has been found, from expe- 
rience, to be extremely difficult so long as one has not acquired 
mastery over taste. Control of the palate has, therefore, been 
placed as a principle by itself. Eating is necessary only for sus- 
taining the body and keeping it a fit instrument for service, and 
must never be practised for self-indulgence. Food must„ therefore, 
be taken, like medicine, under proper restraint. In pursuance of 
this principle one must eschew exciting foods, such as spices and 
condiments. Meat, liquor, tobacco, bhang, etc., are excluded from 
the Ashram. This principle requires abstinence from feasts or 
dinners which have pleasure as their object. 

V. Non-stbalino 

It is not enough not to take another’s property without his 



466 abuEcnis 'WbRks OE kA:bA'rkA bAitb^ 

permission. One becomes guilty of theft even by using differently 
anything which one has received in trust for use in a particular 
way, as well as by using a thing longer than the period for which it 
has been lent. It is also theft if one receives anything which one 
does not really need. The fine truth at the bottom of this principle 
is that Nature provides just enough, and no more, for our daily 
need. 

VI. Non-possession or Poverty 

This principle is really a part of No. V. Just as one must not 
receive, so must one not possess anything which one does not really 
need. It would be a breach of tins principle to possess unneces- 
sary food-stufts, clothing or fiimiture. For instance, one must not 
keep a chair if one can do without it. In observing this principle 
one is led to a progressive simplification of one’s own life. 

Vn. Pbysiqal Labour 

Physical labour is essential for the observance of non-stealing 
and non-possession. Man can be saved firom injuring society, as 
weU as himself, only if he sustains his physical existence by physi- 
cal labour. Able-bodied adults must do all their personal work 
themselves, and must not be served by others, except for proper 
reasons. But they must, at the same time, remember that service 
of children, as well as of the disabled, the old and the sick, is a 
duty incumbent on every person who has the required strength. 

VIII. Swadeshi 

Man is not omnipotent. He therefore serves the world best by 
first serving his neighbour. This is swadeshi, a principle which is 
broken when one professes to serve those who are more remote in 
preference to those who are near. Observance of swadeshi makes 
for order in the world; the breach of it leads to chaos. Following 
this principle, one must as far as possible purchase one’s require- 
ments loc^y and not buy things imported from foreign lands, 
which can easily be manufactured in the country. There is no 
place for self-interest in swadeshi, which enjoins the sacrifice of 
oneself for the family, of the family for the village, of the village 
for the coimtry, and of the country for humanity. 

IX. Fearlessness 

One cannot follow Truth or Love so long as one is subject 
to fear. As there is at present a reign of fear in the country, medi- 
tation on and cultivation of fearlessness have a particular impor- 
tance. Hence its separate mention as an observance. A seeker 
after. Truth must give up the fear of parents, caste. Government, 



SATVAORAfiA ASSSAM 401 

robbers, etc., and he must not be frightened by poverty or death. 

X. Removal of Untoughability 

Untouchability, which has taken such deep roots in Hindu- 
ism, is altogether irreligious. Its removal has therefore been treated 
as an independent principle. The so-called untouchables have an 
equal place in the Ashram with other classes. The Ashram does 
not believe in caste which, it considers, has injured Hinduism, 
because its implications of superior and inferior status, and of 
pollution by contact are contrary to the law of Love. The Ashram 
however believes in vamashrama dharma. The division of vamas 
is based upon occupation, and therefore a person should main- 
tain himself by following the hereditary occupation, not inconsis- 
tent with fundamental morals, and should devote all his spare 
time and energy to the acquisition and advancement of true know- 
ledge. The ashramas (the four stages) spoken of in the smritis are 
conducive to the welfare of nxankind. Though, therefore, the 
Ashram believes in vasmashrama dharma, there is no place in it 
for distinction of vamas, as the Ashram life is conceived in the 
light of the comprehensive and non-formal sannyasa of the Bhagavad 
Gita. 

XI. Tolerajnob 

The Ashram believes that the principal faiths of the world 
constitute a revelation of Truth, but as they have all been outlined 
by imperfect man they have been affected by imperfections and al- 
loyed with imtruth. One must therefore entertain the same respect 
for the religious faiths of others as one accords to one’s own. 
Where such tolerance becomes a law of life, conflict between differ- 
ent faiths becomes impossible, and so does all effort to convert 
other people to one’s own faith. One can only pray that the de- 
fects in the various faiths may be overcome, and that they may 
advance, side by side, towards perfection. 

Activities 

As a result of and in order to help fulfilment of these obser- 
vances, the following activities are carried on in the Ashram: 

I. Worship 

The social (as distinguished from the individual) activities of 
the Ashram commence every day with the congpregational morning 
worship at 4.15 to 4.45 and close with the evening prayer at 7 to 
7.30. All inmates are expected to attend the worship. This wor- 
diip has been conceived as an aid to self-purification and dedica- 
tion of one’s all to God. 

XXXVI-26 



402 TSB aOLLBatBD WORKS Ot ItARtATMA OARDOt 

II. Sanitary Servioe 

This is an essential and sacred service and yet it is looked 
down upon in society, with the result that it is generally neglect- 
ed and affords considerable scope for improvement. The Ashram 
therefore lays special stress upon engaging no outside labour for 
this work. The members themselves attend to the whole of the 
sanitation in turns. New entrants are generally first of all at- 
tached to this department Trenches are sunk to the depth of 
ninft inches and the nightsoil is buried in them and covered with the 
excavated earth. It thus becomes converted into valuable manure. 
Galls of nature are attended to only at places assigned for the pur- 
pose. Care is taken that the roads , and paths should not be spoilt 
by spitting or otherwise. 

III. SAosiTiaiAL Spinnino 

Today India’s most urgent problem is the growing starvation 
of her millions, which is chiefly due to the deliberate destruction 
by alien rule of her principal auxiliary industry of hand-spinning. 
With a view to its rehabilitation in national life, spinning has been 
made the central activity of the Ashram, and is compulsory for all 
members, as a national sacrifice. The following are the various 
branches of work in this department: 

1. Cotton cultivation; 

2. workshop for making and repairing spinning-wheels, 

spindles, carding-bows, etc.; 

3. ginning; 

4. carding; 

5. spinning; 

6. weaving cloth, carpets, tape, rope, etc.; 

7. dyeing and printing. 

IV. Agmoolturr 

Cotton for the khadi work and fodder crops for the cattle 
are the chief activities of this department. Vegetables and firuit are 
also grown in order to make the Ashram as far as possible self- 
contained. 

V. Dairy 

An attempt is being made to convert into a model dairy the 
Ashram dairy which supplies milk to the inmates. Since last year 
this dairy is being carried on in consonance with the principles of 
and with the pecuniary help of the All-India Cow-protection 
Association, but as an integral part of the Ashram itself There are 



dAtVAaftAfiA AStiRAkt 403 

at present 27 cows, 47 calves, 10 bullocks, and 4 bulls. The aver- 
age dairy output of milk is 200 pounds. 

VI. Tannery 

At the instance of and with the help of the All-India Oow- 
protection Association, a tannery has been established for the tanning 
of dead-cattle hides. There is attached to it a sandal and shoe- 
making department. The dairy and tannery have been established 
because the Ashram believes, in spite of the claim Hindus make 
to the protection of the cow, that Indian cattle will further and 
further deteriorate and ultimately die out, carrying man along 
with them, unless vigorous attention is paid to cattle-breeding, 
cattle-feeding and the utilization in the counb 7 of dead-cattle 
hides. 

VII. National Eduoation 

An attempt is made in the Ashram to impart such education 
as is conducive to national welfare. In order that spiritual, intellec- 
tual and physical development may proceed side by side, an atmo- 
sphere of industry has been created, and letters are not given more 
than their due importance. Character-building is attended to in 
the smallest detail. ‘Untouchable’ children are freely admitted. 
Women are given special attention with a view to improving their 
status, and they are accorded the same opportunities for self- 
culture as the men. The Ashram accepts the following principles 
of the Gujarat Vidyapith: 

1. I^ie principal object of the Vidyapith shall be to pre- 
pare workers of character, ability, education and conscientiousness, 
necessary for the conduct of the movements connected with the 
attainment of swaraj. 

2. AH the institutions conducted by and affiliated to the 
Vidyapith shall be fully non-co-operating and shall therefore have 
nothing to do with any help from Government. 

3. Whereas the Vidyapith has come into . being in coimeo 
tion with the swaraj movement, and Non-violent Non-co-operation 
as a means thereof, its teachers and trustees shall restrict themselves 
to those means only which are not inconsistent with truth and 
non-violence and shall consciously strive to carry them out. 

4. The teachers and the trustees of the Vidyapith, as also 
all the institutions afiSliated to it, shall re;gard untouchability as a 
blot on Hinduism, shall strive to the best of their power for its 
removal, and shall not exclude a boy or a girl for reason of his 
or her untouchability nor shall give him or her difrerentlal treat- 
ment having once accorded admission to him or her. 



404 TBtt aoiXBOTftD WORKS OK StAEtAlllA OANOMI 

5. The teachers and the trustees of and all the institutions 
affiliated to the Vidyapith shall regard hand-spinning as an essen- 
tial part of the swaraj movement and shall therefore spin regu- 
larly, except when disabled, and shall habitually wear hhadi. 

6. The language of the province shall have the principal 
place in the Vidyapith and shall be the medium of instruction. 

Explanation. Languages other than Gujarati may be taught 
by direct method. 

7. The teaching of Hindi-Hindustani shall be compulsory in 
the curricula of the Vidyapith. 

8. Manual traming shall receive the same importance as 
intellectual training and only such occupations as are useful for the 
life of the nation shall be taught. 

9. Whereas the growth of the nation depends not on cities 
but its viUages, the bulk of the funds of the Vidyapith and a 
majority of the teachers of the Vidyapith shall be employed in 
the propagation of education conducive to the welfare of the 
vULagers. 

10. In laying down the curricula, the needs of village 
dwellers shall have principal consideration. 

11. There shall be complete toleration of all established 
religions in all institutions conducted by and affiliated to the Vidya- 
pith, and for the spiritu^ development of the pupils, religious 
instruction diaU be imparted in consonance with truth and non- 
violence. 

12. For the physical developnient of the nation physical 
exercise and physical training shall be compulsory in all the 
institutions conducted by and affiliated to the Vidyapith. 

Note. Hindi-Hindustani means the language commonly 
spoken by the masses of the North — both Hindu and Mussalman — 
and written in the Devanagari or the Arabic script. 

The Ashram school has so far sent forth 15 boys and 2 girls. 
VIII. Khadi Teohnioal School 

A separate technical school is conducted which prepares 
candidates for the Khadi Service on behalf of the All-India Spin- 
ners’ Association. There are at present 33 students from various 
provinces under training. 205 students have so far availed 
themselves of this school. The curriculum is as follows: 

Syllabus oe Studies 
I. 21 Weeks’ Spinnino: 

1. To learn to spin with fingers only. 

2. To learn the irinciples of twist. 



SATYAORAHA ASHRAM 


405 


3. To leam spinning sufficiently to be able to spin strong 


and even yam 

as follows: 



Time 

Count 

Yards 

Strength Evenness 

Quality of Cotton 

1 hour 

6 

250 

50 

80 

Inferior 


9 

250 

50 

80 

99 

99 

12 

300 

60 

90 

Fair 

99 

16 

300 

70 

90 

Good 

99 

20 

300 

70 

90 

99 


and to finish the following quantities within the period set 
apart: 

1 week, preparation and practice. ' 

4 weeks, 6 counts 5 lb. 

3 weeks, 9 counts 2i lb. 

4 weeks, 12 counts 4^ lb. 

4 weeks, 16 counts 2| lb. 

4 weeks, 20 counts 2^ lb. 

1 week extra 

21 [Total] 

4. Testing correctness of spindle and its correction. 

5. Spinning on takJi, 

6. To leam to guess approximately the count of any yarn. 

7. To leam to find out by calculation cotints of yam. 

8. To learn to reel properly the yarn spun on the spindle, 

9. To know the names and mesisurements of all the parts of 
a spinning-wheel. 

10. To leam to twist a strong md out of one’s own yam. 

11. To leam the principles of examining cotton. 

12. To study Charkha Shasbra and Takli Teacher. 

13. To leam to spin on one’s own provincial charkha. 

11. 7 Wbbks’ Cardino: 

To go through the whole carding course: 

(a) To lesum to equip a carding-bow. 

(b) To leam to adjust cuffiion. 

(c) To leam to m^e the carding mat 

(d) To leam to distinguish various qualities of guts. 

(e) To finish carding and rolling in following quantities 
wititin the specified period: 

Large bow, 18 lb. in 2 weeks. 

Meffium bow, 22]^ lb. in 3 weeb. 

Bardoli and ordiniiry small bow, 8 lb. in 2 wedb, 

(f) To be able to card and sliver as under; 



406 


THE aOLLEOTED WOBJBJ3 OF UAHATICA. GANDHI 


Large bow, 3 lb. in a day of 8 hours. 

Medium bow, 2 lb. in a day of 8 hours. 

Bardoli and ordinary bow, 1^ lb. in a day of 8 hours. 
Practice with crude bows also. 

III. 2 Weeks’ Ginnino; 

To learn ginning to be able to gin 32 lb. of seed cotton in 
a day of 8 hours. 

To gin 100 lb. of seed cotton after threshing seed cotton. 
Foot gin to be taught. 

Andhra process to be taught. 

Process of untouchable spinners. 

IV. Handloom Weaving: Days 

1. Piecing diread 2 

2. Tape-making 20 yards including twisting yam 

for warp and opening yarn for weft. 10 

3. Bed-tape-ma^g 75 yds. including all the processes 

as above 15 

4. Carpet-making 

Three asans without design 24*x24* each including 
twisting yam for warp and opening yam for weft. 

Three asans with designs including all the processes. 

Two carpets on handloom 2 yds. x 30' each including 
all the processes as above. 45 

V. Prr-LOOM 

5. Weaving 6 count double thread coarse texture 20 yds. 

X 30* reed 5 dents per inch including soaking and drying 
yam, winding bobbins, warping, sizing, piecing, etc. (doubling 
also). 20 

6. Weaving 6 count double thread close texture 10 yds. x 

30' reed 8 or 9 dents per inch including all the above processes 
(doubling also). 20 

7. Weavuxg 9 count double thread close texture 10 yds. x 

30' reed 12 dents per inch including all the processes. 10 

8. Weaving 6 count single thread close texture 10 yds. x 
30' reed 18 or 19 dents per inch including aU the processes. 12 

9. Weaving 9 count single thread close texture 10 yds. x 
30' reed 18 or 19 dents per inch including all the processes. 12 

10. Weaving 12 count single thread close texture 10 yds. x 

30' reed 21 dents per indh including all the processes. 14 

11.. Weaving 16 count single thread close-texture 10 yds. x 
30' reed 24 dents per inch including all the processes. 


15 



SATYAORAHA ASHRAM 


407 


VI. Fly-shdttle 

12. Weaving 12 count single tibread ordinary texture 
10 yds. X 42* reed 17 dents per inch. 

Weaving 16 counts single thread ordinary texture 20 yds. x 
45* reed 20 dents per inch. 

Weaving 20 counts single thread ordinary texture 
10 yds. X 50* and 10 yds. x 54* reed 22 dents per inch inclu- 


ding aU the processes. 72 

13. Weaving design cloth (yam to be used of 1 to 6 
counts). 

Drill 10 yds. X 30* 16 dents per inch 8 

Honeycomb 10 yds. x 30* 12 dents per inch 8 

Twill 10 yds. X 30* 16 dents per inch 8 

14. Heald-iuaking and reed-repairing. 

Twisting yam 4 lb. 3 

Heald-making from the beginning. 15 

Reed-repairing. 5 

15. Colours. 


Dyeing and printing in accordance with the publications 
of Dr. P. G. Ray and Sjt. Bansidhar Jain. 

Prominent foreign colours in printing and colouring to 


be included. 24 

Vn. Carpentry 

1. Making attrans of 3 varieties and tool-^iarpcniixg. 30 

2. Making takli cases and spindle-holders. 30 

3. Making middle-size carding-bow, Bardoli and ordi- 
nary spindle and takli. 30 


Note. Side by side with the course as above, classes 
are conducted in Hindi, accountancy, and the khadi essay 
and bulletins, and there are arranged besides lectures by 
members of Ae Working Committee of the A.I.S.A. as well 
as other leaders. 

The average monthly food bill per student amounts to about 
12 rupees. 

Manaoino CoMMirrsB 

Since Ashadha Sud 14th, Samvaf 1982 (24th July 1926} 
the Ashram has been managed by a Committee. This Commit- 
tee is at present constituted as follows: 

Sjt. Mahadev Haribhai Desai (Chairman) 

„ Imam Abdul Eladar Bawazir (Vice-Chairman) 

„ Vinoba Bhave 

„ Ghhaganlal Khushalchand Gandhi 



408 


ms aoLLBorsD works of mahatma oahdhi 


„ Narahari Dwarkadas Paiikh 

„• Lakshmidas Purushottam Asar 

„ Ranmiklal Magaiilal Modi 

„ Ghimanlal Narsmhdas Shah 

„ Narandas Khushalchand Gandhi 

„ Surendranath 

„ Chhaganlal Nathubhai Joshi (Secretary) 

The Committee is empowered to up any vacancy caused 
in it by resignation, death or otherwise. 

Election shall be by a majority of at least three-fourths of the 
existing members. 

The Committee shall have the right to elect two more mem- 
bers to it. 

The quorum shall be composed of at least three members. 

The Committee shall have ch 2 irge of the entire administra- 
tion of the Ashram. 

Note. In accordance with their express wishes Gandhiji and 
Elakasaheb are not on the Committee. 

Members of the Ashram 

Members of the Ashram shall be such persons as believe in the 
object and obey the rules and regulations of the Ashram, and who 
shall be constantly endeavouring to observe its principles, and be 
faithfully performing the duties assigned to them by the Managing 
Committee or by the Secretary on its bdialf. 

Members of the Committee 

Only such persons shall be eligible for membership of the 
Managing Committee, who are over 21 years of age, who have 
lived in the Ashram for not less than five years and who have 
pledged themselves to lifelong service through the activities of the 
Ashram. 

Important Resolutions 

The Managing Committee has passed the following impor- 
tant resolutions: 

1. Responsible workers of the Ashram, and also residents 
in the Ashram, whether temporary or permanent, shall all observe 
brakmaehcaya, 

2. Persons desirous of admission to the Ashram shall have 
observed the rules of the Ashram in their own- homes for the period 
of one year. The Chi^iTTnan shall have the power of granting 
exemption from this rule in special cases. 

3. It being undesirable that any further kitchens should be 



a/^TYAOKABA ASBSAM 409 

Started in the Ashram, newcomers, whether single or married, 
diall dine in the common kitchen. 

To Gnzsrs 

The number of visitors and guests has steadily increased. 
Such arrangements as are possible are made for showing visitors 
round the various activities of the Ashram. 

Persons wishing to stay in the Ashram are requested to write 
to the Secretary for permission before coming, and not to arrive 
without having received an affirmative answer to their enquiries. 

The Ashram does not keep a large stock of bedding and eating- 
utensils. Those intending to stay in the Ashram ate therefore 
requested to bring their own bedding, mosquito net, napkins, plate, 
bowl and drinking-pot. 

No special arrangements are made for visitors &om the West. 
But for those who cannot dine comfortably on the floor, an attempt 
is made to provide them with a raised seat. A commode is al- 
ways supplied to them. 

Guests are requested to observe the following rules: 

1. Attend the worship. 

2. Keep the dining hours shown in the daily routine given 
below. 


Brakch 

The Ashram has a branch at Wardha, which observes nearly 
the same rules, but which is independent of the Ashram m respect 
of management and finance. Sjt Vinoba Bhave is the Manager of 
the branch. 


ExPEMsmntB 

The average monthly expenditure of the Ashram is Rs. 3,000 
and is met by friends. 

Property 

The Ashram possesses land, 132 acres 38 gunthas in area, of the 
value of Rs. 26,972-5-6, and buildings worth Rs. 2,95,121-15-6, 
which are held by the following Board of Trustees: 

1. Shelh Jamnalal Bajaj 

2. Sjt Revashanker Jagjivan Jhaveri 

3. „ Mahadev Haribhai Desai 

4. „ Imam Abdul Kadar Bawazir 

5. „ Ghhaganlal Khushalchand Gandhi 

The present population of the Ashram is as foBowS: 



410 


THB aOUJEOTED WORM OP MAHATMA OANDHI 


Men 

55 workers in the Ashram. , „ , , 

43 teachers and students of the A.I.S.A. Techmcal School. 
5 professional weavers. 

30 agricultural labourers. 

133 Total. 

Women 

49 sisters in the Ashram. 

10 professional labourers. 

7 weavers. 

66 Total 

GhUjDkbn 

35 boys. 

36 girls. 

7 babies. 

78 Total. Grand Total 277 


Daily Routine 


a.m. 

4 


Rising from bed 

99 

4-15 to 

4-45 

Morning prayer 

99 

5-00 to 

6-10 

Bath, exercise, study 

if 

6-10 to 

&-30 

Breakfast 

99 

6-30 to 

7 

Women’s prayer class 

99 

7 to 

10-30 

Body labour, education smd sanitation 

99 

10-45 to 

11-15 

Dinner 

99 

11-15 to 

12 

Rest 

99 

12 to 

4-30 p.m. 

Body labour, including classes 


4-30 to 

5-30 

Recreation . 

99 

5-30 to 

6 

Supper 

99 

6 to 

7 

Recreation 

99 

7 to 

7-30 

Common Worship 

99 

7-30 to 

9 

Recreation 

99 

9 


Retiring bell 


Note. These hours are subject to change whenever necessary. 


India, 14-6-1928 



479. IMMOLATION OF BARDOLI 


BaxdoH suffers through the lawlessness of the Government of 
Bombay and it suffers through self-imposed suffering. Both the 
instances will be found in Mahadev Desai’s notes on Bardoli. The 
Government are using a Nasmyth hammer to crush a fly. For 
the sake of, to them, a paltry sum of Rs. 1,00,000 which the ei^nce- 
ment represents, they are resorting to force, untrutli, flattery and 
bribery. These are strong expressions, but none too strong for the 
doings of the Government, llieir force is on the surface for anyone 
to see. Authority makes a show of force even when it is unable to 
command it In the present case it has force enough and to spare. 
This mediod is the least dangerous for it is visible. The other three 
are mischievous because they are invisible. The insolent letter of 
the Commissioner, N. D., the evasive communique of the Govern- 
ment are instances of untruth by way both of commission and omis- 
sion. We shall know at the end of the cliapter the instances of 
flattery and bribery. We know how those who degraded their man- 
hood during the Punjab mordal-law regime got titles and promo- 
tions. History will repeat itself in this as yet miniature edition of 
the Punjab. I do not mention here the subtle forms of flattery 
that the Government resort to when they want someone to do 
some questionable deal for them. Most governments resort to 
these four methods but what pains one most is that all these for- 
ces should l>e set in motion by the Bombay Government in orda 
to bend tlic proud spirit of people known for tlxeir docility and in- 
nocence. It is a base calumny to suggest that they are law- 
breakers. If a man can lawfully repudiate a liability which he does 
not admit, why may not men lawfully repudiate a liability which 
they contend is unjustly imposed upon them by a State? And 
why may not the State adopt, and be satisfied for the collection of 
what it considers to be its dues with, the same civil measures 
that are open to individuals? 

But this suffering to which the people of Bardoli are being 
wantonly subjected is raising them since they had prepared 
themselves for it. The brave stand taken by the simple peasants 
has undermined the very prestige to prop up which the Govern- 
ment are making the firantic efforts described from week to week 
in these pages. 

But more purifying than this suffering imposed by godless and 
insolent authority is the suffering which the people are imposing 



412 THB aOLLEOTED WORKS OF MAHATUA OANOBt 

upon themselves. 1 refer to the resignations of sixty-three patels 
and eleven talatis of Bardoli and Valod. It is not a small thing 
for these people to give up their posts which hitherto they have used 
not unoilm in order to make illegitimate additions to their ordinary 
emoluments. It is more difficult for people such as these to give up 
their positions than for big Government officers to do so. But 
suffering as well as bravery is the badge of the humble. I ten- 
der my respectful congratulations to these patels and talatis. Let 
them know that their sacrifice has commanded the admiration of 
aU India. It is sacrifice such as theirs that will in the end give us 
our freedom. We are slaves to our desire for office imder the 
Government. The latter knowing our weakness exploits it to the 
full for consolidation of its own power. But if we would only 
believe that He who has created us is bound to support us, if 
we would but do His will, i.e., work with our honest hands and 
feet, we should never starve, we should never walk on all fours 
before authority. 

Toitng India, 14-6-1928 


480. WHAT IS THE BARDOU CASE? 

The following epitome of the case has been prepared in res- 
ponse to many calls for the barest summary of the case for the 
busy reader.^ Though the case has been stated in ample detail in 
these pages, the following summary will be helpful to those who 
want to work for the satyagrahis, but who may not know what the 
case exactly is and who may have no time to go through the files 
of papers. The summary is necessary because of the ever growing 
interest excited by the heroic sufferings of the people of Bardoli. 

Young India, 14-6-1928 


1 For the article by Mabadev Desai, vide Appendix III, 



481. A. 1. S. A. MEMBERSHIP 


The Director of the Technical Department of the All-India 
Spinners’ Association sends me the following comparative table‘: 

The table is an instructive study. Whilst the business side of 
khadi shows a steady though slow improvement in quality, quan- 
tity and price and whilst the number of paid spinners is increas- 
ing, sacrificial spinning is steadily on the decline, except in Bihar 
and Ajmer. It either shows that the deep conviction about the 
power of hand-spinning to ameliorate the condition of the masses 
and to bring tlie middle class in healthy contact with the masses is 
lacking, or the latter, though they have the conviction, are too lazy 
or indifferent to make the small but continuing measure of sacrifice 
required of them. It is curious that even the national institutions 
such as in Gujarat are not supplying their full quota of volun- 
tary spinners and that the workers even in the Khadi Service are 
disinclined to take the trouble of spinning that brings them no 
return. Is it to be wondered at that the progress of khadi is not 
commensurate with the national requirements? Let khadi workers 
and khadi lovers take note. 

Toung Mia, 14-6-1928 


482. LETTER TO RAMDEV 

SATrAQRAHA. AsHRAM, 
Sabarmati, 
June 15, 1928 

DEAR RAMDEVJI, 

I have delayed replying to your letter in the hope of being 
able to persuade Ba to go to Dehra Dun. But she will not be 
persuaded. She seems to have lost all interest in what is going 
on about her. The momentous changes that had been recently 
made in the Ashram have also, I am afraid, preyed upon her 
mind. She is not now keeping over well either. Mental and physi- 
cal fatigue has crept upon her. In spite of all this I tried my 
best but failed. I am sorry to have to disappoint you. But you 


1 Not reproduced here 



414 TdB aoLL^dUBD Works MAiuTstA. OANDidt 

mil recognize how helpless I am. After all she is a free agent 
and has been always treated as such. 

1 am glad you are now all right. 

Tourt sincerely, 
Bapu 


Erom a photostat: S.N. 13416 


483. LETTER TO RICHARD B. GREGG 

Satyaoraha Ashiuvm, 
Sabarmati, 
June 15, 1928 

MY DEAR OOVXND, 

I have your letter. Your argument is convincing. And since 
the iimer voice tells you that in pursuit of the very goal we hold in 
common your place just now is in America rather than in India, 
I can have nothing to say. I wish you every success in America. 
And since I accept your conclusion, I do not need to say anything 
more. 

I hope to be at the Ashram throughout the year, except in 
December. There is just a possibility of my having to go to Burma 
in October. But if that is so, it would be about the end of that 
month. You will know in good time if that is to happen. On no 
account should you go away without oxir meeting. 

I am looking forward to seeing your Science Primer. 

.1 wish 1 had the time to describe the momentous changes that 
have been made in the Ashram. If I find that there is time I 
shall describe them to you, otherwise you will see them for your- 
self in full working order. 

I hope you are now perfectly strong and well. 

Riobard B. Greoo 
Kotoarh, Simla Hills 

From a photostat; S.N. 13417 



484. LETTER TO VASUMATI PAJfDlT 


Friday [Jme 15, 1928^ 

nriT. VASTJUATT, 

I have your letter. 1 have written to Pandit Abhayji^ about 
the state of affairs at the Giunikul. I feel that reform can be 
brought about only if some man is there. There was a theft here. 
Surendra was beaten up, even Shankerbhai got a slight beating. 
A sum of Rs. 200 was stolen from the store. A number of 
changes are taking place in tlie Ashram. There is no time to 
write more. Surendra is in good health. Mahadev fell off the 
top of the well and got badly hurt. 

Blessings fim 

Bapu 

ShRI VASXmATIBEBN 
ICanya Gurukul 
Dehra Dun 

From a photostat of the Gidarati: O.W.478. Qourtesy; Vuumati P.andit 

•y 


485. LETTER TO S. RAMANATHAJ( 

Satyaosaha Ashbam, 
Sababhati, 
Junt 16, 1928 

BTY DEAR RAMANATRAN, 

I have your touching letter. Its sincerity endears you all the 
more to me, if more is possible. 

I do not agree with some of the views you have expressed in 
your letter, but that is now irrelevant. That you implicitly believe 
in what you say is what matters. For my part, I do feel that we, 
should not now strive with you but let you part company with all 
goodwill. But I am sending your letter to RajagopaUchari Which 
1 know you will not mind and taldng notes with him.* 

Tours sinesrsly, 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13620 

* From the postmark 
^Abhftydev Shflxxxut 

* Vids “Letter to Q. Ridagopslticliarl'’, 17*6*1928. 



486. LETTER TO RAMACHANDRAN 


Satyaoraha. Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
June 16, 1928 

MY DRAR RAMAOHANDRAN, 

I was delighted to hear from you from Tiruppur. 

Yes, you must master everything, the smallest detail. For 
khadi is nothing but attention to the tiniest fibre. Whether it is 
sp inning or whether it is weaving or carding, we have to begin 
with the very fibre. And so is it with reference to accoxmts in 
connection with khadi. 

You must write to me regularly, and therefore I would like 
you to tell me how often you would write, whether once a week, 
or once a fortnight, so that 1 may know on a particular date like 
South African mail your letter has got to arrive. 

You must read the Ashram constitution* carefully and pass on 
your suggestions. The constitution as you know appears in this 
week’s issue of Toung India. 4 ; 

Mahadev hurt himself severely whilst he was fetching water 
fix>m the Ashram well. He slipped and fell on his back. He is 
better now. 

The Ashram has undergone many important changes, one 
of which is that there are hardly any labourers of the labour 
type now. The cow-shed and fields and every such thing has to 
be attended to by the inmates. And the common kitchen has gone 
up to 94. We had two serious burglaries. One was a visit by 
50 robbers who surrounded the Tannery and belaboured every 
male inmate in the hope of getting something. But there was 
little to be had there. Poor Surendra came in for a fair beating. 
But he is all right now. 

SjT. Ramaohandran 
A. I. S. A., Tdruppur 

From a microfilm: .S.K. 13621 


1 Tide ‘*Salyagraha Aahram", 14-6-1928. 



NOTE ON KHALI WORK DURING VACATIONS 


I publish an article here — ^without maldiig any changes — 
sent to me by the oifice-bearers of the Takli Mandal of the Na- 
tional School in Bombay witli the approval of Shri Gokulbhai. 
Let me draw the attention of ail school-teachers to it, I offer my 
congratulations to the Takli Mandail on utilizing their vacation so 
well. All students studying in a National School should join the 
Takli Mandal. Much more can be achieved by making its activity 
still more iutci'csting. 

[From Gujarati] 

NavajivaTi, 17-6-1928 


488, MX NOTES 
JointKALiST Robbers 

The proprietors and editors of some newspapers seem to be 
engaged in robbery. They make it their profession to rob people's 
money by inventing all sorts of pretexts, by maldng unfounded 
allegations against innocent persons and threatening ^em. Some 
accept bribes and try to justify dishonest practices and in this man- 
ner dupe the innocent public. A fiicnd from Calcutta has in- 
formed me of one such instance. A journal published there has 
been taking advantage of the publicity given to the immoral practi- 
ces at Govindbhavan, and is making allegations against many 
families and persecuting the simple folk of the Marwaii commu- 
nity. Having concocted indecent incidents which never took place, 
they implicate certain family people in them. Tlie friend who has 
sent me this filthy paper wants me to write something about such 
journals so that they may mend their ways. I have no such 
hopes for my article. It is therefore not addressed to them but 
to those families who are being maligned and blackmailed by 
such journals. 

There is a saying in English that knaves prosper among fools. 
This saying is based on experience. The critic at last tires and 
gives up criticizing those who are not cowed down by any criti- 
cism. We are too mudi given to a false sense of shame and a need- 
less fear of public humiliation. Hence anyone is able to frighten 
and blackmail us. If someone maligns us or makes false alle- 

WWT.OT 



418 Teas collbgtbd works of uahatma oAMDta 

gations. against us, we are somehow scared as if we merited such 
criticism and allegations. Whereas the correct attitude is that 
whatever the criticism against us, if it is not just, we should 
not be cowed down by it or worry over it. 

About TRxnrcFuijmss and Other Vows 

An inmate of the Ashram had suggested some additions he 
considered essential, to the Book of Ashram Rules and as they 
have a subtle import and are helpful in the observance of the vows, 
I give below their gist. Each vow has been finally supported by a 
quotation from the Hindu Shastras. These have been deliberately 
omitted from the Book of Rules because the Ashram believes that 
the principles implicit in the vows are not a monopoly of Hindu- 
ism but are common to all faiths. However, the statements which 
have been quoted in support are beautiful and are therefore given 
here for the reader’s information. 

Truth 

As brevity is the armour of truth, it is contained in it. 
‘Truth alone wiU triumph and not imtruth.’ 

Non-vzouenge 

Non-violence is the limit set by all religions. ‘Sin cannot 
be answered by sin.’ 

The Vow of Brahmaoharya 

This vow implies complete control of all senses. ‘Those 
wishing to attain Grod practise brakmachaiya* 

Asteya 

‘One who enjoys the gifts of God without offering them 
to Him is verily a thief.’ 

Afarioraha ^ 

‘Enjoy it after giving up its possession.’ 

The Vow of Fearlessness 

Fear and morality are mutually contradictory concepts. 
Fearlessness is the foundation of dtaoi smpad^. ‘He alone 
becomes fearless who dispels fear in others.’ 

Asvad 

To eat food with a view to gratifying the palate is vio- 
lence. ‘Purity of diet leads to purity of hearty this in its turn 
strengthens atman*s awakening which in its turn destroys all 
bonds.’ 


1 Divine heritage 



tHA OOVASMOfe AMb BARDOU 


419 


Swadeshi 

Just as non-violence sets the limit for dharma, so swa- 
deshi sets the limit for conduct. Even death is to be preferred 
in the discharge of one’s own dharma. 

Bodily Labour 

‘When one exerts one’s body without any desire one 
commits no sin.’ 

Abolition of Untouohability 

Salutation to all — ^high and low. 

Tolbranob 

Forbearance means tolerance towards all religions. 

[From Gujarati] 

Jifavyivan, 17-6-1928 


489. THE GOVERNOR AHD BARDOLI 

Shri Munshi’s correspondence with H.E. the Governor gives a 
vivid picture of the existing system of government. On the one 
hand, the Gkivemment writes long argumentative letters in order 
to humour Mr. Munshi so that he does not go over to the peo- 
ple’s side, while on the other it writes specious untruths at- 
tempting to prove the people wrong. It still insists on denying 
what has been repeatedly and clearly put forward by the people, 
as if untruth by frequent repetition can become truth 1 

Only one point stands out in the whole letter: the Govern- 
ment is not prepared to change its land revenue policy. If the 
revenue policy is changed, the most expensive Government in the 
world would cease to function or, alternatively, its expenses would 
be in proportion to the people’s capacity to bear them. 

The Governor maintains that no independent inquiry can 
be held as between the Government and its people. By saying 
so, he is throwing dust into the eyes of the Britishers. An in- 
dependent inquiry too will be ofEidaHy conducted. Although the 
judiciary is independent of the executive, it is nevertheless a Govern- 
ment department. No one has demanded that the committee be 
appointed by the people. But the people have asked for the 
appointment of neutral persons to conduct an inquiry into the case 
regarding the collection of land revenue in Bardoli, in a manner 
simalar to that followed in law-courts. This does not imply that 
the Government should give up the business of governing. How- 
ever, it does imply the Government’s giving up its high-handed 



4^0 tsfc dOtXfidTSD WOSltS oi MAfiATUA. OAJNDfit 

autocratic ways. And if the people are to have swaraj and if they 
want to obtain it, this autocracy must be summarily done away with. 

From this standpoint, the struggle in Bardoli has now as- 
sumed a wider signiScance or the Grovemment has fortunately 
for us lent it this significance. 

Shri Munshi’s argument or his admission that satyagraha 
is an illegal weapon is indeed painful. It could now be regarded 
SIS a recognized weapon. When it was employed in South Afidca, 
Lord Hardinge had defended it. The Government of Bihar had 
accepted it in Ghamparan and appointed a committee. Shri 
VaUabhbhai had used the very weapon in Borsad and the pres- 
ent Governor himself had honoured it and had met the people’s 
grievances. One fails to understand why this weapon should now 
be regarded as illegal. 

However, the relevant question at the moment is not whether 
satyagraha is legal or illegal. If the people’s demand is reasonable 
it does not become less justified on account of their way of put- 
ting it forward. 

Bringing about a solution to this problem is in the Jhands of 
the satyagrahis of Bardoli alone. It will be solved in only one way 
if their sacrifice and their courage are real. If the people do not 
pay the revenue, the Government will either have to write it off 
or appoint a committee. The fact that the people’s honour rests 
in their own hands is borne out firom this correspondence. 

On the 12th, the people of Bardoli were praised everywhere. 
From outside Bardoli peof^ can for the present do one thing only 
and that is to give financial help and express their sjmipathy. 
Financial help is coming in fireely firom all quarters. Un^ now a 
lalfb of rupees has come in. The whole of India solidly supports 
Bardoli’s demand. But an autocratic government bows only to 
force. The people have wisely given up the use of brute force. 
Bardoli has been maldng use of soul-force in the form of satya- 
graha. The might of the Government is negligible before it. Will 
Bardoli honour its pledge? 

It is necessary to examine a suspicion that arises out of the 
Government’s letter and the records of its Information Depart- 
ment. In H.E. the Governor’s letter the reason for withdrawing 
the Fathans has been stated to be deference to the people’s wishes, 
whereas the Government’s Information Department claims that 
there is likely to be little use of the Fathans now that the monsoon 
has set in. The Governor [alone] would know what lies behind the 
two divergent accounts. Let us, however, understand the inward- 
ness of the reuon given by the Iifformation Department. During the' 



421 


QTlESTIONa ON XDTTOA.'nON-m 

rainy season instead of resorting to confiscation and such other mea- 
sures, that is, instead of resorting openly to a policy of repression, 
there is the likelihood and the fear that it will resort to secret 
negotiations with the people. There is a possibility that it will 
invite the people, send out secret agents, hold out temptations, 
coupled with threats, and adopt measures to divide them. 1 hope 
people will beware of this mufBed blow. 
pProm Gujarati] 

17-6-1928 


490. QJJESTIOKS ON EDUCATION-III 

0,. 7. Do you not feel that just as it is necessary for students 
to know three or four languages, it is also necessary for them to be 
informed about the dogmas, rituals, injunctions and superstitions 
of all the prevailing religions? 

A. If we wi^ to create among students respect, tolerance and 
love for every religion — which is indeed religi'® and not irreligion, 
we should certainly instruct them in their principles. I do not consi- 
der it very necessary to have a knowledge of the supentitions and 
rituals. In a country like India anyone who goes about with his 
eyes and ears open can see for himself the superstitions and rituak. 
If we widi to adopt that which is virtuous, we should not at all 
insist upon a knowledge of the superstitions and rituals of every 
religion. It is possible that a good deal of the students’ time will 
be taken up by our insisting on their gaining a minute knowledge 
of whatever rituals and superstitions are to be found in our re- 
ligion and trying to introduce any necessary reforms in them. 

ft. 8. Since you believe in the system of vamas, do you not 
accept that persons of different vamas should be given difiPcrent 
kinds of education? 

A. I do not feel that tiiere should be different kinds of education 
for the different vamas. There is much in common among them 
and our education should be, as it is at present, common to all. 
One of the aims of education is to make men of students and he 
who has become a man will easily understand the norms that apply 
to and tiiould govern human bdngs. My conception of the var- 
nas is that they are based on occupations and as the four vamas 
have to earn their living through their own occupations, the special 
features of each Aould be hereditary. Moreover, I do not interpret 
the vama-dharma to imply that one vama can never have the 



422 THE aOLLEOTED WOBXS OF MAHATICA GANDHI 

virtues of tbe other three. A Brahmin will not earn his liveli- 
hood by serving lihe a Shudra; nevertheless, if he cannot serve 
or is a^amed to do so he is no Brahmin. True knowledge is 
unattainable without disinterested service. And although the 
Shudra will not live on the food received in the begging-bowl 
after teaching the Vedas and other scriptures, nevertheless, in a 
well-ordered society, he too will have a knowledge of the Vedas. 

Q,. 9. Is it true that you say that vocational training includes 
aU education and intellectual training is merely a fiiU of education? 
If this is so why do you welcome college education? 

A. It is as much true as it is false. Where there is blind wor- 
ship of intellectual education, I would certainly say that vocational 
training covers everything. In my definition of education, there 
is no wall of brick and cement separating intellectual training 
&om vocational training, but the latter includes the former, that 
is, it provides scope for the development of the intellect. I would 
make bold to say that a true development of the intellect is not 
possible without vocational training. The knowledge a mason 
requires to earn his livelihood is not education at all in my 
opinion. His education should comprise a knowledge of the 
place of his vocation in society, of bricks and their importance, 
of the need for houses and what they should be like and how 
closely they are connected with civilization. We often wrongly 
believe that intellectual education implies a general knowledge 
of events. A full development of the intellect is possible without 
such knowledge. The educationist who turns the student’s brain 
into a storehouse of innumerable facts has himself not learnt the 
very first lesson in education. It must have been clear by now 
what is said in the question is both true and false. It is false if 
you accept my view of intellectual and vocational education. It 
is true if these are regarded as mutually exclusive, if there is mis- 
conception concerning education and if in framing the question 
this misconceived education has been kept in mind. It should 
now be understood why and under what conditions I welcome 
university education. The university which' I visualize will consist 
of masons, carpenter^ and weavers who will be truly intellectual 
social workers, — ^they will not be only masons, carpenters and 
weavers having a Imowledge of their trades sufficient merely for 
them to earn their livelihood. From this tmiversity I look forward 
to seeing a Kabir arise firom die weavers, a Bhoja Bhagat fi:om the 
cobblers, an Akha from -the goldsmiths and a Guru Govind firom 
the farmers. I regard aU these four as having received intellectual 
education. 



IXTTER TO BAICANANDA aHATTKRJEE 


423 


10. If vocational training is all that education is, why- 
do you not entrust the Vidyapith to a committee of carpenters, 
blacksmiths and weavers; let them then engage professors for 
intellectual education as expert servants. 

A. The answer to this question is covered by the answer to Ques- 
tion 9; nevertheless, it has been reproduced with a view to 
clariiying my meaning further. If I had with me weavers, etc., 
like Kabir, I would certainly hand over the reins of the Vidya- 
pith to them and these professors who impart intellectual educa- 
tion would not be ashamed to serve under them but rather consi- 
der it an honour to do so. It is because we hatre not regarded 
vocational training as part of education that those practising the 
trades are regarded as inferior and we get little or no help from 
the latter in social service work. 

[From Gujarati] 

Jfaoajivan, 17-6-1928 


491. LETTER TO RAMANAKDA CHATTEBJEE 

June 17, 1928 

DEAR RAMANAKDA BABTT, 

The only excuse for not acknowledging your letter together 
with the registered book-padcet^ is that I have been altogether 
overwhelmed with work and I am in arrears -with my corres- 
pondence. Mahadeo Desai who generally attends to part of 
the correspondence, moves between Ba^oli and Ahmedabad 
and therefore he is unable even to look at it. And there ha-ve 
been other causes to make me short-handed e-ven whilst I am 
overwhelmed -with work. 

1 am keeping the manuscript in front of me in the hope of 
being able to read it the very first opportunity I can get. But 
when that will be is more than I can teL 

Yourt sincinly, 

SjT. RAMAl^AimA Ghattbrjee 
Frabasi Press 
91 Upper GmaoiAR Road 
Galoqtta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13419 

iTho manuscript of India in Bondag*: Htr Right tf Frudem hy Dr. J. T. 
Sunderland was sent to Qandhiji for comments. 



492. LETTER TO SURENDRJLKATH BISWAS 


Satyaoraha. Ashram, 
Sabarmatx, 
June 17, 1928 

MY DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter.^ My heart is with you, but not my head. 
As you know I have always been against workers living above 
their means and incurring debts and then finding themselves in 
trouble, I regard it as a vicious habit. How can I help you? Or 
better still, the only help I can give you is to advise you even 
to face the insolvency court, or to approach your creditors, sur- 
render everything to them and then live the life of a labourer pure 
and simple. I see no other way for us educated men, if we are 
to serve India truly. 

Tours sincorAy, 

SjT. SURENDRAHATH BiSWAS 

P 14 A New Park Street 
Galootta 

From a photostat: S.N. 13421 


* The addressee had written that he had incurred certain debts as Ohair- 
man, Reception Committee of the Bengal Provincial Conference held in Faridpur 
in 1925. He had also incurred certain debts in his private capacity. Several 
suits were pending agsuiut him and he was for some time put under arrest. 
Appealing to Oandhiji,he wrote: “May I have the indulgence of begging of you 
a letter of introduction? I want you to write only that you attended the Con- 
ference and heard the Reception Committee had incur^ debts for defraying 
tiie expenses, that I was the Chairman of the R.C. and am known to you and 
that I as the Chairman need help from the generous public to pay off the debts.’* 



493. LETTER TO FLORENCE K. KREBS 


Satvagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Jimt 17, 1928 

DEAR ERIBND, 

I have your letter. I shall be pleased to see you whenever 
you can come to the Ashram. I am not likely to leave the Ashram 
during the year. And when you come, you will of course stay at 
the Ashram, if you can manage with very simple vegetarian fare 
and comparatively simple life. 

Tours sineoroljr, 

Florenoe K. Krebs* 

Care Post Master 

Srinagar 

Kashmir 

From a photostat: S.N. 13422 


494. LETTER TO N. C. BARDALOI 

Satvagraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 17, 1928 

Mr. Banker has given me your letter. It has caused me pain. 
The loan was given to you for a definite purpose at the instance 
of Rajcndra Babu. And why should [you] mistake discipline for 
dictation? Gan an organization be run successfully when everybody 
wants to work without interference firom headquarters which gives 
loans to workers? Surely, there must be a higher code of honour 
regulating the relations between a volunteer organization and its 
voluntary workers than between a purely budness organization 
run for profit and Its employees. 

But your last sentence simply amazes me. You say you will 
not take any responsibilities, when you took responsibility at the 

t An American traveller, who studied Eastern religions and wrote 
for magazines 



426 TBE aOLLEOTED WORKS OF MAHA.TliA OAMDHI 

time you borrowed well knowing the conditions under which the 
loan was given. And why should you want the presence of an 
agent from the A.I.S.A. to help you? I can only say that the 
loan is a debt of honour even more than a debt in law, which it 
certainly is, and that you should honourably discharge it.> 

Tours stncmly^ 

M. K. Gandhi 

SjT. N. C. Bardaloi 
Sanh Bhavan 
Gatthati (Assah) 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13623 


495. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 17, 1928 

DEAR SATIS BABU, 

I have your letter. I am not worrying about Nikhil. Personal- 
ly, I have resigned myself to his approaching death. What worries 
me is the shock that it will give to Hemprabhadevi. Although 
she has been writing to me bravely, I know what the actual fact 
will mean to her and must mean to you also. But having gone 
through the purgatory in the death of Maganlal, I am embolden- 
ed in asking you to steel your hearts against giving way to grief. 
He who gives must have the right to take away. And, alter all, 
there is no taking away. “Death is but a sleep and a forgetting.” 
Maganlal is Uving in a more real sense now than when he was in 
the Besh. Every change that he himself would have desired but 
perhaps could not have carried out is now in the course of being 
made in the Ashram with a hearty will by the co-workers. 

I wish I had the time to describe these to you. 

To have a separate exhibition of our own side by side with the 
Congress Exhibition, will savour of active opposition, which I 
think we may not offer. I am quite clear about reffaining 
from taking part in it, if mill-cloth is admitted. But I am not 
at ^ clear about the propriety or the advantage of having an 
exhibition in opposition to the Congress Exhibition, for it can 

* A copy of the letter was sent to the Secretary, A.I.S.A. 



IXTIBR TO a. VIJXYARAaHA.VAQHAI(IA.R 427 

be interpreted in no other way. 1 would like you therefore to 
think over this thing seriously. 

The order from the Calcutta Corporation is a good stroke. 
With love, 

Bapu 


From a photostat: G.N. 8917 


496. LETTER TO JAWAHARLAL JfEHRU 

June 17, 1928 

MY DEAR JAWAHAR, 

I have your two letters. The news about Kamala and Indu 
is disturbing. I am hoping to have more definite information fi:om 
you. I am tempted to suggest for both, and certainly at least for 
Kamala, the poor man’s remedy, and that is hip-bath and sitz- 
bath according to Kuhne’s system, and dieting together with sun- 
bath. But I know that this is not practicable and that she will have 
to go through the ordinary treatment. 

I hope that there will be an agreed draft constitution in a 
complete form brought out by the Committee. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13420 


497. LETTER TO C. VIJAURAGHAVACHARIAR 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 17, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your warm letter as also your kind cheque. I know 
that Vallabhbhai will very much appreciate it. 

I agree with you that it will be a tragedy if the All-Parties 
Committee does not bring out a full-fledged constitution. I know 
that Motilalji is keen about it and therefore I am hoping that we 
shall have a constitution from this Committee. 

I did get from the Office the cutting contaii3ing your 

interview. I read it with mudi interest, but I do not agree with 
your remarks about Mr. Das. It is . however now unnecessary for 
me to discuss the reasons for my chssent. Your afiection for me 



428 IHB aOLLBQTED WORKS OR MAHATICA OAIfDHI 

which 1 see running through that interview and which I have al- 
ways prized was no new discovery for me. 

I am asking the Manager, Toung Iiidia, to send you the re- 
quired information. 

Tours stnesrtly, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13424 


498. LETTER TO C. RAJAGOPALACHARI 

June 17, 1928 

Herewith letter from Ramachandrau which you would like to 
see and appreciate. 

Navajivan has been converted into a Trust. I have included 
yoiu- name as one of the trustees. I hope you do not mind this. 
The trustees are: 

Sjt. Dattatreya .Balakrishna Kalelkar 
„ Shankerlal Ghelabhai Banker 
„ Jamnalalji Bajaj 
„ Mahadev Haribhai Desai 
„ Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel 
„ Ghhaganlal Khushalchand Gandhi 
„ Ghakravarti Rajagopalachari 
„ Mohanlal Maganlal Bhatt 

Many changes have been made in the Ashram. Two burgw 
laries have also taken place, one of a serious nature. 1 have asked 
Subbiah to describe all these to you. 

Here is Ramanathan’s letter and my reply.* 

Ends. 3 (5 sheets) 

From a photostat: SJT. 13622 


* Vidt “Letter to S. Ramaoathaa”, 16-6-1928. 



499. LETTER TO 7ASUMATI PAJfDIT 


Asebam, 
Sabajeuiati, 
Jimt 17, 1928 

QHI. VASUMATI, 

It was very good that you had the chance to see Sahasra- 
dhara. The word is not sahastra, it is sahasra. Giving up of buffa- 
lo’s ghee and milk applies to the Ashram only. It does not apply 
when one goes elsewhere, although one who has well tmderstood 
the distinction will give it up wherever he may be. At present 
sufficient cow’s milk is available at the Asliram. Arrangements have 
been made to get cow’s ghee from somewhere. 

I dictated this letter before four o’clock in the morning. I 
received a second one in the course of the day. I let Kamala 
read the part containing the apology. Nowadays I get up early, 
at three o’clock, [otherwise] I could not cope with my work. 
Chi. Kusiim also insists on getting up at that time and I do not 
object. 

BUtsings fim 

Bapu 

From a photostat of the Giyarati: G.W. 480. Qourtesy: Vasumati Pandit 


500. LETTER TO V. J. PATEL 


. JUM 17, 1928 

BHAISHRI VITHALBHAI, 

Vallabhbhai, Swami and Jamnalal have arrived. I am en- 
closing the draft herewith. I feel there is no need for us to go any 
deeper into the matter. Just now let him do what he likes. If 
the satyagrahis are true, victory is theirs and finally if they prove 
to be weak, then it will be morning when they wake. 

The saying that weak friends are no better than enemies is 
being proved. 

Everyone is extremely pleased with your work at present. 
May you live long and do much. 

VanUmatatm fim 
Mohanoab 

From a microfilm of the Giganti: S.N. 14445 



501. LETTER TO PRABHASHA^KAR PATTANI 

June 18, 1928 

SUpTA BHAISHRJt, 

1 had read the news that you had reached safely. This is 
a letter of supplication. I have some lean cattle and dry cows 
and some calves; it costs a lot to keep all of them in the Ashram. 
If you can keep them in your estate it would be less expensive. 
I can pay the expenses if you wish. If you think that this can be 
done, please send Bhai Joshi here. This idea occurred to me just 
because he is there. Alter he has come and seen and given you 
the report, if you it proper you may offer shelter to the 

Ashram cattle. I am making this esrperiment on behalf of the 
Cow-protection Society. Does Lady Ramabai remember the 
spimng-wheel? 

VandmaiaTain Jhm 
Mohandas 

From a photostat of the Oiyarati: G.N. 5908; also G.W. 3222. Courtesy: 
Mshcsh Pattani 


502. LETTER TO G. D. BIRLA 


Ashrah, 

June 18, 1928 

BHAI OHANSHYAKDASJI, 

1 enclose with this two letters from fiiends* in Austria. Both 
are most desexying. I consider it necessary to invite them to 
India and make them acquainted with the country. For such 
purposes I do not wish to make use of your donation. Bhai Jugal- 
kishoreji takes pleasure in such matters. If you deem it proper, 
send him all the letters. We have to send them ;^200. If he wishes 
to make this donation the amount will have to be sent promptly. 

Your health, I trust, is good. Read the Ashram rules^ carefully 
and do send whatever suggestions you consider proper. 

Tottrs, 

Mohandas 

From Hindi: G.W. 6160. Courtesy: G.D. Birla 

^Mr. and Mrs. Standenath 

2 Vid$ *‘Satyagraha Ashr^’*, 14-6-1928. 



503. LETTER TO MANUAL AND SUSHILA GANDHI 


Ashram, 
Sababkati, 
June 19, 1923 

am. MANILAl. AND SUSHOA, 

1 continue to get your letters. But 1 cannot say that they 
satisfy me. You always say that both of you are pressed for 
time; it is difficult for me to conceive what great work you have 
on hand. But we both derive comfort fi:om the proverb that it is 
better to have someone to call uncle than to have no uncle at all. 
I had hoped for something better from Sushila but even if she lacks 
Manilal s physical fitness she must have at least reached his level of 
wisdom. But must you take on eadh other's defects, and notvir* 
tues? I shall be pleased if you cast aside this great lethargy and 
you will be benefited too. Other letters from Africa and elsewhere 
always contain more news than is to be foimd in your letters. 1 
must get a reply to my previous letter in which I have re- 
minded you of the debts to the Ashram. If you want you may 
coolly contemplate the fact that the debt will be entered in the 
Bad Debts list but 1 cannot. At present significant changes are 
taking place at the Ashram. I have no time to describe them now. 
These days I get up before the four>o’clock morning prayers and die* 
tate many letters, for only so can I cope with it somewhat. 
Whilst dictating this, the four-o’clock bell has rung, so 1 stop. 

BUssings from 
Bapu 

From a photostat of the OiyatatL: G.N. 4739 


504, LETTER TO PTARELAL NATAR 

The Ashram, 
Sababmatz, 
June 19, 1928 

MY DEAR PYABEtAD, 

1 dictate this because I am spinning and 1 want to save the 
few minutes that will be required for writing to you in Gujarati. 

I am eager to write to you at once to tell you that your arti- 
cle is A h I have read it through, though hurriedly. But 1 find 



43^ T£tB OOLLfiOrfil) WOlt£8 0» llAHAtlUtA GANDHI 

nothing in it jarred and it is just the kind of thing that was 
wanted for “outsiders”, not in the Government sense, but in our 
sense. No one else, I am confident, could have written the article, 
because no one else would have the penetration that you have. 
You have shown why the struggle has been possible and how the 
splendid orgaimation has come into being. 1 only hope that the 
article will be copied widely by the Indian Press. This article 
shows, and I never had any doubt ever since my reading of your 
essay which was published in Tota^ India^ what capacity you 
have, if you will only have confidence in yourself. Between you and 
Mahadev I can safely forget all about [Toung] India and perhaps 
never write a single line. However, let me hope and wait. 

Mahadev is all right now. He will be up and doing in one 
or two days. He is doing even now. You know what the cause 
was. He had a fall at the well where he was fetching water. We 
have very few labourers in the Ashram. You know that we had one 
robbery and one burglary. There were nearly 50 robbers. 
Surendra and Shankerbhai came in for a fair beating alongside 
the workers at the Tannery. And I was so happy to find these two 
amongst those who were beaten. The burglary was committed in 
the store-room two days after the robbery, though I do not think 
that they are interrelated. 

There are many other startling changes. The common kitchen 
has expanded to nearly 100 and the place where I was staying is 
turned into women’s quarters. My ofiice is in Maganlal’s room. 
The kitchen has been transferred to the kitchen attached to the 
Ghhatralaya. I take my meals with the rest there. The other 
things you must learn fi'om Imam Saheb if you open out to any- 
body at all. 

I hope that you are keeping your body in perfect form. Dev- 
das has returned to Almora. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13427 


505. LETTER TO MOTILAL KEHRU 

Ths Ashrah, 
SABAlUlA’n, 

June 19, 1928 

DEAR MOTILALJI, 

Sen Gupta writes to me saying that I should move the Gujarat 
Provincial Gongr^ Committee to vote for you as President of 
the coming Congress. Of course the idea appeals to me. But be- 



tSTTER to S. 8. SUBRAltAlOAlt 


433 


fore I make any move at all, I ^ould like to know your own 
opinion about it. Perhaps it is not yet time for Jawahar to oc- 
cupy the tlirone. And bf the Committee that you are managing 
brings up something substantial, it would be as well for you to 
wear tlie crown. Sen Gupta suggests Malaviyaji as an alternative. 
I will await your reply before writing to Sen Gupta.* 

I was disturbed about Kamala’s health. Jawahar gave me 
bad news. And he told me tliat doctors thought that Indu also 
required attention. Doctors never scare me. But 1 should like to 
feel that there is nothing wrong with Kamala and certainly no- 
tliing wrong with Indu. 

Tours sinsoroly, 

From a photostat: S.N. 13624 


506. LETTER TO K. S. SUBRAMAMIAM 

Thb Ashram, 
Sajbarma.t[, 
June 19, 1928 

MY DEAR SUBRAMAHIAM, 

I have thought over Subbiah’s requirements and I feel that 
he should have a clear Bs. 100 and if he has to live in a rented 
house, his rent up to Bs. 20 should be extra. This arrangement 
should be retrospective as from Ist of May. Therefore he .shmilrf 
have the extra Bs. IS paid to him, half by the Association 
and half by the Touag India Office. I am writing to Mohanlal to the 
same effect, You will require JamnalaljPs and Mr. Banker’s sanc- 
tion. Please receive the same and mal» the payment. I do not 
need now to worry any more over this or to write to Mr. Banker 
or speak to Jamnalalji. 

BUssUigsfim 

SjT. K. S. SUBRAMANIAM 
A. I. S.A., Mirzapxir 
Akmbdabad 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13428 


* Vids "Letter to J< M. Sen Qupta”, 21-6->1928. 


WWT.9ft 


507, LETTER TO SHJLKKARAN 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 20, 1928 

MY DEAR SHAHKARAM, 

I have your letter. The list has always remained with me and 
the acknowledgment was printed in Naoajivan without the list hav- 
ing been got from me. I knew of the acknowledgment appear- 
ing in Naoajineai only from your letter. About Tmmg India 1 was 
myself looking over it and therefore I corrected the mistake yes- 
terday and have the whole list printed, which you will see in 
India of this week. It was all done before your letter came. 
1 hope however to see that all the names appear in Jfasajivan. I 
say I hope because I am so rushed just now that 1 may forget it. 

Mahadeo had had a somewhat serious fall at the well where 
he was drawing water. He was laid up for 5 days. He is better 
now and in two three days he will be quite restored. 

Now about your questions: Even though the cause for whidi 
a donation was given may have been fiJ^ed, the balance left 
cannot be used at the will of the donee, even though the cause for 
which he uses it is superior to the cause that is fulfilled. For, 
what the donee may consider superior may be bad cause in the 
estimate of the donor. I have just now an instance of that cha- 
racter on which I had to decide yesterday. A gentleman gave 
Ss. 10,000 in connection with national schools to Jamnalalji. 
That amount of money is still unused. Janmalalji wants to make 
use of that money for national education, but for national education 
which includes the untouchables. This is a superior cause as you, 
Janmalalji and I would consider. But I have advised that without 
the donor’s permission, seeing that the money is still unused, 
it cannot be used. And the donor is certain not to give his per- 
mission because of the disturbing introduction of the so-called un- 
touchables. If Jam n ala lj i utilizes the money for a purpose which 
the donor had never intended, he would be wrong and guilty of 
the breach of the vow of asty^a. 

With reference to the second question: I take your own 
case. You have reduced yourself to comparative poverty by 
throwing overboard your job. Surely, you are the richer for it. 
And if your personal wants are still firmer reduced, you would be 



Adciuab^p jul>olN(l 435 

richer again. It is better that a man gives the whole of himself 
than that he must retain a part for himself and a part for society. 
And when a man reduces his wants to nil, he has given away his 
whole self. 

I hope now the thing is clear. I am keeping well. 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13429 


508. ACCUSED JUDGim 

The Director of Information has entered into a remarkable 
refutation of the allegations made in these pages by Mahadev 
Desai regarding the conduct of the Fathans.^ Mahadev Desai having 
had a serious fall at a well whilst he was drawing water is laid 
up in bed and is therefore unable to write out his weekly notes and 
therein take notice of this refutation. But the Director’s refutation 
does not need a specialist. The admissions made in it are dama- 
ging to his cause, which is the Government’s, sind his refutations 
are imconvincing, where they are not utterly worthless. 

But before I examine foe Director’s communiques, let me 
make one point clear. What is it that foe Government is after in 
publishing these communiques through foe Director of Inform 
mation? Does it seek to substitute its own courts of law and be- 
come judge in cases against its own officers? 1 freely confess that 
so far as foe public are concerned, foe allegations made by foe 
Satyagraha Publicity Office are ex-parte, unproved statemwts. 
But for this Publicity Office there is no other course open to it. 
Satyagrahis, even if they have no compunction about going to 
courts of law, cannot go to foe Bardoli courts, where they Imow 
they can get no hearing, much less justice, becasue their complaint is 
not against private individuals but against Government officers, 
and that too during a regime which very nearly approaches martial 
law. The satyagrahis have therefore no other course open to them 
but to acquaint the public wifo foe extraordinary nature of foe 
coercive measures that foe Government has adopted, What how- 
ever can be foe meaning of counter-aUegations by foe Director? 
What can be foe value of his denials? He is not in foe same 
plight as foe satyagrahis. The Government has all aufoority. 
If foe allegations made by foe Satyagraha Office are untrye, the 
Government has its own remedy. The Government little realizes 
that it has lost all credit and that even where statexnents made on 

1 This appeared in Toung India iwues of May and June, 1928. 



436 fdB dOLL^tBD VfOIdtB OF itAitA'tUA OASbtit 

its behalf are true, they are suspected by the people as untrue. 
Such is its black record. If then the Government has evidence 
to show that the allegations are untrue, let it appoint an impartial 
open committee of enquiry and the Satyagraha 0£Bce will under- 
take to prove every statement made by it and apologize and other- 
wise suffer where its statements caxmot be sustained. But the 
Governor’s long and copious letters to public men leave no room 
for any such hope. 1 therefore welcome the resolution that Sjt 
Munsbi has adumbrated in his powerful letter addressed to the 
Governor announcing his resignation. I tender my congratulations 
to Sjt. Munshi for his resignation and more for his brave letter. 
I hope he will carry out his resolve to get together a commit- 
tee of investigation. Let him get the soundest men and if 1 may 
venture to suggest, let him take a leaf out of the Government 
book and get colleagues drawn from the various communities. Let 
him get one Farsi, one Mussulman and if possible one Christian, 
whether English or Indian, and let there be for this self-appointed 
committee a proper reference within which it would work, and if 
it would take a little more trouble, I would suggest that it 
tiiould not confine its investigations merely to the coercive mea- 
sures but extend them to the case of the satyagrahis regarding the 
enhanced assessment. I hope too that the committee will invite 
the Government to send its witnesses to present its case. That 
the Government may not condescend to send witnesses to such a 
committee is highly likely. If it does not, it would provide one 
more cause for its condemnation. 

Now for the Director’s communiques. TTie Governor says 
that the Pathans are to be withdrawn in order to “remove any 
misunderstanding”. The Director says that they are being with- 
drawn as owing to the impending rains their services would be 
no longer required. Which statement is the public to believe? 
And if the Pathans are not. required because of the impending 
rains, why is a glorified edition of the Pathans in the ^ape of 
armed police with a special ofihcer and working under special 
magistrate required? The people will be excused if they suspect 
behind the withdrawal of the Pathans a sinister design still further 
to encompass the satyagrahis of Bardoli and awe them into 
subjection. 

Another communique denies that one of the Pathans was only 
the other day caught red-handed in the act of theft. The denisd 
is set forth in the language of a judge as if the Director had. 
both the complainant and the accused present before him and 
had come to the definite conclusion. 1 have before me the state* 



AaauszD juDoma 437 

ment submitted to Sjt. Vallabhbhai Patel, as President of the 
Railway Union, by the Pathan watchman at Bardoli station who 
caught the man red-handed, along with the knife and the stolen 
salt. He states therein that the police authorities were trying to 
water down evidence and coercing him to withdraw the com- 
plaint. But the Director comes to the following pontifical conclu- 
sion: “The police have found the case to be one fit to be classed 
as untrue.” No wonder because the railway Pathan will not lend 
himself a tool in the hands of the police. Of equal value is the 
statement that “the Deputy Superintendent of Police can defi- 
nitely state that the photographs taken by non-co-operators were 
not taken during the commission of the so-called theft”. But the 
admission that the accused Pathan was on the railway platform, 
that he did pick up a handful — as a matter of fact two bundle- 
fuls— of salt sufficiently damages the Government. Who does not 
know that when people caught red-handed are sought to be pro- 
tected, the acts witnessed are watered down by a corrupt police? 
In this instance salt became waste and came to be picked up 
from the groimd. And since it is inconvenient to have a Pathan 
with a knfie, possession of a knife by the Pathan is denied. I have 
had the good fortune to know Palbans in South Africa. I have 
had equally good fortune to know many here. Their bravery 
when they are not spoiled is unquestioned. But I cannot recall a 
Pathan without a knife. But the so-called non-co-operators do not 
claim implicit trust in their allegations. They daim an impar- 
tial investigation. Not so the Director of Information. He claims 
the authority of a judgment for ids statements. 

The second denial is just as embarrassing to the Director as the 
first. It is not denied that a Pathan threatened Ralyanji, but it is 
denied that he threatened to stab him. TRe threat, it is said, was 
held out because the Pathan objected to being photographed. The 
Director gratuitously adds that non-co-operators are well aware 
that the Pathans object to being photographed. I am one of 
the non-co-operatoTS. But I have not known a Pathan yet to 
raise such objection and I have known many Pathans to have 
been photographed and I have known some who had been eager 
to be photographed. I understand from Sjt. Vallabhbhai that the 
very Pathans were, until they discovered ffiat the camera was be- 
ing used to discredit them, anxious to be photographed. He fur- 
ther assures me that if he got the opportunity he wants, he would 
be able to show how and where the objection was manufactured. 
And we aU know that the King of the Pathans, His Majesty Ama- 
ntillah, has willingly submitted to the tortures of photographers. 



438 THE aOLLEOTED WOBES OF MAHATHA OAKDBI 

But in ttie forest of words that the Director has brought into his 
assistance, one thing stands out clear, namely, that Kalyanji was 
threatened. By the way, let me make this dear, that the satya- 
grahis in Bardoli are not today offering non-co-operation. On the 
contrary they want to co-operate with the Government in finding 
out the truth about assessment. As non-co-operators they could 
not have asked for a comihittee. They could simply have repu> 
diated the authority of Government. But they have not done 
so. Their satyagraha is merely confined to securing justice firom 
the Government of the day. 

The third refutation is about the pulling of a woman by a 
Fathan out of her house. It is admitted that a Pathan stood 
in an open doorway. It is not stated why he should have stood 
in an open doorway in a private house. It is admitted also 
that a woman came forward to say that ^e had been pulled and 
pushed by a Pathan trying to enter the house. The valuable in- 
formation is then given to the public that this woman a few days 
afterwards excused herself to Mr. Benjamin who taxed her 
with the falsehood by saying: “What was I to do?” Surely cross- 
examination of the woman is here required before any value can 
be attached to Mr. Benjamin’s statement. 

The fourth refutation is about the indecent behaviour of a 
Pathan. Here too the fact of the nudity of the Fathan is not 
denied. But what is stated is that there was no indecent inten- 
tion behind indecent appearance. And the absence of indecent 
intention is sought to be inferred from the practice of the vil- 
lagers answering calls of nature at aU kinds of places in villages. 
An intelligent public can easily draw its own inference firom 
such a denial. 

Of the same type is the denial about another Pathan expos- 
ing himself before two girls. 

In the sixth refutation about the indecent assault comirdtted 
on a woman the assault is haltingly admitted. But the Director 
naively says: “It is possible that someone acted as Rehmat states, 
but there is no evidence that the man (if any) was a Fathan”, as 
if the evidence of Rehmat herself to the effect that it was a Pathan 
who committed the assault is of no consequence. The Satyagraha 
Office has the statement made by the cartman who rescued 
Rehmat to the effect that the assailant was a Pathan employed by 
Government. 

I have taken only a few samples from the communiques and I 
have analysed the one that has special reference to Young In^Ot 
for I daim for this journal such absolute impartiality and insistence 



AQQU8BD JUDOmo 439 

upon truth as is possible for erring human beings. All the writers 
in Toung India have to append at least their own initials. Sjt. MaJia- 
dev Desai is himself a lawyer. By over ten years of practice of the 
profession of journalism he may be claimed to be a fairly trained 
journalist. As such he must among several qualifications possess 
that of being able to sift fact firom fiction. He goes periodical- 
ly to Bardoli in order to see things with his own eyes and hear 
with his own ears. It may be presumed that he has a reputation 
to lose. I therefore felt constrained while he was on his back 
to study his notes which are the subject-matter of the refiita- 
tion as also the Director’s notice of his notes and I at once saw 
that Sjt. Mahadev Desai had nothing to be ashamed of and that 
the Director’s refutations did not contain anything to shake 
Mahadev’s estimate of the facts that he observed in Bardoli. 

The Director is conveniently silent about the brutal beating 
of the buffaloes by the Pathans who in one instance battered a 
poor beast to death. And does he know that though he proclaim- 
ed in one of his communiques that the resignations given by the 
talatis and patels were under duress, the patels and talatis have 
emphatically repudiated the calumny? 

The communiques as also the Governor’s letters make mudh 
of the fact, that the Government could not be blamed for having 
brought m Pathans, as Banias m Bardoli had also Pathans as 
their watchmen. Neither the Governor nor the Director seem to 
know that nobody in Gujarat relishes the idea of anyone hiring 
the services of Pathans as watchmen, etc. Not that the people of 
Gujarat have any ill will against them, but there is a sinister 
motive bdiind the hiring of Pathans, and those who hire such 
service do not take care to pick out the noblest amongst them. 
On the contrary, they take good care to get hold of men who may 
be capable of doing the greatest mischief. And if the selfidi Banias 
and others do not mend, they and the rest of the people of Guja- 
rat will have to pay a heavy price for getting hold of bad charac- 
ters and exploiting them for their own purposes, be they Pathans 
or others. But when a Government copies a practice that is 
known to be essentially bad and distastefvd to the people in gene- 
ral, it heaps wrong upon wrong and should not be surprised if it 
comes in for an extra dose of blame. There could be no other 
meaning in the Government sending Pathans to Bardoli than the 
meaning that attaches to the hiring of the services of Pathans by 
private individuals. And what inference can the Governor or the 
Director want the pubUc to draw from the fact that some Pathans 
are not foreigners? Surely both must have the sense to know 



440 THE aOLLBCTBD WORKS OR ICABATUA GANDHI 

that the olgection raised in Bardoli was not against Pathans as such. 
The word Tathan’ there has a different connotation. As used by 
the people in Bardoli it means an essentially bad character, — ^a 
hooligan. The people of Bardoli would welcome all the good 
Pathans &om wherever they may come. And alter all, it was a 
railway Pathan who came to the rescue and made the statement 
to VaUabhbhai about a fellow Pathan. The objection then is not 
to the race but to the character of men posted in Bardoli. There- 
fore the situation is not altered in the slightest degree by the 
Government’s withdrawal of Pathans, when they have sent instead 
an armed police. Let it not be said of the Government that if the 
people of Bardoli resented whips in the shape of Pathans, they 
received scorpions in the shape of armed police backed by spe- 
cial magistrates. 

Young India, 21-6-1928 


509. BARDOn BUNGLE 

The more the Government excuses itself in the Bardoli case, 
the more it accuses itself. The long letters of H.E. the Governor 
written to Sjt. Munshi make confusion worse confounded and do 
not improve its position even in the estimation of a constitu- 
tionalist as Sjt. Munshi claims to be. 

The Governor’s letters altogether evade the issue. His Excel- 
lency claims that another inquiry has already been made and as- 
sures his correspondent that “there is not one member of Gov- 
ernment who is not fully satisfied as to the justice of Govern- 
ment’s action and in fact I should use the word ‘generosity’ ’’. 

This is moving in a circle. If the Government were to make 
fifty inquiries of the type mentioned in the- -correspondence, they 
would not improve matters for it. On the contrary, these inqui- 
ries would prove its perverse determination to give a stone 
each time the Bardoli people ask for bread. They do not want 
a hole-and-corner inquiry in -which they are not usefully and 
effectively represented and which is not open and independent. 
They contend -that what the -Grovemment regards as just, even 
generous, the people believe to be unjust and oppressive. They 
contend, and these columns have attempted to show why, that 
Mr. Jayakar’s and Mr. Anderson’s reports are worthless, full of 
mis-statements and errors even of calculation.’ They undertake 

IW* “What> the Bardoli Oase?”, 14-6-1928. 



BARDOLI BUNGLE 441 

to substantiate their contention before an open, impartial and 
independent committee. 

The Government proudly and with fatiguing reiteration tell 
the public that they accepted neither Mr. Jayakar’s rate of assess- 
ment, i.e., 30 per cent increase, nor Mr. Anderson’s, i.e., 29 per 
cent increase (a generous reduction indeed upon 30 per cent) 
but that they reduced the increase to 20 per cent. And now we 
are informed by the Governor that this reduction was not only just 
but even generous. What the people want is not generosity but 
justice pure and simple, and they submit that even the 20 per cent 
increase is unwarranted by facts, unwarranted by the condition 
of the agriculturists. His Excellency on the otixer hand pro- 
tests that if a committee was appointed, it would be found that 
the increase should have been much higher. If that is the 
sincere belief of the Gk)vemment, why does it not accept the very 
reasonable prayer of the people for the appointment of a proper 
committee by whose decisiou they declare they arc willing to 
abide? 

When the people challenge the findings of officers of the 
Govenunent, it is monstrous, it is insulting to throw in their 
teeth the reports of other officers who base thek conclusions upon 
mere documents often vamiriied and more often superficisil. If 
the Governor is desirous, as he professes to be, of acting on the 
square, let him accept the honourable offer sealed and sanctified 
as it is with the sufferings of the people for whom His Excel- 
lency makes in his letters profuse avowal of anxious sympathy. 

But, declares the Governor, the “outsiders”, whom the Com- 
missioner, N. D., has made famous by his insulting libel, stand in 
the way of the full flow of that sympathy. If they are in the way 
of the agriculturists, “who”, the Governor claims to “know 
well”, “would all pay up the assessment as many are now doing, 
if they are allowed to”, why does he not summarily remove these 
objectionable tresspassers? The Government has been hitherto al- 
ways found to be resourceful enough to remove all the “tall 
poppies” it has discovered inconveniently in its way. Why then 
is it leaving alone this (in the elegant language of the Commis- 
sioner, N.D.,) “swarm of agitators from Kheda living on the poor 
people of Bardoli” and allowing the hmoceiit peasants to become a 
prey alike to the “agitators” and the Pathans now to be replaced 
by the organized police drafted into Bardoli? 

The Governor is in such a hurry to justify 
position and discredit Sjt. Vallabhbhai Fate 
companions, that forgetfiil of his statement in oi 



442 


TEB aOLLEOTED WORKS OF KAHATUA OANOm 


were 40 Pathans, in another he says there were only 25. But of 
the Pathans I shall have to say more in another article. 

The GSovemor seehs to justify the assessment in Bardoli on the 
ground that the people of Ghorasi who are similarly assessed have 
not resisted the enhancement. I know nothing of the case of 
Ghorasi. But I do know this that many a wrong has been submit- 
ted to before now by the people of India earning for them (in their 
case) the uncomplimentary title of “the gentle Hindoo”. It may 
be that the people of Ghorasi are too weak to resist the levy, where- 
as the people of Bardoli having been under healthy influence for 
the past six years have foimd themselves strong and willing enough 
for sufleiings that must be entailed in resisting a Government that 
has become notorious for its uixscrupulousness and fiightfulness. 
Here is the naked paw. Says Excellency: 

Why shoTild Government give up its imdoubted right of adminis- 
tration to, as you suggest, the decision of some independent committee? 
I am anxious to meet the situation in every way that is possible, but no 
Government would be worth the name of Government which allowed 
such a thing to happen. 

“The undoubted right of administration” is the uncontrolled 
licence to bleed India to the point of starvation. The licence would 
be somewhat controlled if an independent committee were appoint- 
ed to adjust the points in dispute between the people and the 
executive authority. Let it be noted that the independent com- 
mittee does not mean a committee independent of the Govern- 
ment. It means a committee appointed by the Government of men 
known to be independent of ofiElcial pressure and authorized to 
hold the enquiry in the open with the right to the aggrieved people 
to be duly and effectively represented. But such an open enquiry 
means the death knell of the secret, autocratic revenue policy of 
the Government Where is, in the modest demand of the people, 
the slightest “usurpation (ff the functions of Government”? But 
even the least check upon the utter independence of the executive 
officers is enough to send the Government into a fury. And when 
the British lion is in a fury in Biiti^ India, God help the “gentle 
Hindoo”. Well, God does help the helpless and He only helps 
when man is utterly helpless. The people of India have found 
in satyagraha the God-given infallible gondioa of seff-suffering. 
Under its stimulating influence the people are slowly waking up 
from the lethargy of ages. The Bardoli peasants are but showing 
India that, weak as they are, they have got the courage to suffer 
ffir their convictions. 



NOTES 


443 


It is too late in the day to call satyagraha unconstitutional. It 
will be unconstitutional when truth and its fellow — self-sacrifice — 
become unlawful. Lord Hardinge blessed the South Afidcan 
satyagraha and even the aU-powerful Union Government grace- 
fully bent before it. Both Lord Chelmsford, the then Viceroy, and 
Sir Edward Gait, the then Governor of Bihar, recognized its legitim 
macy and efficacy and an independent committee was appointed 
resulting in adding to the prestige of the Government and resulting 
in the ending of a century-old wrong. It was then recognized in 
Elheda and a settlement, reluctant, half-hearted and incomplete as 
it was, was made between the Government agents in Kheda and 
those who were guiding the movement and the people. The then 
Governor of the Central Provinces condescended to treat with the 
Nagpur Flag satyagrahis and released the prisoners and recognized 
the right claimed by the satyagrahis. Last but not least Sir Leslie 
Wilson himself when he wsis yet untouched by the atmosphere 
of the “most efficient service in the world” recognized its efficacy in 
Borsad and granted the Borsad people relief. 

I wish both His Excellency the Governor and Sjt. Munshi 
will take note of these facts that have happened within the past 
fourteen years. Satyagraha in Bardoli cannot now be suddenly 
declared unconstitutional. The fact is the Government have no case. 
They do not want their revenue policy to be challenged at an 
open enquiry. If the Bardoli people can stand the final heat, 
they will have the open enquiry or the withdrawal of the enhance- 
ment. It is their undoubted right to claim for their grievance 
a hesuing before an impartial tribunal. 

Toung India, 21-6-1928 


SIO. MOTES 
A N0B1.E Soui. Gone 

As I am writing for Toung India, I have a wire firom Nilkanth 
Babu advising me of the death at Sakhigopal of Pandit Gopa- 
bandhu Das who was one of the noblest among the sons of Orissa, 
the land of sorrows and tears. Gopabandhu Babu had given his 
all to Orissa. I heard of him and his sterling character and stead- 
fastness when Sjt. Amritlal Thakkar was sent to Orissa in 1916 
to distribute relief to the famine-stricken. Sjt Thakkar used to 
write to me how Gopabandhu Babu braved inconvenience and 
disease in struggling to help the helpless. He gave up his prao- 



444 THE aoiXEOTED WORKS OF MAHATMA OAHDKI 

tice and his membership of the Legislative Council during the 
Non-co-operation days and never wavered. What was more for 
Tiim was to stake the existence of his dearest creation, the Satyavadi 
School. He braved the taunts of some of lus closest friends and 
persisted to his eternal honour in what they considered to be his 
folly. His one ambition in life was to see dismembered Utkal uni- 
ted and happy. He had lately become a member of Lala Lajpat 
Rai’s society and was planning to make khadi an efiScient vehicle 
for the economic relief of poverty and flood-stricken Orissa. The 
country is the poorer for the death of Pandit Gopabandhu Dm. 
Though he is not in our midst in the flesh, he is in our midst in 
the spirit. Let that noble spirit guide the workers of Orissa, let his 
death result in a larger dedication to service, greater effort, greater 
self-eflFacement and greater unity among the scattered workers 
who are too few for the national requirements. I tender my condo- 
lences to the relatives and the many disciples of the deceased 
patriot. 


A Shame upon Yotmo Men 

A correspondent sends me a newspaper cutting showing that 
recently in Hyderabad, Sind, the demand for bridegrooms has 
been increasing at an alarming rate, an employee of the Imperial 
Telegraph Engineering Service having exacted Rs. 20,000 as cash 
dowry during betroAal, and promises of heavy payments on 
the wedding day and on special occasions thereafter. Any young 
man who makes dowry a condition of marriage discredits his edu- 
cation and his country and dishonours womanhood. There arc 
many youth movements in the country. I wish that those move- 
ments would deal with questions of t^ character. Such associa- 
tions often become self-adulation societies, instead of becoming 
as they should be, bodies representing solid reform from within. 
Good as the work of these bodies is at times in helping public 
movements, it should be remembered that the youth of the country 
have their reward in the public appreciation they get. Such work, 
if it is not backed by internal reform, is likely to demoralize tlie 
youth by creating in them a sense of unwarranted self-satisfaction, 
A strong public opinion should be created in condemnation of 
the degra^g practice of dowry and young men who soil their 
fingers, with such Ul-gotten gold should be excommunicated from 
society. Parents of girls should cease to be dazzled by English de- 
grees and should not hesitate to travel outside flieir little castes and 
provinces to secure true, gallant young men for their daughters. 



445 


to jn k. sw Gnt>tA 

A Tmeute 

In a letter to Mahadev Desai thus writes Mr. H. S. L. Folak 
about the death of Maganlal Gandhi: 

I can fUlly enter into your appreciation of the disaster that has 
befallen the Ashram by Maganlal's sudden passing. It was as though I 
had lost an own brother. You, of course, know far better than I how 
tremendously important he was to the life and purposes of the Ashram, 
and how much he symbolized its ideal and practical character. It seems 
incredible that this dear, cheerful, smiling brother, with whom I had 
exchanged so close and affectionate an embrace on my last day at the 
Ashram, should have passed in the physical form from among us so 
suddenly. He has died, as gallantly as any knight of old, on the battle- 
field. 

Maganlal and I, as you know, worked doscly and always har- 
moniously at Phoenix. Indeed, cheerfulness and harmony were the key-- 
notes of his character, and a supple courage that adapted itself to meet 
the needs of each new trial. Of late years we met only upon my occa- 
sional visits to India, and then only for brief periods, but I always fell 
reirahed and stimulated by this renewal of an old and affectionate com 
radeship. 

He has leff a noble and shining example for us all, and I feci very 
sure that, though he be absent really in the flesh, his spirit will move 
among you perhaps more really than if he had remained in the form that 
vras so familiar and dear to us. 

Many of us in the Ashram are realizing the truth of the last 
observation. 

Toung India, 21-6-1928 

SIL LETTER TO J. M. SEN GUPTA 

The Ashram^ 
Sabarmati, 
June 21, 1928 

mr DEAR SEN OUPTA, 

I have your letter about the President of the forthcoming 
Congress. I like your suggestion. But before deciding upon the 
thing finally, I want to know Panditji’s own mind. I have there- 
fore written to him in the matter^ and, as soon as I hear firom 
him, I hope to write to you further and more definitely. 

I ride “Letter to MotUal Nehru”, 19-64928. 



446 Tffib aoLLfitfitb Wdiu^ tv UaMmSUa. OAMbfit 

I Had your letter about the Exhibition. It does not satisfy 
me. But evidently in this matter we shall have to agree to differ. 
As you know I hold very strong views about swadeshi. But if they 
do not commend themselves to Bengal, I must wait till Bengal 
is converted or I collapse. However, I may not argue with you. I 
shall watch the developments there. 1 see no difference between 
what you write to me and the information that was given to 
me. Let me conclude by saying that I am not against machin- 
ery as such, but 1 am opposed to machinery that may be de- 
signed to displace the masses without giving them any adequate 
and satisfactory substitute. 

Tours sineereff. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13626 


512. LETTER TO ETHEL ANGUS 

Saiyaoraha Asbram, 
Sabaruaxi, 
JuM 22, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter for which I thank you. If I succeed in 
going to Europe next year and if it is at all possible, I should 
certainly accept your kind hospitality. . I have no doubt about it 
that I have many fiiends in England as in other parts of Europe. 

Mr. Rajagopalachariar is making steady progress with his 
Ashram in the South. I am taking the liberty of sending your 
letter to him and I know that he will read it with interest and 
joy- 

I thank you and Rev. John Todd Ferrier for his books. Much 
as 1 should like to read the several books that fiimids send me, 
it is difficult , to find time to read them. But I have glanced 
through some of the books sent by you. The argument about 
purity of food naturally makes a forcible appeal to me. 

Tours sinsertfy, 


From a photostat: S.N. 14334 



513, LETTER TO RAMLAL BALARAM BAJPAI 

Satyaoraba Ashram, 
Sabarmaxi, 
Jim 22, 1928 

DEAR FRIEND, 

I have your letter. I have gone through the article of Miss 
Mayo, which you sent me. I have no desire to reply to the libel. 
If there are people who believe in this story invented by Miss 
Mayo, no repudiation on my part can give any satisfaction to 
such people. 

Thank you for your kind enquiries about my health. I am 
keeping fairly well. 

Tours sinemljf, 

SjT. Ramlal Balaram Bajpai 

209 Sullivan Flaoe 

Brooklyn 

New York 

U.S.A. 

From a photostat: S.N. 14337 

514, LETTER TO K, SRimASAN 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Jim 22, 1928 

MY DEAR SBINIVASAN, 

I have your letter and the cheque for Rs. 11. You certainly 
deserve upbraiding if the money that you got for yomself was 
not needed by you. 

It gives me great joy to find that you are keeping your promise. 
I wish you will not be ashamed of spinning b^ore your friends. 
If you believe it to be good, let them see what you are doing. 

Tours sinemiy, 

SjT. Bl. SRUnVASAN 
MaROONI WlRELBSS COLLBOB 
Chelmsford 
Essex 

From a photostat: S.N. 14338 



515. LETTER TO DEVI WEST 


Satvagraba Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 22, 1928 

I have your letter. I had the charming photograph^ also. 
I call it ‘charming’ because it is lifelike. 

Wh^t you say about Maganlal is too true. 

I wish I had the time to describe the many changes we have 
TTiaflft in the Ashram. Frabhudas has just now descended from the 
hilla where he was convalescing. Krishnadas is here and so are 
nhliaganlal and his wife. His parents are also here for the time 
being. Devdas is m the hills, 1 am keeping fairly well. It is 
possible that we may meet next year. If aU goes well, I might 
visit Europe next year. 

From a photostat: S.N. 14339 


516. LETTER TO HORACE ALEXANDER 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 

SABARMA'H, 

Jim 22, 1928 

D3SAR FRIENn, 

I have long delayed replying to your letter, as 1 have hoped 
to send you a fairly lengthy reply. But I see that I am not likely 
to get sufficient leisure for attempting a very full reply in the near 
future. 

What you say about silent prayer and congregational silence I 
understand and 1 appreciate also in theory.^ When 1 was in 
South Africa, 1 attended several such meetings. But I was not 
mudi struck with the performance. In India, it will fall flat. 
After all, there are many ways of worship and it is not necessary 
to graft new ways, if old ones will answer. I am myself not satis- 
fied with what we are able to do in the Ashram. I caimot procure 

1 Of the addressee 

3 The addressee, who had earlier visited the Ashram, had written stiggeat- 
ing observance of united silence on the pattern of Qjiakers. 



449 


LETTER TO 0. RAJAGOPALAOBARI 

a devotional mood all of a sudden or in an artificial manner. 
If some of us in the Adiram really have that mood whilst at prayer, 
it is bound to have its effect in due course. It is because of the 
belief that there are some earnest soula< in the Ashram who ap- 
proach the prayer time in a proper devotional mood, that I have 
persisted in retaining the congregational prayer meetings in ^te 
of odds and sometimes even severe disappointments. I may be 
partial, but my own e3q)erience is that our prayer meetings are 
very slowly but surely growing in dignity and strength. But I am 
painfully aware of the fact that we are far far away from what 
we want to achieve. Nevertheless, I shall bear your suggestions in 
mind. 1 have already discussed them with friends. 

You seem to thii^ lightly of my having invited suggestions 
with reference to sanitary matters. In my own humble opinion 
we needlessly divide life into water-tight compartments, religious 
and other. Whereas if a man has true religion in him, it must show 
itself in the smallest detail of life. To me sanitation in a com- 
munity such as ours is based upon common spiritual effort. The 
slightest irregularity in sanitary, social and political life is a sign 
of spiritual poverty. It is a sign of inattention, neglect of duty. 
Anyway, the Ashr^ life is baaed upon this conception of funda- 
mental unity of life. 

Xaun anmtlyi 
M. K. Gandbi 

Horaoe O. Albeander, Esq,. 

WOODBROOK 

Sblly Oak 

BiRMIMOHAM 

From a photostat: O.N. 1405 


517, LETTER TO C. RAJAGOPAUCHART 

The Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Sum 22, 1928 

1 have decided to help Qanesan to the extent of Bs. 8,500 
by way of loan against the security of four publications: 1. Sat)Uh 
graha in South J^a, 2. Gandhiji in Cgflon, 3. Stm Months wiA 
Gandhyi^ 4. Eeotumes KhaMor. But I would like you to help 

1 The title of the volume by Kvishnadas is iSImit Months with Mohotou 
QanUd. 


XXXYl-29 



450 


THE aOIXEQTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI 


him and guide him. He was inclined to throw up the sponge 
and retire from the publishing business entirely. I thought that 
was unmanly and I !^ve advised him to brave all difficulties 
and survive the storm. I have advised him to secure your 
guidance. 1 also suggested to him that he mi^t get Natesan’s 
help. But 1 leave all that to you. If you v^ think that he 
should do so, you will introduce him to Natesan, whom you know 
so well. 

The books are to be stored with Harihar Sharma. If you 
have any other advice on the point, you will teU me. 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13433 


518. LETTER TO ESTHER MENON 

Satyaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati^ 
Jvnt 22, 1928 

I have your two letters. Maganlal’s death has not only 
upset all my plans but has prompted me to make what may 
appear revolutionary changes in the Ashram. I must not there* 
fore give you a long love-letter. 

If all goes well and the friends in Europe still want me, 1 
hope to find myself in readiness to go next year. 

1 can understand your being ill in India, but why should you 
be ill there. I expect you to return with your original bloom 
and vigour. 

How long do you both expect to be away? Where is Menon 
studying? 

Mrs. Esther Menon 
Have, Asnaes 
Denmark 


From a photostat: S.N. 14336 



519. LETTER TO BEN M. CHERRINGTON 


Satyaoslasa. Asbram, 

SABASMATIy 

June 22, 1928 

DItAR FRIEND^ 

I have your letter. You altogether overrate my ability to 
help you. I however try to answer your questions to the best 
of my ability. 

Yours sinmslf, 

Ben M. GHBRiuNaTON, Esq. 

ExsormvE Secdretary 

UmvERszTT OP Denver 

Denver 

Colorado 

U.SJV. 

From a photostat: S.N. 14335 


[Enolosurb]^ 

I have never had occasion to study the history of the founda- 
tions in the West My kaowledge of them being too cursory to 
be of any value. 

In my judgment, the growing need of the times however is 
restoring to the things of the heart, that is, moral well-being, its 
true place in life. Social science, according to my view, should 
therefore be approached from that moral standpoint No tinkering 
will answer the purpose. Your foundation^, ^erefore, if it is to 
be true to itself, diould be utilized for subverting the system under 
which the extraordinary accumulation of riches has been possible 
in America. It would seem then that if you adopt my suggestion, 
it becomes for the most part independent of monetary help. 

In view of my answer to the fint question, I need liardly answer 
the second. But I would say independently of the first that the 
organization of the foundation round industiial, racial and inter- 
natioiud relationships would be any day preferable to the tradi- 

iThe questions, to which them are Oandhiji’s answers, an not available. 

a xhe source has **iunetion**. 



452 


TBB aOLLSOTED WORKS OF UAHATUA. OANDHI 


tional academic departments. If the view underlying my answer 
to the first question is accepted, you will have to do original 
research work. 

In view of the foregoing the answer to this is unnecessary. 
It would certainly be wise to have all nations, races and classes 
represented. If you can take care of the youth, the citizens wiU 
right themselves. 

I should lock up in fairly commodious but not too comfortable 
rooms a few professors and students and insist upon their finding 
a way out of the present intolerable position, if you hold with me 
that the present is an iatolerable position. 

I am unable to answer this. 

The idea is good. Perhaps the most effective way of securing 
the proper type or exchange ^ visiting members would be to send 
out a representative to the countries from which you may want 
such members so that he may come in direct touch with the living 
institutions of the country or countries in question. 

From a photostat: S.N. 14262 


520. LETTER TO VASUMATl PAJWIT 


Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 23, 1928 

am. VAsuMAii, 

I have your letter. As 1 dictate this, the four-o’clock bell is 
ringing. Jaideyji has been guilty of a moral lapse; therefore I am 
atoning for it by going on a three days* fast. Today is the second 
day. 1 riiall break the fast on Monday morning. Except for a 
slight weakness I feel nothing. Therefore there is no cause for 
worry at all. Does the climate there suit you? Correspondence 
is going on with Gurukul Kangri regarding better organization 
of Kanya Gurukul. 

Biettings Jhm 
Bafu 

From a photostat of the Ghgarati: CLW. 479. Qourtesy: Vasumati Pandit 



521. LETTER TO SHJLNTIKUMAR MORARJI 

Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 23, 1928 

am. sHAinmxTMAR, 

I am dictating this letter to you at four o’clock in the morn- 
ing. From this you can imagine how rushed I am. Mahadev 
is still confined to bed with the injuries he had suffered. The 
papers about Sumant have only been placed on the table but 1 
have not been able to read them. Of course, the one to read 
them is myself. I have so much trust in you that I believe that 
whatever satisfies you will satisfy me. Bhai Sumant’s letter has not 
created a good impression on me because I saw anger in it and 
rage. But I shall write what I feel after 1 read it. I believe 
that in this coimection I shall not be able to do anything either 
through Sumant or in any other way. That is why I have not 
insisted on disposing of the papers you sent me by putting aside 
other matters. I do not think I shall be able to go to Poona just 
now. If I do go, I should wish to stay in your hut. Premlilabehn 
has long ago taken a promise that I should stay in her hut. I 
have retained a proviso that 1 shall go only if I do not have 
to go elsewhere for work. 

Blusingtftom 

Bapo 

From a photostat of the Gi\jaratl: Q.W. 4787. Courtesy: Shandkunuur 
Moraiji 


522. LETTER TO BECUAR PARMAR 


Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Jum 23, 1928 

BBAISHRI BBORAR, 

If the sons of a carpenter go in for business it would not be 
considered proper, Only labourers are to be included in the 
caste. I consider carpenters, cobblers, etc,, as Vaishyas. It is 
difficult to reply to foe fourth question because there has been 



454 THE aOLLEOTED WORKS OR >CA3BCATIlCA GANDHI 

an mtermingling of castes but we can say in general that every- 
one should stick to his occupation if it is not against morality 
and has been carried on fix>m generation to generation. He who 
is considered worthy of being admitted to the Satyagraha Ashram 
will board at the Ashram only if he has no other means of sub- 
sistence. The Managing Committee has decided not to admit 
any newcomer for one year except under special circumstances 
since a lot of changes are made and are still being made at the 
Ashram. You will see in the Myamaoali that if you approve of the 
regulations, you will have to stay outside for one year and observe 
them. If you wish to be admitted at the end of the year you 
will have to know and live the Ashram life from today. If at 
all you wish to join the Ashram at any time, fost of aU you should 
stay there for two or three days. 

Vmdmatarttm Jhm 
Mohandas Gandhi 


From a photostat of the Gidaiati: G.N. 5571 


523. QJJESTIONS ON EDUCATION-W 

Q,. 11. In the aims of the Vidyapith it has been said that the 
progress of India depends upon its villages and not its cities. 
If this is so, why do you wish to convert our city boys? You 
are free to give village education to village boys, but city boys 
want to Uve city life. Why would you not give them tiie Itiad of 
education that suits them? Moreover, the frmds for the Vidya- 
pith come from cities. We shall say nothing if you carry the 
ideals of the Vidyapith to the villages and collect money, food- 
grains and cotton. 

A. Fortunately, this question is not asked by many city-dwellers 
or many students Hving in cities. How can city people, who are 
beginning to repent, talk in terms- of village children getting vil- 
lage education at their own expense? The Vidyapith was bom 
as a result of city people turning their attention to villages. The 
city-dwellers themselves took over running the Vidyapith after their 
eyes opened. If it is intended chiefly to serve the villages why 
^ould the villagers pay money for running it? Today even the 
educational machinery of the villages has necessarily to be run 
by the dty-dwellers. The very same allegations that the dty-dwel- 
IcOT level against the GoVeroment can be levelled against us by 
villagers: ‘Yon dty-dweUers have rpbbed ns in the past and still 



455 


OjOBSTIONS ON BDUOATION-IV 

continue to do so. We diall be grateful to you if you will stop 
doing so. We are prepared to let bygones be bygones.’ We woke 
up when a few among us city-dwellers understood this. We became 
aware of the grave injustice &at we have done to the villages and 
we decided to make atonement for it. The first part of this con- 
sists of non-co-operation with the Government with whose strength 
and support it was and still is possible to suck the life-blood of 
the villages. And the second part consists in our learning to 
save ourselves from the results of co-operation as we gradually 
understand the essence of non-co-operation. If we offered non- 
co-operation and then sat down with folded hands, it could be 
said that we had not understood the meaning of non-co-operation. 
It is not enough not to help one who robs us of our belongings; 
it is also necessary to stop him from doing so and make him give 
up the loot. Then alone can we be said to have non-co-operated 
with the robber. Non-co-operation can be violent or non-violent, 
warlike or peaceful, one involving brute force or soul-force. We 
have chosen the latter alternative in each case and hence we 
have come to the conclusion that some of us dty-dwellers who have 
robbed the wealth of the villages and live comfortably because of it 
should, by way of atonement, serve the villages in some way and 
offer them something in return. The Vidyapith was bom as a 
result of this trend of thought and it is because some of us are 
awake and are votaries of truth that we are day by day realisdng 
the secret of non-co<^operation and, to that extent, are making the 
Vidyapith purer. It will now be understood why the main p^rt 
of the funds contributed by the dty-dweller diould be used only 
for the purpose of educating villagers and that this can be done 
at present only by the graduates from tiie cities who have been 
trained by the Vidyapith. 

It is my belief that it would be a betrayal of the people’s trust 
in us if we used the funds received in the name of the Vidyapith 
for some other purpose. Those who donated money did so under 
the impression that it would be used to impart a type of educa- 
tion different from that which is currently given and which would 
be of the type described by me. 

Q,. 12. Over the past eight years, the stress of the Vidyapith 
has ^en on the abolition of untouchability. How many Antytfjas 
have become vinitas or snatakas as a result a£ this? 

A. I find the question strange and ignorant, for abotition of 
untouchability never meant, and should never mean, that we nmke 
graduates of youths regsuded as untouchal^es. It is possible that 
some of them obtain these degrees in ^urse of time. That is as it 



456 


THE aOLLEOTBD WORKS 07 MAHATICA. GANDHI 


should be. It is also ia the fitness of things that the Vidyapith should 
always be ready to help such individuals. But to turn untouch- 
ables into graduates does not in any way form pait of the pro- 
gramme for the abolition of untouchability. The Vidyapith has 
proved its partiality for and its adherence to the cause of aboli- 
tion of untouchability by foigoing thousands, if not lacs, of rupees 
and risking its very existence and by letting go help in the run- 
ning of its administration from some individuals who were other- 
wise quite able to give such help. 

13. We see clearly that the absence of brakmaeharya has 
led to physical and mental enfeeblement of the nation and endea- 
vour and enterprise have slackened. Why then have you not per- 
mitted the use of the word hrakamhaiya in the last dause about 
the aims of the Vidyapith? 

A. The question is well put. It is not proved that the absence 
of brahmachaiya alone is responsible fi)r the physical and mental 
weakening of the nation sind the slowing of sustained industry 
and enterprise^ Why should we belittle such a divine thing as 
brakmacha^a by linking it with physical exercise, which, however 
good, is a transitory thing as compared to die former? The 
Westerners do not practise braknuuhaiya, yet they are not weak 
physically or mentally. Thdr untiring industry and spirit of 
adventure are worthy of imitation. It can be said of Gurkha, 
Pathan, Sikh, Dogra and British soldiers — all of whom have fine 
physique — that none of them are hrahmaehans. They will outdo 
the students of oui g^ymnasia in physical exercise. We can dte 
many such examples, to prove that physical strength, a certain 
kind of mental strength, ceaseless dilig^ce and adventure — aU 
the four of these can be attained without practising brakmachcaya. 
The hrahnmhaiya of my conception — one that leads to the attain- 
ment of the Brahman — is di^ct firom the above. It is both the 
means and the end; hence in order to practise it, I am perpared 
to sacrifice my body. One who is enamoured of the physical 
self will hardly be able to practise unbroken hrahmaehaiya. Citing 
the examples of the Inahm^uaya of Bhishma and others here would 
be misleading. If we take too literally the events described in the 
Mdhdbhara^ the ihnnspaiia, etc,, we shall be led along the path of 
untruth and fall headlong into a chasm. We shall certainly rise if 
we understand their inner meaning and put it into practice. 

The body is not a thing to be thrown away. It is a thing to 
be preserved. If it has become the abode of Ravana, it is also 
the Ayodhya of Rama; it is also Kurukshetra. We must nol^ 
therefore, ignore it, |t is neeessaty to keep it strong and healthy 



457 


QjOESTIOMS ON BDTTOA.'nON-IV 

and so it must have exercise. When we say this do we not 
give exercise its due? We preserve truth, and this amount of 
inducement is sufficient and has been sufficient to make exercise 
popular among students. On the other hand, if we try to esta- 
blish an inevitable connection between exercise and brahmaeluaya, 
not only shall we be guilty of exaggeration but there will be real 
danger that a student who happens to lag behind in his exercises, 
instead of correcting the error in his reasoning, will blame brahmof 
chasya and give it up. 

Brahmaehafya does not require the support of the desire for 
physical strength. Its necessity can be proved in other and 
much better ways. The West may have physical strength as well as 
mental strength but where does it have spiritual strength? Why 
envy that possession of someone by virtue of which we find that 
they readily succumb to passions, cannot tolerate any opposition at 
all, and use their will-power, diligence and courage for the pur- 
pose of robbing another nation and destroying it? And why 
imitate them? Since all their strength is related to what is 
opposite of brahnachcaya, it has proved to be fatal to the progress 
of the world in the right direction. That is why I have called it 
monstrous. Here I do not wish to run down the West. There 
arc many Westerners who are worshippers of truth and morality. 
There are a number of brahmaekaris there too. They understand the 
agonizing Western urge that I am describing here. Hence we can 
imderstand and describe the outcome of all the Western tendencies 
while at the same time having a feeling of love and respect for the 
Westerners. Had the Western civilization been biult on the ideal 
of brahmachaiya, the state of the world would have been very 
different today and instead of being pitiable would have been 
attractive. 

In this way, realizing the fiightfiil results of lack of brahma^ 
eheaya in the world, it is desirable that we Should put the 
ideal of brahmaekaya independently before the people. Full 
development of the soul is impossible without brahnuutheuya. Without 
it, man may act like a well-fed but wild horse without reins, but 
he cannot become civilized. Without it, wholesome as wdl as 
continuous activity and noble courage are impossible. Without it, 
the mind may well appear to be strong; however, it will be slave 
to a thousand passions and temptations. And though a body that 
has been developed without brahmachaiya may well become strong, 
it can never become completely healthy ^m the medical point 
of view. It is not necessary to put on flesh and devebp the 
mvi8<^eS( It has been my experience over a long perioti that 



458 THE OOLLECriED WORKS OF MAHATUC/l OANOHI 

without brahmaeharya it is impossible to have a body which, even 
though lean, can withstand the rigours of heat, cold and ram 
and remain totally free from diseases. 

I can cite innumerable instances from my own life as well as 
that of my colleagues of how every, passion destroys the strength 
and soul of man. Hence I for one would say that although the 
body may collapse or be wasted anyone who cares for the aintan 
ought to preserve braknmhaiya. 

The reasons for the physical and mental weakness of our 
students are quite different. Child-marriages, the fact of ourselves 
being the fruit of child-marriage, family responsibilities, lack or 
inadequacy of wholesome diet due to poverty are some of them. 
Let not the reader commit the error of equating lack of hrahmor 
cheaya with child-marriage. Very great efforts are required to rid 
the students of the evil habits that they have formed in their 
ddldhood. Evil customs of society must be reformed; the artificial 
burden imposed by education must be lightened. But since this 
is an altogether different subject^ I shall not discuss it here. I 
shall say only that our students will not be able to improve their 
physique by physical exercise alone. We can obtain the desired 
results only if a simultaneous effort u made on all fronts. 

[From Gujarati] 

^ODigivan, 24-6-1928 


524. AT THE HOUR OF DOOM 

The policy that the Government has been following in regard 
to Bardoli would seem to suggest that the hour of its doom is 
near! H.E. the Governor’s letters to Shri Munshi evoke sorrow, 
pity and laughter. When anyone holding a high office writes 
lengthy, discursive letters in his defenOe, we wonder why such 
a person should do such a thing; we feel sorry for him and 
then, since we caimot possibly take pity on him, we feel like 
laughing at him. 

H.E. the Governor has surpassed his predecessors in writmg 
letters and advancing arguments and has got entangled in his own 
arguments. In other words, we may say that his subordinates 
who draft his letters have gradually got him into a knot. If 
instead of defending the increase in land revenue, the Governor 
appointed the conunittee demanded by the people, the misconcep- 
tions of the people as well as those of their supporters would be 


AT THE HOtm 07 DOOM 


459 


cleared. The Governor is like a person who claims to possess some- 
thing and though in a position to show it refuses to do so, and 
since he persists in his claim is treated as an impostor and laughed 
at. 

Moreover, the head of the Information Department of the 
Gk)vemor who has come out in support of the latter has gone 
to the most absurd lengths. He has tried to refute the details 
cited by Mahadev Desai in his report on the misbehaviour of the 
Pathans. It has been customary for the people to cry out when 
they are subjected to atrocities. However, the Government 
seems to have adopted a novel practice. The ruler, instead of 
conducting an impartial inquiry into the people’s protests, sum- 
mons the culprit to his presence, listens to his one-sided story and, 
having dismissed the complainant, thinks he has done his duty. Why 
should the Government appoint a peach as demanded by the 
people to determine whether their grievances are real or otherwise ? 
How can the guilty officials permit the appointment of such a 
paaekl 

The Government says that no one protests when some Banias 
of Bardoli engage Pathans as watchmen; then what harm is there 
in the Government doing likewise? This is much like trying to 
dueld one offence with another. And how does the Goveinment 
know that the people do not resent Banias and others engaging 
Pathans ? The fact is that the people are harassed by the tendency 
which is growing in Gujarat of engaging Pathans for duty as 
watchmen and the like. Those who engage them, as well as others, 
cannot in the end escape punishment for it. The point that the 
Government wishes to make, viz., that all Pathans are not out- 
siders, shows its absolute naivete. The people do not resent the 
Pathans as such, they can have nothing against this community, 
they cannot be against outsiders merely because they are 
outsiders. They will always respect those among the Pathans 
who are courageous and noble. Here the word Pathan implies 
disreputable ci^acters, hired murderers. Unfortunately, there 
are among the Pathans those who perform such evil deeds. 
They come down from their mountains into India in search of 
wealth. Indians, especially the unarmed, timid and peace-loving 
people of Gujarat, are afi^ of such Pathans. Good, courageous 
and noble Pathans would not come to India looking for employ- 
ment as watchmen or gatekeepers. Banias and othqre look for 
Pathan servants, and employ them because of their capacity for 
harassment. Since Gujaratis can stand up to Ougaratis, timid 
Bauias get no satisfactfon by employing them and do not regard 



460 THB aOLLBOTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI 

themselves well-protected. Because of their diort-sighteduess they 
do not see the harm implicit in this. However, what is the meaning 
of a powerful Government like the British Government imitating 
timid people and employing Fathans against the people? Gould 
this not be an instance of the mind turning perverse at the hour 
of doom? I do not recall even this Government having acted thus 
before. 

But what surpasses the Governor’s letter and tiie notes of the 
Chief of the Information Department is the Collector’s advice to 
the farmers. This leaflet of *‘good advice” asks the farmers to be. 
courageous and not to let themselves be caught in a trap. I And 
in it nothing but falsehood from beginning to end and 1 feel pained. 
The Collector regards satyagralia as duroffraha. Hiis ofBcer has 
thought up a novel way to deal with Vallabhbhai and otiher lead- 
ers. They are described as “persons who have no agricultural 
land to lose”. The Collector, in the arrogance of his position, fails 
to see that their honour is a thousand times dearer to them than 
land and that the good of the cultivators is even dearer to them 
than their own honom:. Having tried to discredit the leaders by 
putting words into their mouths and ignoring them in every way, 
the Collector has given to the farmers of Bardoli and Valod the sinis- 
ter advice to pay up their revenue dues without delay and violate 
the pledge that they themselves have taken and reiterated several 
times. Tlie least that the farmers of Bardoli and Valod can do by 
way of answering this immoral and degrading advice is not to pay 
their dues until their demands are conceded. Land, household 
goods and livestocks frequently come and go; but a pledge once 
broken cannot be retrieved just as that which has been spat out 
cannot be swallowed again. 

We have had a true picture of the Govemmentis umeason- 
ableness in the Governor’s correspondence with Shri Munshi. As 
a result of this, the latter went to Bardoli, saw the people’s pli^t 
at first hand and wrote . a strong and cogent letter to the Gover- 
nor — on all of which he deserves to be congratulated. He has done 
weU to proclaim his intention to form a committee and look into 
the matter if tiie Government does not appoint a committee of in- 
quiry. If that committee gets the co-operation of leaders of all 
the major communities and inquires into the matter without 
delay, &e satyagrahis would get a good opportunity to put their 
case before the public. It is desirable that this conunittee should 
not be content with only making an inquiry into the policy of re- 
pression but diould also look into the people’s grievances regard- 
ing land revenue. There is absolutely no doubt that an inquiry 



‘a DIOmONARY* 461 

conducted by sucb a conamittee wiU help greatly in solving this 
problem. 

(Trorn Gujarati] 

Naoajwan, 24-6-1928 


525. CATTLE-BREEDING 

The reader is aware that es^edments in cattle-breeding are 
being carried on in the dairy attached to the Ashram. The occa- 
sion has not yet come for describing these experiments fully. One 
of the aims of these experiments, however, is to breed good bulls. 
Two such bulls are ready in ^e Ashram now. Those who are 
keen on service to the cow or improvement of her progwy are ad- 
vised to come and see these bulls and, if they wirii to buy them, to 
noeet the secretary and inquire about their price and so on. 
|]^m Gqjarati] 

Naoajivmf 24-6-1928 


526. *A DICTIONAJtr 

An inmate of the Adiram who has read its Book of Rules criti- 
cizes the vows in the following manner and then gives his own 
definitions under the caption *‘A Dictionary”. 

Although the definitions of the Ashrsin vows ore eriiauitive they 
cannot be readily understood. It is not quite dear as to what one is 
expected to do, hence I have put down the meanings as I have under- 
stood them or, one may say, I have prepared a dictionary of vows. 

Taars: One must renouttce artificiality at any coat and discover 
one’s inmost nature. 

NoN-vroLSNOB: One must not forsake any creature— man or beast. 
Whenever there is firiction and consequent sufibring one should not try 
to make the otiier party suflnr but take aU the suflhrlng on oneadfi 

BaABiaaEUuavA; One should csdm down all passions— whedrer subfile 
or gross— vdien they are about to overflow. One should always be dieet- 
fiiL One should be engrossed all the twentyibur hours in holy matters. 

AsvAir: One should sit down to a meal only when one is eztremdy 
hungry and get up when one’s stomach is only half>fiill. One should not 
touch food which has been prepaid by many persons with a great deal 
of trouble and vdiich it likdy to add to one's temptations. 



462 THB dOLUBOTED WOBXS 07 MAHATUA OAMDEI 

Astsya: One should reduce one’s need to the very minimum. 
Today’s needs oug^t indeed to be fewer than yesterday’s. 

Apabioraha: On every Diwali and Holi day one must get rid of any 
money in excess of Rs. 25 that one may have in one’s possession. No 
one should have more money than he would require for a year’s ex- 
penses. 

Why expenses for a year? 

Bodily Labouk: One should not spare oneself. 

SwASBSBi: One should not be disloyal to one’s neighbours. 
Fbablbssnxss: People are not awed by one who does not awe people. 
Abouixon of UMTouOBABiLrrY: An intense feding that anyone 
regarded as wretched and miserable is not more so than oneself. 

ToLBXAiKiB: Giving up of the arrogant belief that what one cannot 
perceive does not exist. 

[From Gujarati] 

Nasajivan, 24-6-1928 

527. LETTER TO SADANAND 

Tee Ashram, 
Sabaruau, 
JvM 24, 1928 

UY DEAR SADANAND, 

1 have your letter with the enclosure. 

I did have the pleasure of seeing the Assam Planters. But I 
have no recollection whatsoever of having told tbem that 1 was 
satisfied with the condition of the labour in their plantations. On 
the contrary, 1 remember having told them that my hurried visit 
would not permit of giving a definite opinion about the special 
condition of labour in the Assam Plantations and having told them 
what was my test of the proper condition of labourers. 

1 never agreed nor was there any occasion for agreement that 
1 should abstain fiom political agitation among the labourers. 
For, it is my invariable custom not to carry on political agitation 
among labourers. I confine myself in dealing with laboiuers to 
their own special grievances as I did in Qhamparan and have done 
since in various parts of India. 

You may make what use you like of tiiis letter. 

2birf Atumly, 


From a photostat: StN. 13430 



528. LETTER TO LILT MUTHUKRISHM 


The Ashram, 
Sabarmat]^ 
Jaw 24, 1928 

Enclosed are the addresses* of Muthukruhna’s wife and chil- 
dren. Hjs brother-ia-law Mr. Pillay gave these addresses. He is 
the Indian Interpreter in the Durban Magistrate’s Courts. 

Tows sineortfy. 

From a microfilm: SJf. 13435 


529. LETTER TO NJLKAHTH 


Tas Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
Jaw 24, 1928 

DEAR NHJKANTH babv, 

Eveiry arrangement had been made to pack off CShhaganlal 
on Friday. But that very day an unforeseen drcumstance prevent- 
ed me finm sending him to you. 1 am now detaining him, but 
1 hope not indefinitely. 

Sjt Amritlal Thakkar is esqpected to be with you just for a 
short time to console the bewildered workers. But I am trying 
to lay my hands on someone who can take the place of Ghhagan- 
lal, if I cannot send him. But tell me meanwhile whether you 
would really want someone during the rainy season? Gan you do 
much charkha work during that season? I would appreciate a 
telegraphic answer whether you want someone imme^ately and 
whether you can take a substitute for Ghhaganlal Gandhi. 

I hope you have all recovered firom the shock and are conti- 
nuity; Gopabandhu Babu’s work with added zeal. 

Tom sitm^, 


From a microfilm: S.N. 13436 


1 These ate not available. 



530. LETTER TO K. NATARAJAJ{ 


The Abhrah, 
Sabasuatx, 
Jme 24, 1928 

DEAR UR. NATARAJAir, 

With reference to your leaderette in the Indian Daily Mail of 
... I would like to say just this: Whatever might have 
been your impression of the conversation between us when you 
kindly offered a donation for the BardoH iund, 1 never wished to 
convey to you that I was collecting for Bi^oli sufferers only, 
but 1 did include BardoU sufferers in my estimate. But Sjt, VaJ> 
labhbhai tells me that there are no Bardoli sufferers as yet worth 
mentioning. He says that they, the peasants of Bardoli, are too 
proud to accept hdp so long as it is possible for them to avoid 
it. Indeed in the initial stages oS the struggle, it was they who sup- 
ported the niunerous workers who in Mr. Smarts language are no 
better than a ‘‘swarm of agitators living on the poor people of Bar- 
ddi”. But when the struggle became intense, forfeitures became 
the order of the day and when buffaloes, the real wealth of the 
peasantry and the mainstay of their agric^ture, became a fit prey 
for the officers, it was no longer possible for the people of 
Bardoli and Valod taluks to sustain the ever-growing expenffiture. 
Hence it was that Sjt. Vallabhbhai issued a public appeal for pecu- 
niary help to which our countrymen have made so prompt and 
so generous a reqxmse. But Sjt. Vallabhbhai is amdous that we 
should accept no contributions fix}m those who do not sympathize 
vdth the struggle and want to confine the use of their donations 
only, to the s^erers. For he contends that it is wrong to accept 
sudi help when the largest portion of the donations has to be uti- 
lized for carrying on the work of the publicity office and for 
maintaining the many volunteers who receive and ask for no pay 
but who must be fed. I am therefore reluctantly obliged to inform 
you that I may not accept your donation unless you could see your 
way to remove the restriction and support the struggle on merits. 
1 may add that since reading your article I have seen most of the 
principal donors who had paid me personally and they tell me 
they were under no impression that their donations were to be 
restricted as you seem to think they were and they have confirm- 
ed my impression that the donations were to be used for the 



LBTTBR to V. J. PATBI. 465 

purpose named above and tbat they have paid because they are 
in full sympathy with the struggle. 

Teurs sinemly, 

SjT. K. Natarajan 
Editor, 

“Indian Daily Mail” 

Bombay 

From a microfilm: S.N. 14446 


531. LETTER TO 7. J. PATEL 

June 25, 1928 

bhajshri vtthalbhai, 

1 have your letters. You should Imow that 1 get your 
letters one day late. The short one should have reached me on 
Saturday and the long one yesterday on Sunday but I got them 
both late. It is not customary for letters to be opened at the post 
office but it is of course necessary to know if they are, or is it that 
they were posted late there? 

I like everything you say in the long letter. We should cer* 
tainly maintain the dignity of the Sardar in the proper way but 
of course not at the cost of the people’s int^st like you I 
believe that the Government will have to come to a settlement. 
Haven’t you seen the Statesman article? It acknowledges the weak- 
ness of the Government’s case. 

Whatever you are doing, while yet a speaker, is enough for 
the present. I do not feel it is time yet for you to give up that 
position. 

I have found out the cause for the late arrival of your letters. 
You address them to Ahmedabad, while it should be Sabarmati. 

Vmdematarm from 
Mohandas 

I 

From a microfilm of the Gnjarad: S.N. 14447 


XXXVI-30 



532. LETTER TO RAMNATH 


Satvaoraha. Ashram, 
Sabarmah, 
JuM 27, 1928 

DEAR FIUBND, 

I have your letter. It is unfortunately true. But we have 
not yet been able to arrive at a stage when we can manufacture 
khadi thread. It will take some time. 

Yours sinemly, 

SjT. Ramnath 
Overseer 

P.O. Shbikhawahah 
Bahawalfur State 

From a microfilm; S.N. 13432 


533. LETTER TO GOVARDHANBHAI I. PATEL 

Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmatt, 
June 27, 1928 

MV DEAR OOVARDH^HAI, 

I have your letter.* Whilst it sets forth the substance of the 
conversation between you and me and then between Sheth 
Mangaldas and me, I would put my own view in this language: 

It is open to the donors, and the donors are invited by the 
Labour Union, to appoint a conamittee of inspection which will 
have the powers of scrutini;dng and inspecting the working as 
well as the expenses of the schools conducted by the Union and 
it will be open to the donors upon receipt of report from any 

* The addressee had, among other things, written: "I and Sheth Mangaldas 
have understood from personal discussions with you that you entertain certain 
objections on principle regarding the joint administration. . . . At the same time, 
I understand that you advise us to appoint our own committee which may be 
called a Committee of Inq>ection with powers to scrutinize and inspect the 
working as well as the expenses of the Labour Schools. The conditions and 
suggestions made by this Committee^ from time to time, will be given effect to 
by the Labour Union, and in the event of their non-compliance on the part of 
the Labour Union, the grant to the Labour Schools will cease automaticallyi** 



LETTER TO SATIS OHANDRA DAS OVRTA 


467 


such conmuttee to prescribe conditions or make suggestions in 
connection with the schools and in the event of these suggestions 
and conditions not being carried out by the Labour Union to 
suspend the grant made to the schools, provided that the donors 
before suspending any such grant will hear what the Labour Union 
might have to say by way of explanation regarding conditions and 
suggestions, that is, if they are unable to carry them but. 

Tours sincmly, 

SjT. Govardhanbhai I. Patel 
Member, Ahmedabad Mills 
Tilax Swaraj Fimo Gommitteb 
Lalavasa’s Street 
Sanedishbri 
Ahmedabad 

From a microfilm: S.N. 13439 


554. LETTER TO SATIS CHANDRA DAS GUPTA 

■Satvaoraha Ashram, 
Sabarmati, 
June 27, 1928 

DEAR SATIS BABU, 

I have your letter. I understand your anxiety to check the 
anti-Gandhian spirit. But you will have to fight it in the Gan- 
dhian spirit and that would be to let the anti-force expend itself 
without resistance. I won’t be able to explain what I mean 
through correspondence. I am certain that your business is 
not to expend your energy in resisting but to devote it to consoli- 
dating your own constructive work. The question you have raised 
is not new. It^ cropped up at Belgaum when I presided and J 
said to the non-co-operators that they must not resist, in spite of 
the protest of Shyam Babu and several others. I have seen 
nothing since to change my view. But we must discuss this per- 
sonally. When I feel that the time has come, I riiall certainly 
wiite upon it 

Elshitirii Babu’s letter 1 like very well. There is not a super* 
fluous word in it That kind of public instruction is not inclu- 
ded in the non-resistance I have suggested. 

Love. 

Babu 


From a photostat: G.N. 8918 



535, LETTER TO RICHARD B. GREGG 


Saitaoraha Ashram, 
Sabaruatt, 
'Jung 27, 1928 

MY DEAR OOVIND, 

I have your letter. I am passing on your letter to Narayan- 
das with reference to your suggestion regarding the constitution’ 
and sending a copy also to Shankerlal. 

Mahadev is st^ bedridden and will have to be so for some 
time. He has developed shooting pain in the part affected. 

I am not likely to leave the Ashram at least before Octo- 
ber, if then. 

Tours siaesnly, 


PS. 

I miss an index to your great work^. I wonder if you have 
the time to compile it. I know I must not inflict this work on 
you. But unless I ask Varadachari or Mahadev, both of whom 
are just now overworked, I do not know to whom else 1 should 
go. Each time I turn to the book, I miss the index. 

From a photostat: S.N. 13434 


536. A CORRECTION 

Miss Schlesin of whom mention has been made in tlie aut 
biographical chapters^ tells me that she is not, as I have stated, 
principal of a girls’ school but that she is a teacher at a High 
School. The error has given her pain for which I am sorry. I 
may at once say that she is in no way responsible for the error. 

Tmng India, 28-6-1928 


’ Of the Ashram 
^Eeonotmts <if Khaddar 
3pt IV, Ch. XII 



537. THE DOOM OF PURDAH 


■ A reasoned appeal signed by many most isdSuential people of 
Bihar and almost an equal number of ladies of that province advis- 
ing the total abolition of the purdah has been just issued in Bihar. 
The fact that over fifty ladies have signed the appeal shows that if 
the work is carried on with vigour, the purdah will be a thing 
of the past in Bihar. It is worthy of note that the ladies who have 
signed the appeal are not of the Anglicized type but orthodox 
Hindus. It definitely states: 

We want that the women of our province should be as &ee to move 
about and take their legitimate part in the life of the community in 
all particulaiB as their sisters in Kamatak, Maharashtra stnd Madras in 
an essentially Indian way, avoiding all attempts at Europeanization, for 
while we hold that a change from enforced seclusion to a complete Angli- 
cization would be like dropping from frying pan into fire, we feel that 
purdah must go, if we want our women to devdop along Indi an ideals. 
If we want them to add grace and beauty to our social life and raise its 
moral tone, if we want them to be excellent managers at home, hd.pful 
companions of their husbands and useful members of the community, then 
the purdah, as it now exists, must go. In fact no serious Btq> for their 
welfare can be taken iinl<»ia the veil is torn down and it is our convic- 
tion. that if once the energy of half of our population, that has been im- 
prisoned artificially, is released, it will create a force which, if properly 
guided, will be of immeasurable good to our province. 

I know the evil effects of the purdah in Bihar. The movement 
has been started none too soon. 

The movement has a curious origin. Babu Ramanandan . 
Mishra, a khadi worker, was desirous of rescuing his wife firom 
the oppression of the purdah. As his people would not let the girl 
come to the A^am, he took two girls firom the Ashram to be 
companions to his wife. One of them, Radhabehn, Maganlal 
Gandhi’s daughter, was to be the tutor. She was accompanied by 
the late Dalbahadur Girl’s daughter Durgadevi. The parents of 
the girl wife resented the attempt of the Adiram girls to wean young 
Mrs. Mishra firom the purdah. The girls braved all difficulties. 
Meanwhile Maganlal Gandhi went to see his daughter and steel 
her against all odds and persist in her efforts. He took ill in the 
village whdre Radhabehn was doing her work and died at Patna. 
The Bihar fidends therefore made it a point of honoTir to ^ge 



470 THE aOLLEOTED WORX8 OF UAMA.TMA OAIODHI 

war against the purdah, Radhabehn brought her charge to the 
Ashram. Her coming to the Ashram created additional stir and 
obliged the husband who was already prepared for it to throw 
himself in the struggle with greater zeal. Thus the movement 
having a personal touch promises to be carried on with energy. 
At its head is that seasoned soldier of Bihar, the hero of many 
battles, Babu Biijldshore Prasad. I do not remember his having 
headed a movement that has been allowed to die. 

The appeal fixes the 8th of July next as the date on which 
to inaugurate an intensive campaign against the system which puts 
a cruel ban on social service by one half of Bihar humanity and 
which denies it freedom in many cases and even the use of light and 
fresh air. The sooner it is recognized that many of our social evils 
impede om march towards swaraj, the greater wiU be our progress 
towards our cherished goal. To postpone social reform till after 
the attainment of swaraj is not to know the meaning of swaraj. 
Surely we must be incapable of defending ourselves or healthily 
competing with the other nations, if we allow the better half of 
ourselves to become paralysed. 

I therefore congratulate the Bihar leaders on their having - 
earnestly taken up the struggle against the purdah. The success 
of such a reform especially, as of all reform generally, depends 
upon the purity of the workers. A great deal will rest with the 
ladies who have signed the appeal. If notwithstanding their having 
given up the purdah, they retain the original modesty of India’s 
womanhood and ftiow courage and determination in the face of 
heavy odds, they will find success quickly awaiting their effort. 
The campaign against the purdah if properly handled means mass